著者
和田 実
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.12, no.1, pp.9-19, 1996
被引用文献数
1

The purpose of this study was to investigate the adolescents' attitudes toward gay men and lesbians and to examine the effects of sex and gender-role identity on them. Subjects were 312 (124 male and 188 female) undergraduates. Sixty-three males and 95 females rated the attitudes toward gay men. Sixty-one males and 93 females rated the attitudes toward lesbians. Major findings were as follows: 1. From factor analysis, three factors were extracted: social acceptance, psychological distance, and positive images. 2. As compared with females, males scored lower on social acceptance, higher on psychological distance, and lower on positive images. Especially, males avoided gay men more psychologically than lesbians. 3. Males in high masculinity (HM) accepted gay men less and avoided them more psychologically than males in low masculinity (LM). 4. Females in LM accepted gay men and lesbians less and avoided them more psychologically than females in HM. Females in high femininity (HF) accepted gay men and lesbians less and avoided them more psychologically than females in low femininity (LF). Females in HM imaged gay men and lesbians more positively than females in LM. These findings were discussed in terms of the sex differences of socialization (gender role expectation) and same-sex friendship.
著者
常岡 充子 高野 陽太郎
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.2, pp.93-100, 2012

The purpose of this experiment was to examine a causal relation between perspective-taking and verbal aggression. A participant conducted verbal communication through a computer with another supposed participant (actually, a computer program). Half of the participants first performed a task that was designed to activate perspective-taking, whereas the other half first performed a different task that was designed not to activate perspective-taking. In verbal communication, it was found that those who had not activated perspective-taking increased the number of instances of verbal aggression as the alleged counterpart became more aggressive, whereas those who had activated perspective-taking did not. This finding suggests that activation of perspective-taking has the effect of suppressing an increase in verbal aggression toward a person who increases verbal aggression.
著者
宮田 加久子 安野 智子 市川 芳治
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, no.1, pp.21-34, 2014-08-18 (Released:2015-06-06)
参考文献数
43
被引用文献数
2

How do the news media stimulate political deliberation, political interest, and political knowledge? To compare the effects of online news with those of the traditional news media, we collected three types of data: a web-based survey, diary logs of mass media use, and access logs to news sites. The results showed that exposure to news media reinforced political interest and political deliberation. Online news use, however, facilitated only online deliberation, while exposure to TV and newspapers stimulated face-to-face conversation. In addition, online and TV news use had a direct effect on political knowledge. The results also showed that political conversation with the family had a direct effect on interest in politics and political knowledge, while political conversation with friends had a positive impact only on political interest. The implications of the findings were discussed in terms of how occasional political communication narrows the gap between the politically sophisticated and the less sophisticated.
著者
大薗 博記 渡部 幹 吉川 左紀子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.2, pp.77-86, 2013

Trustworthiness can be judged through smiles, because smiling is difficult to fake. On the other hand, linguistic information, which is easier to fake, is also a signal of a person's trustworthiness; persons claiming to be trustworthy will probably be punished if their lie is exposed. We examined the punishments given to unfair persons who expressed their trustworthiness through linguistic information or facial expressions. In the experiment, all the participants played the Trust Game, wherein they were assigned as donors; 67 participants in Experiment 1 were exposed to their partner's linguistic information (responses to the questionnaire: trustworthy/neutral), and 100 participants in Experiment 2 were shown their partner's face (smile/no smile). They then decided the amount of endowment to give to their partners. After hearing their partner's decision (regarding fair/unfair allocation), they had an opportunity to punish an unfair partner and deduct money from the partner's share. Results show that liars caught through linguistic information were punished severely, but those caught through facial expressions were not. The different mechanisms between processing linguistic information and facial expressions were discussed.
著者
白岩 祐子 宮本 聡介 唐沢 かおり
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.2, pp.109-117, 2012

Previous studies on attribution judgments concerning crime victims have commonly used the term "responsibility" to measure the negative implications regarding victims. However, responsibility is a concept that should be placed upon offenders, not victims. Victims have frequently been judged negatively, but the use of "responsibility" potentially inhibits the accurate understanding of such negative implications. Additionally, in judicial practice, "responsibility" is basically a term attributed to offenders. We therefore observed a certain shortcoming in the current research framework attributing responsibility to victims. Through judicial decisions and interviews with victims, we derived other labels supposedly containing negative victim judgments ("carelessness" and "fault") , and, together with the label "responsibility," considered whether people evaluate the victims using such labels. Moreover, to confirm whether these labels point to qualitatively distinct concepts, we examined their relationships with causal attribution. The results revealed that respondents rated the victim significantly lower on responsibility than the other negative labels, and we also found different prognostic factors for the labels. The implications of the study were discussed.
著者
樋口 収 原島 雅之
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.3, pp.185-192, 2012

