著者
山崎 瑞紀 高木 彩 池田 謙一 堀井 秀之
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.2, pp.77-86, 2008

The present study examined the determinants of public trust in railroad companies. The constructs studied were as follows: trust in companies, familiarity toward companies, recognition of company values, perceived frequency of traffic accidents, perceived involuntary risk, perceived function as watchdogs of other institutions, and perception of safety measures. We conducted a survey in the Tokyo Metropolitan area and obtained answers from 1,081 respondents. The postulated model was tested using structural equation modeling procedures. The results indicated that the proposed model fits the data very well. It was shown that perceived function as watchdogs, perception of safety measures, recognition of company values, and familiarity had direct effects on trust.
著者
町 一誠 樋口 匡貴 深田 博己
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.21, no.3, pp.173-186, 2006

This study aims to examine the effects of a speaker's use of dialect on the impression given by that person. The experimental conditions were as follows : (1) the speaker used a common language and a dialect with appropriate code-switching according to the situation; (2) the speaker used the same, but with inappropriate code-switching; (3) the speaker consistently used a common language; and (4) the speaker consistently used dialect. The subjects consisted of two hundred and eighty undergraduate students, some of whom were native speakers of the dialect while others were not. The experiment revealed that the impression given by and the interpersonal attractiveness of a speaker who used a common language and a dialect with appropriate code-switching according to the situation were more favorable. On the other hand, the impression given by and the interpersonal attractiveness of a speaker with inappropriate code-switching were less favorable. These results were discussed from the viewpoint of the evaluation of the dialects in Japan.
著者
石井 辰典
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, no.2, pp.133-142, 2009

This research examined the hypothesis that the strength of the linkage between self-representation and other-representation varies as a function of the significance of the other people involved in the linkage by analysis of the task facilitation paradigm (Klein et al., 1992) and analysis using an implicit effect of self-representation (Smith et al., 1999). An experiment using friends and fathers for the target persons was conducted with 51 participants. As a result, the strength of the linkage between self-with-father-representation and father-representation varied as a function of the degree of significance of the father. On the other hand, there was a strong linkage between self-with-friend-representation and friend-representation even though the degree of significance of the friend was low. It was thought that these results differ because the meaning of significance was different for father and friend. Moreover, we found a linkage between the father-representation and self-with-friend-representation. The results suggest that further examinations of the factors which determine self-other representation linkage are necessary.
著者
勝谷 紀子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.21, no.3, pp.213-225, 2006

This research investigated how reassurance-seeking related to coping behaviors for negative life events, rejection by significant others, and depression. In study 1,107 students filled out a questionnaire to examine the relationships between reassurance-seeking and different coping behaviors. The results showed that reassurance-seeking related to significant-other-aided coping behaviors and non-interpersonal coping behaviors. In study 2, the author examined whether coping behaviors based on reassurance-seeking related to depression through rejection by significant other by 2 wave data. One hundred and sixty students answered questionnaires twice after 3 months. The results indicated that reassurance-seeking behavior and non-interpersonal relief behavior related to Time 2 depression through rejection by significant others. The implications for roles of reassurance-seeking on the occurrence and maintenance of depression are discussed.
著者
石黒 格 村上 史朗
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, no.1, pp.33-44, 2007

Self-effacement has become an important topic in cross-cultural social psychology. However, descriptive characteristics of self-effacement have rarely been investigated. Based on representative network survey data, this study examined to whom Japanese people efface themselves. The results indicated as follows: 1) people tend to efface themselves to their neighbors or mere acquaintances more than to their spouses, colleagues, or best friends; 2) the duration of the relationship correlated negatively with self-effacement; 3) the relationship between psychological intimacy and self-effacement shaped reversed-U; and 4) people tend to efface themselves to maintain or attenuate their status difference, i.e., people efface themselves more to colleagues when the people considered those colleagues to be superior to them, and also to best friends when they considered those friends to be inferior to them.
著者
志岐 裕子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.2, pp.189-197, 2006
被引用文献数
1

