3 0 0 0 OA 4.IL-1阻害薬

著者
山崎 聡士 川上 純
出版者
一般社団法人 日本内科学会
雑誌
日本内科学会雑誌 (ISSN:00215384)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.100, no.10, pp.2985-2990, 2011 (Released:2013-04-10)
参考文献数
7
被引用文献数
1 1

インターロイキン-1(IL-1)は重要な炎症性サイトカインであり,その病態生理の解明に伴い,IL-1阻害薬のコンセプトが確立してきた.当初,関節リウマチでの応用が期待されたが,TNF阻害薬ほど劇的な効果は得られなかった.しかし,クリオピリン関連周期性発熱症候群をはじめとする他疾患におけるIL-1の重要性が次々に明らかとなり,IL-1阻害薬の可能性は新たな展開を見せている.
著者
廣木 義久 山崎 聡 平田 豊誠
出版者
日本理科教育学会
雑誌
日本理科教育学会理科教育学研究 (ISSN:13452614)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.52, no.1, pp.47-56, 2011-07

砂の形成に関する小・中・大学生の理解を調査し,小・中学校における岩石の風化作用に関する学習の問題点を議論した。小学5学年の単元「流れる水のはたらき」の学習前の児童においては,砂の形成メカニズムに関する考えは極めて多様であるが,「流れる水のはたらき」の学習後は,侵食モデル(砂は川で石や岩が水流によって削れてできる)で説明する児童と,衝突モデル(砂は川で礫同士がぶつかり合って砕けてできる)で説明する児童が増加する(それぞれ29.9%,25.6%)。そして,中学校における単元「活きている地球」の学習後は,侵食モデルが52.5%と増加する一方,風化モデルで説明する生徒の割合は8.8%にとどまった。これらの結果から,侵食モデルと衝突モデルは小学5学年の「流れる水のはたらき」の学習で獲得され,侵食モデルは中学1年の風化・侵食作用の学習後に強化されていることがわかる。岩石の風化作用による砂の形成を理解させるための方策としては,中学校における岩石の風化作用の授業に土の学習を取り入れることが有効であると考えられる。
著者
山崎 聡
出版者
一般社団法人 日本ゴム協会
雑誌
日本ゴム協会誌 (ISSN:0029022X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.89, no.2, pp.29-35, 2016 (Released:2016-03-25)
参考文献数
15

This article reviews the outline, manufacturing method, producers and properties of PUR (Polyurethane elastomers). PUR is a kind of multi-block copolymer composed of soft segment reacted with long chain polyol and polyisocyanate and hard segment reacted with polyisocyanate and short chain polyol. PUR is mainly divided into TSU (Thermosetting polyurethane elastomers) and TPU (Thermoplastic polyurethane elastomers) which has accounted for about 90% of world-wide PUR market. In particular, AAGR (Annual average growth ratio) and the market volume of TPU are expected to reach about 5-7% and 540 thousands ton towards 2018, respectively. TPUs have been manufactured in bulk by batch and continuous polymerization method as the form of pellets for injection, extrusion, blow and calendar processes and also in water or organic solvent by suspension polymerization as the form of particles with mean average diameter size of about 150 micrometer for slush molding process. Most of TPUs and TSUs are applied to various markets such as mobility parts, medical, healthcare, fiber, packages, roll, electronics and industrial parts and so on. Recently, PUR based on a new specialty diisocyanate which satisfies elasticity, heat resistance and light stability are developed for specific application.
著者
清水 兵衛 宮脇 孝久 村上 司 小畑 敬祐 山崎 聡
出版者
合成樹脂工業協会
雑誌
ネットワークポリマー (ISSN:13420577)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.32, no.6, pp.310-316, 2011-11-10 (Released:2014-04-22)
参考文献数
8

芳香脂肪族の構造を有するキシリレンジイソシアネート(XDI)の特性及びその誘導体であるXDI-トリメチロールプロパン(TMP)アダクト体の塗料用硬化剤としての性質を調査した。XDI は,イソシアネート基と芳香環がメチレン基を介して結合した芳香脂肪族のポリイソシアネートであり,芳香族および脂肪・脂環族ポリイソシアネートとは異なった性質を示した。この特徴ある構造に基づく性質を活かして,塗料,接着剤等への用途展開が期待できる。
著者
大西 仁 山崎 聡 望月 要 中村 直人 結城 皖曠
出版者
一般社団法人電子情報通信学会
雑誌
電子情報通信学会技術研究報告. MoMuC, モバイルマルチメディア通信 (ISSN:09135685)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.103, no.291, pp.7-10, 2003-08-28