The purpose of this study was to test the effect of construal level and achievement goal on predictions of how long it would take to complete an academic task. According to Construal Level Theory (Liberman & Trope, 2008; Trope & Liberman, 2010), when we predict the distant future (i.e., we construe the future in abstract features) , those predictions are based on abstract information. We hypothesized that participants who reported a stronger achievement goal predicted that they would spend a greater amount of time on the task when they construed the task abstractly. Two experiments tested the hypothesis. First, we assessed a participant's achievement goals. Then, we manipulated their construal level (e.g., the deadlines for submission of an essay: experiment 1), and asked them to estimate the amount of study time required. The results of the two experiments supported our hypothesis. The role of construal level on predictions is discussed.
著者
渡辺 匠 唐沢 かおり
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.2, pp.83-92, 2012

This research deals with determinants of perception of social consensus between the self and ingroup in the minimal group paradigm. Specifically, we predicted that ingroup projection would shield the individual from threats because connection with ingroup members could provide comfort and validate self-concepts. The results confirmed our hypothesis that the manipulation of self-threat invokes enhanced ingroup projection, whereas outgroup projection was not affected by threats to the self. These results are consistent with the previous literature that ingroup members are judged to be similar to the self. Adding to these findings, our data imply that when people are under threat, they tend to project their own traits onto ingroup members for the purpose of self-protection. The findings are discussed within the context of the potential use of self-ingroup relationships as self-defense mechanisms.
著者
池内 裕美 藤原 武弘 土肥 伊都子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.16, no.1, pp.27-38, 2000

"Extended self" is defined as "the aggregation of all obiects that people regard as a part of themselves; for example, their body parts, parents, friends, pet animals, job, social roles, etc." The purposes of this study were 1) to investigate the emotional reaction of involuntary loss of the extended self, that is, "material possessions" and 2) to examine the structure of "extended self" and its relation to the values attached to the possessions. We collected samples from the victims of the 1995 Hanshin Earthquake (209 university students) and the 1994 Northridge Earthquake (87 university students). The questionnaire asked them to describe what kind of favorite possessions they lost, the emotions when they lost them, the values they attached to the possessions and to what extent they regarded the external objects as a part of themselves. The results showed both similarities and differences between the victims of two earthquakes. The main findings were as follows: 1) Most victims of both earthquakes showed a similar emotional reaction, that is, "sadness" to the loss of important possessions. 2) For the values they attached to their lost possessions, "functional value," "emotional value," "self-presentational value," and "symbolic value of relationship" were extracted. 3) The more emotional value the victims of the Hanshin Earthquake gave to their possessions, on the other hand, the more self-presentational value the victims of the Northridge Earthquake gave to their possessions, the more the victims of both earthquake regarded their possession as a part of extended self.
著者
川西 千弘
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, no.3, pp.221-232, 2008

This study investigated how the mind state of a discloser, when self-disclosure of negative contents occurred, might vary with the acceptance or rejection of the recipient, the intimacy of the discloser and the recipient, and the self-esteem of the discloser. A questionnaire investigation using the "scene-assuming" method was conducted among 134 women university students. The main results were as follows; (1) The mind state of the discloser was positive when the recipient was accepted rather than refused; (2) In many dimensions, such as "impression aggravation concern," irrespective of acceptance or rejection, the discloser's mind state when the recipient was the best friend was more positive than in cases where the recipient was just an acquaintance. But in terms of difference from self-disclosure immediately to feedback by the recipient, the discloser's mental damage as a result of rejection was more serious when incurred by the best friend than by an acquaintance; (3) In a dimension such as "waning confidence" or "mutual trust of the future," the mind state of low self-esteem disclosers was more negative than that of high self-esteem disclosers, regardless of acceptance or rejection by the recipient.
著者
中島 誠 吉田 俊和
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.2, pp.98-107, 2008

This research investigated the motives behind helping and exploitive behaviors from the perspective of the Equity with the World (EwW) hypothesis, which claims that people will maintain equity in trans-relational relationships. It was hypothesized that (a) people redress inequity even from third parties, and (b) in comparison with monetary issues, when the exchange resource involves helping out, over-rewarded people offer more resources to others, while the under-rewarded are less likely to exploit others. In addition, (c) people redress inequity more strongly with interested parties. A total of 343 college students completed a questionnaire that contained two hypothetical situations. In each of these situations, respondents were initially either given resources, or had resources exploited from them, and were then asked about subsequent situations. The evaluation of the first interaction and their intent toward offering resources to third parties were assessed. The results generally supported the hypotheses. However, the second hypothesis was not supported. They were less exploitive when they were under-rewarded regarding money allocation. Differences in the method of restoring inequity regarding the resources were discussed in terms of generalized exchange.
著者
相馬 敏彦 浦 光博
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, no.2, pp.131-140, 2010