This study had two purposes:(1) to investigate the effects of coviewers on participants' responses to humor, and (2) to investigate the effects of expectations of the role of entertainers on participants' perceptions of humor. One hundred and forty undergraduate student participants were asked to answer a questionnaire, imaging they were in the situations presented. In the case of aggressive humor, participants answered that they would perceive it to be funnier when they watched it with a friend rather than with an acquaintance. In the case of sexual humor, they answered that they would consider it to be funnier if they watched it with a friend or a person of same sex rather than with an acquaintance or a person of the opposite sex. Participants also indicated that they would moderate their responses more with an acquaintance or a person of the opposite sex, than with a friend or a person of the same sex. Lastly, participants reported that humor stimuli were funnier when performed by more familiar entertainers.
著者
谷口 淳一 山 祐嗣 川崎 弥生 堀下 智子 西岡 美和
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.21, no.3, pp.226-232, 2006

Shafir (1993) found that people select an alternative which is positive on some dimensions and negative on others more often than one with average dimensions. We applied his methodology to the choice of a person. It is argued that Japanese people prefer a person with an average disposition. But is it that they really prefer this or that they believe that others do? We presented a scenario where two persons wanted to join a party with your group. One was positive on some dimensions and negative on others, whereas the other had an average disposition. One hundred and seven female students were asked to choose one of the two persons, and 113 female students were asked to reject one of the two. They were also asked to infer which person the other members of their group would choose or reject. The results were that our participants chose and rejected the person with positive and negative dimensions in the self-decision condition, whereas they inferred that other members would choose the average person. These imply that self-critical bias may reflect an adaptive strategy as to the selection of persons.
著者
高林 久美子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, no.2, pp.119-129, 2007

Ambivalent sexism theory suggests that there are two forms of sexism : hostile sexism toward non-traditional women and benevolent sexism toward traditional women. Based on the finding that the threat to self motivates self-affirmation, which leads to stereotyping and prejudice, this study investigated how that threat had an impact on the two above-mentioned forms of prejudice toward women. In study 1, it was predicted that, under the threat, hostile sexists among the male participants were less likely than the nonsexist male participants to evaluate a career-woman favorably on a warmth dimension. This hypothesis was supported. In study 2, it was predicted that, under the threat, the benevolent sexists among the male and female participants were more likely than the nonsexist participants to evaluate a homemaker-oriented woman favorably. On the contrary, when the less benevolent sexist male and female participants felt threatened, they were less likely than the sexist participants to evaluate the women favorably on a warmth dimension. The possibility that the way of expressing gender-prejudiced attitudes became diversified was discussed.
著者
野寺 綾 唐沢 かおり 沼崎 誠 高林 久美子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, no.2, pp.195-201, 2007

The purpose of this study is to examine the promoting effect of a fear of death on the activation of gender role stereotypes. Terror management theory proposes that when mortality is salient, people heighten the tendency to support their cultural worldview. Since stereotypes are considered to represent cultural worldview, a fear of death should increase the responses consistent with the stereotype. In this study, the activation of stereotypes regarding gender roles (e.g., "Housekeeping is a job for women.") was measured with an Implicit Association Test (IAT). Participants were 48 male undergraduate and graduate students. The results showed that the participants who completed the questionnaire implying mortality had a larger IAT effect than those who completed the questionnaire unrelated to mortality, and that death-related anxiety led to the activation of gender role stereotypes. It is claimed that terror management theory has theoretical value for studies on stereotype activation, as well as a function in justifying a system such as gender role in stereotype activation.
著者
鈴木 公啓
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, no.1, pp.45-56, 2014-08-18

Body image disturbance and body image discrepancy considered as factors of body dissatisfaction and a drive for thinness were investigated. Participants were presented with new figural stimuli (contour drawings/silhouettes) ranging from thin to heavy developed based on real and objective data-human body size measurements and 3-D image data. Results indicated that female participants overestimated their body size, though the degree of overestimation is not particularly large. It is suggested that competition with members of the same sex generates body dissatisfaction and a drive for thinness. Furthermore, participants rated ideal body size thinner than their perceived body size. It was found that the differences between perceived body size and ideal body size relate to body dissatisfaction and a drive for thinness.
著者
池内 裕美
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, no.3, pp.188-198, 2010