マルチメディア通信における映像・音声の伝送遅延が与える心理的影響を客観的定量的に測定する方法を提案する。提案する手法では、潜在学習の一種である人工文法の学習を課題とし、学習時のフィードバック遅延を独立変数、被験者の学習パフォーマンスを指標として、遅延の与える心理的影響を測定する。実験では、人工文法学習において、フィードバックに300msの遅延がある条件の被験者のパフォーマンスを遅延がない条件の被験者のパフォーマンスと比較した。実験結果は、フィードバックに300msの遅延が入ると、被験者の学習パフォーマンスを低下することを示した。この結果は、被験者が気づかない程度の微小な伝送遅延がユーザに情動的影響だけでなく、認知的な影響を与えていることを示唆している。
著者
山崎 聡
出版者
The Japanese Society for the History of Economic Thought
雑誌
経済学史学会年報 (ISSN:04534786)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.43, no.43, pp.38-51, 2003 (Released:2010-08-05)
参考文献数
38

This paper is intended as an investigation of the relation between Pigou's ethics and his welfare economics. For this purpose, I shall introduce the basic ethical knowledge that originated with J. S. Mill. This knowledge provides the structure of ethics. On the whole, ethical theory has three elements, which include the facts about moral phenomena, fundamental principles, and practical principles (criteria). As it seems that the first does not require further explanations but the latter two do, some comments shall be appended to each of the latter. First, the fundamental principle is the ultimate grounds upon which all moral judgments will be prescribed. Because the fundamental principle supplies all concrete or applied practical criteria with their foundations of justification, its attributes must be quite abstract. At the same time, the fundamental principle is the ultimate end. That justification is based on usefulness to this ultimate end. Secondly, the practical criteria are concrete applications of the fundamental principle. The latter is so abstract that we cannot in practice use it as a criterion for moral judgment. The fundamental principle is, however, the ultimate criterion as well as the ultimate ground. Therefore we must embody the fundamental principle in some particular lines. There is, however, no absolute or unique embodiment (i. e., a practical criterion), for the best criterion may differ case by case.From my interpretation of Pigou, what corresponds to the fundamental principle explained above is Pigou's theory of value: welfarism (i. e., ideal utilitarianism). Pigou says that welfare is composed of states of conscious life, each of which has intrinsic value, and that welfare is a complex whole. What should be noted is that as Pigou's theory of value (the fundamental principle) abstractly defines ultimate ends and criteria of moral judgments, it is impossible for us to make any judgments in practical concrete cases according to the fundamental principle. Therefore we must substantiate the fundamental principle for practical circumstances. Pigou, recognizing that point sufficiently, embodies welfarism in his economic theory; he considers economic welfare to be a concrete goal and defines propositions of production and distribution as means to that goal. This is one type of practical criteria. I would like to emphasize that because Pigou's original intention was to promote each individual's welfare ultimately, maximizing the total social economic welfare (a typical utilitarian prescription) is no more than one expedient for the former. Accordingly, considering the ultimate end, we can see that it is possible to choose another practical criterion instead of economic welfare. For instance, justice in distribution could be fully supported by Pigou's fundamental principle (welfarism), to which little attention has been given. Put another way, in Pigou's system, the principle of justice or right is not independent of the principle of utilitarianism; more accurately, the former is subordinate to the latter. In fact Pigou's national minimum theory, which implies distributive justice, is prescribed from his utilitarian point of view.
著者
山崎 聡
出版者
The Japanese Society for the History of Economic Thought
雑誌
経済学史学会年報 (ISSN:04534786)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.41, no.41, pp.35-47, 2002 (Released:2010-08-05)
参考文献数
32

