著者
今在 慶一朗 内山 博之 今在 景子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.2, pp.94-103, 2013

According to traditional corrective education, sincere and emotional interaction is effective in changing prisoners' personalities. However, some recent studies insist that certain psychological operations such as counseling are not effective and occasionally have a negative effect on rehabilitation. In this study, on the other hand, we predicted that keeping public order by treating prisoners with fairness is effective. We asked prisoners to rate staff at their correctional institution, to describe their attitude toward decisions made there, and to give their view of public order in society. We found that fair treatment of prisoners promotes acceptance of investigation results regarding violations or punishments, volition of rehabilitation after release, and internalization of public order. Furthermore, we confirmed that fairness by staff indicates to prisoners that public order within the institution is being maintained.
著者
熊谷 智博 大渕 憲一
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.3, pp.200-207, 2009

In intergroup conflict a third party sometimes intervenes aggressively into the interactions between the concerned parties, escalating the conflicts. We hypothesized that the third party will become aggressive if they perceive that a fellow member of their group, with whom they strongly identified themselves, is harmed by the other group and that the perception of harm is more definitely determined by unfairness than by the objective severity of the harm. Group identification was manipulated by cooperative ingroup activities. Half of the participants observed that an ingroup fellow member was harmed by an outgroup member based on unfair evaluation, while the others observed that the harm was given based on fair evaluation. They were then given a chance to retaliate against the harm-doer by creating unpleasant noises. The results indicated that both aggressive motivation and behaviors were increased by unfair harm only when participants strongly identified with the ingroup. The group identification did not affect the perception of unfairness. These results suggest that symbolic or psychological harm affects third-party aggression.
著者
道家 瑠見子 村田 光二
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, no.1, pp.104-110, 2007

The research into decision-making has shown that people express less regret in a repeating choice than in a switching choice (i.e., the status quo effect). However, recent research has suggested that when a prior experience was negative, less regret was expressed in a switching choice than in a repeating choice (i.e., the reversal of the status quo effect). We conducted a replication using different scenarios to examine the conditions in which those effects would occur. In Experiment 1, we manipulated the valence (positive, negative) of a prior experience and asked the participants to rate how much regret they thought the decision-maker would have felt. As predicted, the status quo effect occurred in the positive-experience condition, and the reversal of it occurred in the negative-experience condition. In Experiment 2, we manipulated the levels of the decision-maker's responsibility. The results suggested that a stronger reversal effect was observed in the high responsibility condition. The limitation and the implication of these findings for regret research are discussed.
著者
小宮 あすか 渡部 幹
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.2, pp.111-117, 2013

Researchers have recently shown that regret functions to lead appropriate behaviors not to repeat the same failure again. Previous studies also argued that emotions have "functions of expression" in addition to such "functions of experience," but how expressing regret functions has not been sufficiently investigated. In the present article, we first reviewed the relations across remorse, guilt, and regret, and then reexamined a hypothesis suggested by Van Kleef et al. (2006) that expressing interpersonal regret signals future behavioral change and interpersonal sensitivity, and thus facilitates the construction of relationships. Supporting our predictions, the results showed that persons who indicated interpersonal regret were more likely to be judged trustworthy and were more desired as partners than persons who did not. We discuss the functions of experiencing and expressing regret.
著者
高林 久美子 沼崎 誠
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, no.2, pp.141-150, 2010
被引用文献数
1

This study investigated how women show prejudice and stereotyping implicitly toward female subgroups. We examined the effects of primed and chronic self-representations on implicit prejudice and implicit stereotyping. We predicted that when self-representation as a traditional woman was more dominant compared to self-representation as a nontraditional woman, participants would regard housewives as more favorable than career women, and would regard the targets as stereotypic. Female participants, who had completed the Scale of Egalitarian Sex Role Attitude (SESRA), were asked to picture the future themselves as a career woman or a housewife. Then they engaged in two types of IAT to measure prejudiced responses and stereotypic responses toward female subgroups. We found that participants who were primed with their self-representations as a traditional woman enhanced implicit stereotypic responses toward female subgroups compared to those who were primed with self-representations as a nontraditional woman. We also found that traditionalists (i.e., those with low evaluations in SESRA) implicitly evaluated housewives more favorably than career women and than egalitarians (i.e., those with high evaluations in SESRA). These results suggested that prejudiced responses and stereotypic responses are independent.
著者
高木 大資 辻 竜平 池田 謙一
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, no.1, pp.36-45, 2010
被引用文献数
2