Recently, consumer complaints and consumer claims have become a major social issue. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the psychological mechanism of complaining behavior with reference to the theory of aggressive behavior in social psychology. Two hundred and fifteen participants (106 males, 109 females) who lived in Japan were asked to complete a questionnaire by the mail survey method. After a covariance structure analysis, the proposed model was found to fit the data very well. The main findings were as follows: (1) High levels of self-esteem and the self-control of emotion led to having a positive attitude for complaining behavior. (2) Attitudes toward complaining behavior and dissatisfaction with products had a direct effect on actual complaining behavior. Furthermore, dissatisfaction with products was affected by the differences between the expectations for products and the performances of products. (3) Complaining behavior led to a decrease in consumer dissatisfaction. This result indicated the existence of a "cathartic effect."
著者
阿部 晋吾 高木 修
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.21, no.1, pp.12-20, 2005

In this study, we asked participants (229 students, 87 male and 142 female) to describe experiences both in which they expressed anger to someone and in which someone expressed anger to them, and examined whether there were differences between expressing and expressed positions in the determinants of the interpersonal effects of anger expression. The results showed that, while the justice evaluation of anger expression by persons who expressed anger did not exert any influence on interpersonal effects, the justice evaluation of those who were expressed anger to had statistically significant influences on interpersonal effects. We suggested from this that the more justified the anger-expressed person evaluates the anger expression as, the more positive the interpersonal effects tend to become. It was also found that the strength and direction of the influences of expressing anger on interpersonal effects differed between anger-expressing and anger-expressed positions.
著者
元吉 忠寛 高尾 堅司 池田 三郎
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.20, no.1, pp.58-67, 2004
被引用文献数
1

People living in areas where the risk of flooding is potentially high need to accept such risks, and prepare accordingly for floods. The purpose of this study was to examine factors that affected the residents' levels of acceptance of flood risks. A questionnaire-based survey was administered to residents (N=2811) living in the area affected by the Tokai flood disaster of September, 2000. Items were designed to probe for residents' attitudes toward flood risks, acceptance of flood risks, concerns about society, and rationale-based awareness of risks in society. Using structural equation modeling, we found that self-responsibility for flood preparedness and trust in public administrative authorities had a positive impact on the respondents' acceptance of flood risks. We also found that desire to attain zero risk negatively affected the residents' acceptance of flood risk. In addition, we examined how rational recognition of risks in society, and concerns about society affected attitudes towards flood risk.
著者
相川 充 吉森 護
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.11, no.1, pp.63-72, 1995

Three studies were conducted to construct a scale to measure sensibilities to indebtedness and to examine the reliability and validity of the scale. In Study I, university students and adult non-students completed an original version of the Indebtedness Scale along with some other scales assessing tendencies theoretically correlated with sensibilities to indebtedness. Through item analyses, 18 items were selected as the final version of Indebtedness Scale (IS-18). The IS-18 showed a high internal consistency (α = .850) and a high test-retest reliability (r=.778). In Study I and Study II, significant correlations were observed between the IS-18 score and the measures of self-consciousness, formality ideology, social skills, and self-esteem. There was no correlation between the score and Social Desirability Scale. In Study III, university students placed themselves in the role of hypothetical students confronted with 7 different situations in which they had been helped from others. They answered a question regarding the magnitude of indebtedness in each situation. The total score of the magnitude of indebtedness in 7 situations was positively correlated with IS-18 score.
著者
及川 昌典 及川 晴
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.29, no.1, pp.40-46, 2013-08-31 (Released:2017-02-24)

The role of emotional suppression and expression in the affective priming effect was addressed by examining the consequences of expressing one's emotions toward the primes within the framework of the affect misattribution procedure (AMP: Payne, Cheng, Govorun, & Stewart, 2005). Consistent with previous findings, pleasant or unpleasant picture primes influenced subsequent evaluations of unrelated neutral targets, despite blatant warning to ignore the primes. Interestingly, however, the affective priming effect disappeared when participants expressed their affective responses toward the primes. Moreover, the effect of negative emotional expression was moderated by individual differences in self-rumination. These findings suggest that an affective priming effect ensues when affect is kept unexpressed.
著者
高木 彩 小森 めぐみ
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.33, no.3, pp.126-134, 2018-03-25 (Released:2018-03-25)
参考文献数
29