Romantic partners often consider their relationship to be distinct from their other relationships. Moreover, it has been shown that this perceived distinctiveness promotes cooperative orientation while individually suppressing uncooperative orientation. How does this perceived distinctiveness of romantic partners affect their adaptation? We conducted a panel survey on two hundred and eighty-five married and unmarried partners. Path analysis and supplemental analyses revealed the working of two independent processes. In one process, the more distinct romantic partners perceive their relationship to be, the more cooperative orientation they can have and the less they suffer violence at the hands of their partner. In the other process, it was found that the more distinct romantic partners perceive their relationship to be, the less uncooperative orientation they can have and the more they suffer violence at the hands of their partner. Further, from the results obtained from this study, we discuss the originality of this study and prevention policies related to domestic violence.
著者
田戸岡 好香 村田 光二
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, no.1, pp.46-56, 2010

Suppressing stereotypical thoughts ironically leads to a rebound effect (i.e., an increase in the accessibility of the stereotypes after suppression). Past research has shown that using the counter-stereotypes (e.g., that the elderly are competent) as replacement thoughts was not successful in diminishing the rebound effect. In this research, based on the stereotype content model, we hypothesized that on suppressing one dimension of the stereotype (i.e., incompetence) another dimension (i.e., warmth) could be an effective and practical replacement. Specifically, we tested whether participants who suppressed the incompetence-related aspects of elderly stereotypes would diminish the rebound if they used warmth-related aspects of the elderly as a replacement. Experiment 1 confirmed the rebound effect after suppressing incompetence-related aspects of the elderly, and experiments 2 and 3 examined the effect of the thought-replacement strategy. On suppressing incompetence of the elderly, participants who focused on warmth-related aspects decreased the rebound effect compared to those who focused on the counterstereotypes. We discussed the efficacy of using another dimension of stereotypes to prevent the rebound effect.
著者
具志堅 伸隆 唐沢 かおり
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.2, pp.155-164, 2006

Past research based on the unrelated-affect paradigm has demonstrated that distinct emotions exert specific influences on cognition (e.g., Keltner, Ellsworth, & Edwards, 1993). This study investigated the effects of anger or fear on the perceived persuasiveness of an unrelated statement. Under anger, fear, or neutral conditions, participants read two statements, one critical and the other threatening, regarding a bad debt situation. The participants then made judgments about the pursuasiveness of these statements. As predicted, anger enhanced the persuasiveness of the critical statement by increasing the tendency to think that justice had been violated, whereas fear enhanced the persuasiveness of the threatening statement by increasing the tendency to think there would be negative repercussions. These results suggest that emotions increase the persuasive impact of affect-arousing communication by producing specific cognitive tendencies.
著者
樋口 収 桑山 恵真
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, no.3, pp.178-187, 2011

According to Construal Level Theory, psychological distance (e.g., spatial distance) is an important determinant of how information will be processed. When the target message seems more proximal (vs. distant) to the recipient, people attend to a concrete message (vs. abstract information). We investigated the possibility that people showed more agreement in response to a concrete message (vs. abstract information) when the target is proximal (vs. distant). In Study 1, spatial distance was measured by asking participants how far the target was (from Japan). In Study 2, spatial distance was manipulated using a world map. Results were consistent with our hypothesis. The implications of these findings for psychological distance and persuasion are discussed.
著者
西田 公昭
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.9, no.2, pp.131-144, 1994
被引用文献数
1

This paper is intented as an investigation of process of belief-system change by means of a religious cult mind-control. This study analyzed the process by mainly using a questionnaire survey administrated to 272 persons of the cult exiters, with content analysis of text books of the dogma, videotapes of the dogma, recruiting manual, seminar's manuals and interviews to exiters from the religious cult supplementary used. It should be concluded from the analysis that the cult recruiters take advantage of camouflaged religious recruiting, interpersonal attraction, group attraction, personal and social reality operations for recruiter's mind control. In the process, to begin with, the recruiter are attracted by the recruiter's warm regard and they begin to learn the dogma without knowing that it is a religious recruiting. As the next step, recruiter come to believe the dogma through influence of reality operation and interpersonal attraction. And finally, the recruiters tell the truth of their own group to the recruiters and ask them to be the members of the group.
著者
村上 幸史
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.21, no.2, pp.133-146, 2005