In this study, we examined crime control in local communities through interpretations mainly from social capital. Using data obtained from a mail survey in an urban area, we investigated the effects of cooperative behaviors promoted by individual-level or macro-level social capital in neighborhoods on the number of respondents' crime victimizations. The results show that the network size of cooperative acquaintances at the individual level promotes the number of respondents' cooperative behaviors. Moreover, having a neighborhood where greeting and standing talking are frequent promotes respondents' cooperative behaviors. It is also suggested that cooperative behaviors aggregated at the macro level have an inhibitory effect on the number of victimizations in terms of "burglaries of the communities."
著者
三浦 麻子 川浦 康至
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, no.2, pp.153-160, 2009
被引用文献数
1 2

This study focused on an online knowledge-sharing community, in which information was exchanged and accumulated actively in the community based on the question-and-answer interaction of users. We examined its characteristics by text mining, one of the most effective methods for the content analysis of enormous quantities of text-based data. Based on an analysis of posted questions and answers, the same gender difference as in previous studies on interpersonal communicative discourse was found. Female users tended to post questions and answers related to their interpersonal relationships. Based on an analysis of their perspectives on the community, it was suggested that many users positively evaluated the usefulness of the community and did not hesitate to post questions and answers. These attitudes of users toward the community should lead to their positive evaluation of both the overall community and the communication made there, as pointed out by Miura and Kawaura (2008).
著者
丹波 秀夫 小杉 正太郎
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.2, pp.116-125, 2006

This study investigated the impact of social skills on the life events experienced by university undergraduates (n=429). Segrin (2001) advocated a social skills deficit stress generation hypothesis which states that social skills reduce the experiences of life events. On the contrary, Tanaka, Yonehara, and Kosugi (2003) showed that social skills increased the experiences of life events, therefore, it may also be possible to posit a social skills surplus stress generation hypothesis. Based on the results of multiple regression analysis, in which the explanatory variables were the components of social skills, and criterion variables were the experiences of life events, it was clear that the components of social skills principally influenced the experiences of life events related to interpersonal relationships. Specifically, trouble-shooting skills decreased life event experiences, while communication-skills increased them. Therefore, it is suggested that both of the above hypotheses are based on the influences of the different components of social skills on life event experiences.
著者
伊東 秀章
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.12, no.3, pp.163-171, 1997
被引用文献数
1 9

More people are choosing to remain single in Japan. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the intention to marry and various psychological factors, using Ajzen & Madden's (1986) theory of planned behavior, which has received the most attention among the models of the attitude-behavior relation. The results show psychological factors such as general attitudes toward marriage, loss of freedom felt by marriage, perceived behavioral control, individualism, and impressions of parents' marital relationships are related to a person's willingness to marry. However, subjective norm and gender-role orientation are not related. In conclusion, more people will remain single because psychological motivation for marriage will decrease.
著者
渡邊 寛 城間 益里
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.34, no.3, pp.162-175, 2019-03-31 (Released:2019-03-31)
参考文献数
56

There has been an increase in the number of Japanese people who disagree with traditional gender roles which has resulted in diversified male roles. Based on a nine-male-roles model, this study examined the chronological changes and differences in male characters as per their ages and relationships with the heroine in NHK’s morning drama serials known as “asadora,” which is a Japanese TV drama. Results indicated that the roles of middle-aged men evolved from “high communion” in the ’60s and ’70s, to “high social status” in the ’80s and ’90s, to “commitment to household responsibility” in the ’00s and ’10s. Meanwhile, young men’s roles evolved from “high agency” in the ’90s to “attentiveness to women” in the ’10s. Additionally, the heroines’ husbands, ex-husbands, male friends, and romantic partners demonstrated “low effeminacy,” “superiority to women,” and “attentiveness to women.” Conversely, the heroines’ brothers, sons, and neighbors demonstrated “psychological and physical strength” and “emancipation from emotional restriction and toughness.” Based on social changes in Japan, implications of this study and future prospects were discussed.
著者
鈴木 文子 池上 知子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, no.3, pp.183-190, 2015-03-20 (Released:2015-06-07)
参考文献数
15
被引用文献数
1