This paper is intended as an investigation of A. C. Pigou's ethics. Thus far, few attempts have been made to investigate his philosophical (ethical) side. The point I want to make is that, contrary to the ordinary interpretation, Pigou's ethical idea does not belong to the traditional hedonistic utilitarian view espoused by Bentham, J. S. Mill, and Sidgwick, but to the ideal (i. e., non-hedonistic) utilitarian view originated by G. E. Moore.First, it is notable that Pigou, following Moore, recognizes that “good” is indefinable; he clearly makes a distinction between “What is good?” and “What is the good?” Pigou's response to the latter is as follows.In the hedonistic utilitarian view, the only intrinsically good thing is “pleasure.” Pigou, in his early article (1907), completely disagrees with this thesis. He asserts that pleasure is not the sole good, and that there are plural elements (i. e., not only pleasure but also love, good will, and so on) which are intrinsic goods; they compose a state of conscious life. A state of conscious life, Pigou says, is a complex of many factors such as those remarked above. In describing how a state of conscious life as a complex whole does have intrinsic value, Pigou relates that the goodness of conscious states is, to use a mathematical phrase, a function of several variables, some of which can be specified (i. e., pleasure, love, good will); the dependent variable represents the intrinsic value of the complex whole.In a later article (1932), Pigou discusses a problem quite different from that laid out above: what sort of actions ought to be performed? This is, to put it briefly, a problem of the relation between good and right. In short, Pigou defines right as “the cause of a good result”, which is thus identical with “useful”; he positively affirms that the end (i. e., the intrinsic good) always will justify the means, and any action that is not justified by its consequences can not be right. This is a typical teleological view.It follows from what has been said above that Pigou and Moore make use of the same ethical reasoning when answering two questions: “What is the good?” and “What kind of action ought to be performed?” That is to say, Pigou, as well as Moore, adopts teleology (consequentialism), plurality in the theory of value, and commensurability of plural goods. Further, the commensurability is based on the intuitive idea of good, and then this is a kind of idealism. On these grounds, I have come to the conclusion that Pigou is the ideal utilitarian.
著者
西沢 保 後藤 玲子 渡辺 良夫 小峯 敦 伊藤 邦武 藤井 賢治 池田 幸弘 本郷 亮 山崎 聡
出版者
帝京大学
雑誌
基盤研究(A)
巻号頁・発行日
2013-04-01

19世紀末以降のケンブリッジ、オクスフォード、LSEの経済思想の展開を、現代福祉国家の変容・危機を視野に入れて、共同研究を進め成果を得た。具体的には、1. 「創設期の厚生経済学と福祉国家」から厚生経済学史の再検討へ、2. リベラリズムの変容と福祉国家-ニュー・リベラリズムからネオ・リベラリズムへ、3. マーシャル、ケインズと同時代の経済思想、4. ケインズと現在の世界経済危機-戦間期との比較考証、の4点を中心に国際共同研究を進め成果を得た。
著者
山崎 聡 中村 直人 宮寺 庸造 横山 節雄
出版者
一般社団法人情報処理学会
雑誌
情報処理学会論文誌 (ISSN:18827764)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.45, no.10, pp.2364-2372, 2004-10-15

近年,ネットワークを介して制御可能なリモートカメラを用いたインタラクティブなビデオ会議システムが開発されている.このようなシステムにおいて,カメラを操作する参加者が「どこを」「どれぐらい」「なぜ」見たかという視覚的な行動を分析することは,その機能や配置方法を発展させるために有効な手段である.現在,このような分析にはプロトコル分析法に代表される観察的な行動分析手法が一般的に用いられている.しかしながら,これらの手法では,参加者の行動モデルを構築するために記録メディアの中から特徴的な行動を抽出し,その回数や時間を計測・集計する必要があり,分析者にとって大きな負担となっている.そこで本論文では,リモートカメラを利用したビデオ会議システムにおいて参加者がカメラを通して得た映像とカメラの状態の組合せは,参加者の視野と本質的に同一であることを利用し,従来の観察的な行動分析手法に代わる新しい分析手法を提案する.具体的には,カメラの実映像に対してパン,チルト,ズーム率をメタデータとして記録し,分析時にその情報を活用することで参加者行動分析を支援する"Visual Field Record System" を開発する.最後に,開発したシステムを遠隔教育実習指導により評価した.その結果,学生のノートにズームを行うような参加者の特徴的な行動を,従来の手法に比べて円滑に抽出し定量的に計測・集計できた.Recently, interactive video teleconference systems using a camera enabled to control through a computer network are developed. To advance the systems, it is important to analyze what a participant is viewing in a distance place on the system; when, what, how long and why. However, much time is necessary for the analysis with behavior analysis methods generally used. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to propose and develop a support system for a participant's behavior analysis in the interactive video teleconference. Firstly, observative participant's behavior analysis process and its subject are discussed. After that, the author proposes "Visual Field Record" newly behavior analysis method base on a relationship between remote camera's visual field and participant's its. Secondly, "Visual Field Record System" implements above newly method is designed and developed. It is described that this system composed by two sub-systems: the Record System and the Analyze Support System. Finally, these systems are evaluated by adapting to distance pre-service teacher training. As a result, it became clear that an effective participant's behavior analysis was provided by the Visual Field Record System.