This study distinguished between subjective and objective knowledge of scientific technology whose influence on health is yet to be defined, and explored the effect of each type of knowledge on risk perception. A web-based survey among the Japanese population (N=1,110) was conducted. It assessed the subjective and objective knowledge of electromagnetic field (EMF), interest in EMF, risk perception, and trust on the related organizations. The results indicated that respondents’ objective knowledge about EMF was generally poor. Their subjective knowledge and objective knowledge were significantly correlated, but the strength of correlation was moderate. Multiple regression analysis yielded significant subjective×objective knowledge interaction on risk perception. While objective knowledge consistently attenuated risk perception, subjective knowledge boosted risk perception only when respondents’ objective knowledge level was low. The possibility of the potential influence of reputation of EMF on the boosted subjective knowledge about EMF was discussed.
著者
高 史明 雨宮 有里
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.2, pp.67-76, 2013-01-20 (Released:2017-03-02)
被引用文献数
1

It has been shown that with regard to Blacks in the US, in addition to old-fashioned racism (a traditional and blatant form of racism), modern racism (a more subtle form, where one denies racism but nevertheless holds negative affect and belief against Blacks) has appeared in the post-Civil Rights Movement era (McConahay, 1986). Using the questionnaire method and exploratory factor analysis for Japanese college students, the present article revealed that this distinction between the two forms of racism is useful to describe racism against Zainichi Koreans (Korean residents in Japan). Furthermore, the present research investigated the consequences and underlying factors of the two forms of racism. Racism intensified contradictory discontent against Zainichi Koreans simultaneously, and had expected effects on the estimation of the number of Zainichi Koreans per unit of a certain kind of worker and people on social welfare in Japan. Protestant work ethics (Mirels & Garrett, 1971) intensified and humanitarianism-egalitarianism (Katz & Hass, 1988) weakened the two forms of racism. Implications of these findings were discussed.
著者
吉田 綾乃 浦 光博 黒川 正流
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.20, no.2, pp.144-151, 2004

In this study, the authors have paid attention to people's reactions to others' self-derogative presentation. Study 1 indicated that people have the script that a self-derogative presentation would elicit a denial response, such as "I don't think so," from the receivers. Moreover, it was also suggested that the derogator has the tendency to believe that the receiver's reaction has an effect of either maintaining or enhancing self-evaluation. Study 2 suggested that the Japanese would make self-derogative presentations, not only on the basis of interpersonal motivations, but also on the basis of self-affirmative motivations. The necessity of examining the details of the effects of self-derogation and the receivers' reactions was discussed.
著者
横山 智哉 稲葉 哲郎
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.32, no.2, pp.92-103, 2016-11-30 (Released:2016-11-30)
参考文献数
54
被引用文献数
1

Recent studies find that political talk influences political participation. However, as of yet, there has been no clear demonstration of how political talk translates into increased political participation. This study proposes a bridging effect, which reduces the perceived psychological distance between citizens and politics. In order to test this explanation, we collected panel data on an online national volunteer sample in November 2012 and January 2013. Findings suggest that the direct relationship between political talk and participation in governmental politics may be mediated through perceived psychological distance to politics. These findings support the bridging effect explanation.
著者
山岸 みどり 小杉 素子 山岸 俊男
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.12, no.1, pp.33-42, 1996-08-15 (Released:2016-12-06)
被引用文献数
2

A new method of detecting and controlling for acquiescence response biases in questionnaire studies was developed and applied to a cross-national survey data on trust collected by Yamagishi & Yamagishi (1994). Instead of including a set of balanced items or a large number of mutually unrelated questions as was common in conventional methods for assessing acquiesence, the proposed method uses multiple, mutually independent sets of items selected based on a principal component analysis. A relatively high correlation (r=.56) between two independent indices of acquiescence (obtained from two independent sets of items) suggests validity of the proposed method. No statistically significant differences in acquiescence were found between American and Japanese respondents suggesting that the results of Yamagishi & Yamagishi's results were not due to crossnational differences in acquiescence responses.