From the perspective of social identity theory, some social psychologists have suggested that heterosexual men espouse negative attitudes toward gay men as a defensive mechanism against threats to their gender self-esteem. The purpose of the present study is to examine whether this gender self-esteem defense theory of sexual prejudice applies among heterosexual men and women in Japan. Our results in principle supported the gender self-esteem defense theory for heterosexual men. For heterosexual women, however, the results tended to be contradictory to the theory. The more positive heterosexual women’s gender self-esteem was, the less negative was their attitude toward lesbians. But this link tended to disappear when they were informed that no biological differences exist between heterosexuals and homosexuals. Our findings suggest that heterosexual men and women maintain their gender self-esteem in different manners: Heterosexual men maintain positive gender self-esteem by embracing negative attitudes toward gay men, but heterosexual women do not. Heterosexual women’s gender self-esteem may be related to expressing tolerance for sexual minorities.
著者
和田 実
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.12, no.1, pp.9-19, 1996
被引用文献数
1

The purpose of this study was to investigate the adolescents' attitudes toward gay men and lesbians and to examine the effects of sex and gender-role identity on them. Subjects were 312 (124 male and 188 female) undergraduates. Sixty-three males and 95 females rated the attitudes toward gay men. Sixty-one males and 93 females rated the attitudes toward lesbians. Major findings were as follows: 1. From factor analysis, three factors were extracted: social acceptance, psychological distance, and positive images. 2. As compared with females, males scored lower on social acceptance, higher on psychological distance, and lower on positive images. Especially, males avoided gay men more psychologically than lesbians. 3. Males in high masculinity (HM) accepted gay men less and avoided them more psychologically than males in low masculinity (LM). 4. Females in LM accepted gay men and lesbians less and avoided them more psychologically than females in HM. Females in high femininity (HF) accepted gay men and lesbians less and avoided them more psychologically than females in low femininity (LF). Females in HM imaged gay men and lesbians more positively than females in LM. These findings were discussed in terms of the sex differences of socialization (gender role expectation) and same-sex friendship.
著者
中村 早希 三浦 麻子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.34, no.3, pp.119-132, 2019-03-31 (Released:2019-03-31)
参考文献数
28

This study examines the attitude change process based on the heuristic-systematic model (HSM) in persuasion among two individuals holding different opinions, as the simplest situation of multiple directions of persuasion by different sources. Participants with restricted or unrestricted cognitive resources were asked their attitudes after reading two different persuasive messages: one was a persuasion from in-group member with weak arguments and the other was from out-group member with strong arguments. Cognitive resources were manipulated with a dual task (Study 1) and time constraints (Study 2) to allow either heuristic or systematic processes to predominate. Both studies showed participants were more likely to form their attitudes in response to the persuasion from in-group member, which had positive heuristic cues, with weak arguments under a restricted condition than under an unrestricted condition. This provides evidence that the HSM can explain the attitude change process under multiple-source-and-direction persuasion.
著者
垣内 理希
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.12, no.1, pp.54-63, 1996

For nearly three decades, the existence of the physical attractiveness stereotype or the stereotype that physically attractive people have a more socially desirable personality almost has been taken for granted in social psychology. However, the existence of this stereotype is not so evident as is often assumed to be. Results of an experiment reported in this paper demonstrate that the effect of perceived "beauty" of a stimulus person (photographed female) on the subject's evaluation of that person's personality is drastically reduced or even reserved when the degree of subjects' liking of that person is controlled. On one personality dimension, even the reverse stereotype that physically attractive people have a malignant personality was found to exist when subject's liking of the stimulus person is controlled. These and related findings suggest that people assume that physically attractive person has a nice personality not because they have an implicit personality theory connecting physical and mental attractiveness but rather because people simply like an attractive person.
著者
常岡 充子 高野 陽太郎
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.2, pp.93-100, 2012

The purpose of this experiment was to examine a causal relation between perspective-taking and verbal aggression. A participant conducted verbal communication through a computer with another supposed participant (actually, a computer program). Half of the participants first performed a task that was designed to activate perspective-taking, whereas the other half first performed a different task that was designed not to activate perspective-taking. In verbal communication, it was found that those who had not activated perspective-taking increased the number of instances of verbal aggression as the alleged counterpart became more aggressive, whereas those who had activated perspective-taking did not. This finding suggests that activation of perspective-taking has the effect of suppressing an increase in verbal aggression toward a person who increases verbal aggression.
著者
宮田 加久子 安野 智子 市川 芳治
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, no.1, pp.21-34, 2014-08-18 (Released:2015-06-06)
参考文献数
43
被引用文献数
2