It has been said that the reason why fortune telling in popular magazines (for women) is seen to "come true" derives from the authoritarian personality of the reader combined with the Barnum effect given by the text. However, past research had focused mostly on fortune telling of a personal character, and very few studies have been carried out which investigate matters of luck or fortune itself. The aim of this research is to investigate how people come to believe that a particular instance of fortune telling has actually "come true", focusing on the use of a "determination view of fate" as a descriptive style of text, and paying attention to both the presentation of material and the reader's cognition process, in four different studies. The "determination view of fate" is described as not varying no matter how readers act; it is something that readers accept as a set of values. For the purposes of this research, using the fortune telling descriptions in women's magazines, a line was drawn between cases in which the reader actually judged the contents as "likely to come true" (predictions) and those that actually "come true"(results), and the contents were analyzed. Consequently, among those who believed the prophecy at the stage of prediction and later judged it to have "come true, " certain structures of a self-fulfilling nature were seen to be held in common. In the light of the contents of the text, both negative and other contents described as nonvariable "fortune" contents were judged to have "come true." Although it can be concluded that, based on such results, fortune telling was recognized as actually dealing in "fortune, " it is conjectured that it evokes in the reader a feeling of hitting the mark through a revelation of fate. The reason why negative contents "come true" is discussed from the viewpoints of memory and content evaluation. The study indicates that those who believe in fortune telling do not do so because of authoritarianism, but rather because of flexible interpretation.
著者
戸谷 彰宏 中島 健一郎
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.33, no.2, pp.84-92, 2017-12-25 (Released:2017-12-25)
参考文献数
19

Our purpose is to examine the affect-free claim in terror management theory. Lambert et al. (2014) reported findings that disconfirm the claim that mortality salience (MS) manipulation does not produce any changes in self-reported affect including negative affect, which is the affect-free claim. As a conceptual replication of their findings, we conducted three studies to examine whether MS manipulation influences self-reported mood. Participants in Study 1 were college students, while Studies 2 and 3 included individuals in their 20s and 50s who were recruited using a web survey. Multiple-choice questions (Studies 1 and 2) and open-ended questions (Study 3) were used as experimental manipulation. Through these three studies, it was shown that MS manipulation elevated negative mood regardless of the experimental manipulation type and participants’ age. In these studies, participants did not demonstrate a cultural worldview defense. Results suggest that we should reconsider the affect-free claim in terror management theory.
著者
宮崎 弦太 矢田 尚也 池上 知子 佐伯 大輔
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.33, no.2, pp.61-72, 2017-12-25 (Released:2017-12-25)
参考文献数
18
被引用文献数
2

This study investigated the determinants of exchange anxiety in close relationships—generalized worries that one’s partner will replace him/her with a more suitable person. We hypothesized that exchange anxiety would increase when individuals compare themselves with others who are more competent (experiencing upward social comparisons), especially in environments where they cannot easily find alternative relationships (environments with low relational mobility). By experimentally manipulating the type of social comparison, the results from Study 1 revealed that undergraduates (n=299) living in environments with low relational mobility felt stronger exchange anxiety when they experienced upward social comparison than downward social comparison. In Study 2, an online survey was conducted with a sample of adults living in either urban or rural areas (n=1000). The results showed that the frequency of upward social comparison was positively associated with exchange anxiety and that this tendency was moderated by the combined effect of relational mobility and trait self-esteem. These results suggest that the characteristics of one’s interpersonal environments affect the impact of the perceived risk of being replaced on exchange anxiety in one’s close relationships.
著者
鈴木 文子 池上 知子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, no.3, pp.183-190, 2015-03-20 (Released:2015-06-07)
参考文献数
15
被引用文献数
1

From the perspective of social identity theory, some social psychologists have suggested that heterosexual men espouse negative attitudes toward gay men as a defensive mechanism against threats to their gender self-esteem. The purpose of the present study is to examine whether this gender self-esteem defense theory of sexual prejudice applies among heterosexual men and women in Japan. Our results in principle supported the gender self-esteem defense theory for heterosexual men. For heterosexual women, however, the results tended to be contradictory to the theory. The more positive heterosexual women’s gender self-esteem was, the less negative was their attitude toward lesbians. But this link tended to disappear when they were informed that no biological differences exist between heterosexuals and homosexuals. Our findings suggest that heterosexual men and women maintain their gender self-esteem in different manners: Heterosexual men maintain positive gender self-esteem by embracing negative attitudes toward gay men, but heterosexual women do not. Heterosexual women’s gender self-esteem may be related to expressing tolerance for sexual minorities.