How do the news media stimulate political deliberation, political interest, and political knowledge? To compare the effects of online news with those of the traditional news media, we collected three types of data: a web-based survey, diary logs of mass media use, and access logs to news sites. The results showed that exposure to news media reinforced political interest and political deliberation. Online news use, however, facilitated only online deliberation, while exposure to TV and newspapers stimulated face-to-face conversation. In addition, online and TV news use had a direct effect on political knowledge. The results also showed that political conversation with the family had a direct effect on interest in politics and political knowledge, while political conversation with friends had a positive impact only on political interest. The implications of the findings were discussed in terms of how occasional political communication narrows the gap between the politically sophisticated and the less sophisticated.
著者
中原 純
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.29, no.3, pp.180-186, 2014

This study aims to verify the hypothesized intrapersonal process, grounded in the activity theory of aging, whereby the activities of elderly people at Japan's Silver Human Resource Centers have a positive impact on their life satisfaction by developing a positive role identity and self-esteem. For this purpose, a survey was conducted among 279 elderly people belonging to the Silver Human Resource Center of I City. Path analysis showed significant relationships between frequency of activities at the center and role identity as a worker at the center, role identity and self-esteem, and self-esteem and life satisfaction. The findings validate the activity theory of aging.
著者
大薗 博記 渡部 幹 吉川 左紀子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.2, pp.77-86, 2013

Trustworthiness can be judged through smiles, because smiling is difficult to fake. On the other hand, linguistic information, which is easier to fake, is also a signal of a person's trustworthiness; persons claiming to be trustworthy will probably be punished if their lie is exposed. We examined the punishments given to unfair persons who expressed their trustworthiness through linguistic information or facial expressions. In the experiment, all the participants played the Trust Game, wherein they were assigned as donors; 67 participants in Experiment 1 were exposed to their partner's linguistic information (responses to the questionnaire: trustworthy/neutral), and 100 participants in Experiment 2 were shown their partner's face (smile/no smile). They then decided the amount of endowment to give to their partners. After hearing their partner's decision (regarding fair/unfair allocation), they had an opportunity to punish an unfair partner and deduct money from the partner's share. Results show that liars caught through linguistic information were punished severely, but those caught through facial expressions were not. The different mechanisms between processing linguistic information and facial expressions were discussed.
著者
白岩 祐子 宮本 聡介 唐沢 かおり
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.2, pp.109-117, 2012

Previous studies on attribution judgments concerning crime victims have commonly used the term "responsibility" to measure the negative implications regarding victims. However, responsibility is a concept that should be placed upon offenders, not victims. Victims have frequently been judged negatively, but the use of "responsibility" potentially inhibits the accurate understanding of such negative implications. Additionally, in judicial practice, "responsibility" is basically a term attributed to offenders. We therefore observed a certain shortcoming in the current research framework attributing responsibility to victims. Through judicial decisions and interviews with victims, we derived other labels supposedly containing negative victim judgments ("carelessness" and "fault") , and, together with the label "responsibility," considered whether people evaluate the victims using such labels. Moreover, to confirm whether these labels point to qualitatively distinct concepts, we examined their relationships with causal attribution. The results revealed that respondents rated the victim significantly lower on responsibility than the other negative labels, and we also found different prognostic factors for the labels. The implications of the study were discussed.
著者
樋口 収 原島 雅之
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.3, pp.185-192, 2012

The purpose of this study was to test the effect of construal level and achievement goal on predictions of how long it would take to complete an academic task. According to Construal Level Theory (Liberman & Trope, 2008; Trope & Liberman, 2010), when we predict the distant future (i.e., we construe the future in abstract features) , those predictions are based on abstract information. We hypothesized that participants who reported a stronger achievement goal predicted that they would spend a greater amount of time on the task when they construed the task abstractly. Two experiments tested the hypothesis. First, we assessed a participant's achievement goals. Then, we manipulated their construal level (e.g., the deadlines for submission of an essay: experiment 1), and asked them to estimate the amount of study time required. The results of the two experiments supported our hypothesis. The role of construal level on predictions is discussed.