著者
佐藤 達哉
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.8, no.3, pp.197-208, 1993-03-31 (Released:2016-12-01)

In Japan, not a few Japanese people may believe that blood group polymorphisms of the ABO system are related to personality differences. Blood-typing is regarded here as a lay people's personality theory. The aim of this study is to understand that how people use this theory and that what functions the theory Serves. Subjects are students of a university and those of a nursing-school. 7 hypotheses derived are bellow. 1) this theory is popular among these subjects, 2) most of subjects cannot tell whether this theory is valid or not, 3) when someone begins to talk about the topics, conversations would be maintained for a while, 4) this theory can tell about both individuals and personal relationships. and this theory is useful for both beginning conversations and self-presentation at interpersonal situations, 5) contents of this theory are made of generalizations, 6) guesses of others' blood types are influenced by both theory's criteria and impressions of others, 7) evaluations to minor blood groups (B and AB) are relatively negative. After discussing the validity of blood-typing as a personality theory, the implications of this study are discussed.
著者
浅野 良輔
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.1, pp.41-46, 2011

This article investigated how relational efficacy affects emotional experiences in romantic relationships. Relational efficacy, which is a shared or intersubjective efficacy expectation of relationship partners, refers to a pair's belief that they can mutually coordinate and integrate their resources to prevent and resolve any problem; this concept is based on social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1997, 2001). Participants were 107 dating heterosexual couples. The results of multilevel structural equation modeling analysis suggested that couples higher in relational efficacy experienced more positive emotions, but not negative emotions. Additionally, it is suggested that partners higher in perceived relational efficacy experienced more positive emotions, but not negative emotions. The implications of the results and their contribution to existing literature are discussed.
著者
嘉瀬 貴祥 坂内 くらら 大石 和男
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.32, no.1, pp.60-67, 2016-08-25 (Released:2016-08-25)
参考文献数
18
被引用文献数
2

The aim of this study was to reveal behavior and thought constructing life skills in Japanese adults toward consideration of life skills training for adults. Descriptions of life skills were collected as text data from 400 adults. Co-occurrence network analysis found 40 instances of behavior and thought from the data. Several factors obtained were similar to those in previous studies (e.g., “positive thinking,” “planning,” “interpersonal manner,” etc.). Additionally, the original factors were also identified (e.g., “searching on social media,” “skeptical attitude toward information,” “judgment of profit and loss,” “imagining the worst situation,” “judgment of the appropriate psychological distance,” “maintaining the appropriate psychological distance,” etc.).
著者
小松 さくら 大渕 憲一
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.1, pp.45-49, 2008

The aims of this study were to examine with a Japanese sample the idea that the expectation of slack in the future is larger for time than for money and to examine the relationship between this expectation and optimism as a personality trait. The results showed that Japanese participants estimated slack with regard to both time and money, and it was larger with regard to time than to money, consistent with research done on American samples. Inconsistent with our hypothesis, however, the expectation of slack did not correlate with optimism. The low correlation between the estimated degrees of slack between that with regard to time and that with regard to money suggests that there is no consistent tendency across different resources.
著者
塩崎 麻里子 中里 和弘
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, no.3, pp.211-220, 2010

The purpose of this study was to examine the differences between regret over actions taken versus regret over inaction vis-a-vis bereaved family. The focal points of the study were as follows: 1) to explore the nature of unreversed regret in the bereaved; 2) to examine the association between the number and intensity of regrets and mental health and grief; and 3) to examine the effect of action and inaction on mental health and grief. Using a mail-in questionnaire, we surveyed and analyzed the results of 89 bereaved respondents. The results showed that participants had more lifetime regrets over inaction than over action taken. The number and intensity of regrets also correlated with mental health and grief. Bereaved participants who expressed regret over inaction had poorer mental health and stronger feelings of grief than those with no regrets over inaction. We discuss the implications of unreversed regret and examine regret prevention for the bereaved.
著者
高田 奈緒美 大渕 憲一
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.3, pp.208-218, 2009

In distinguishing internal forgiveness and forgiving behavior, we attempted to identify different motives for these two modes of forgiveness and to examine the effects of interpersonal relationships with offenders and the motives behind forgiveness. Participants recalled personal episodes in which someone hurt them and rated the episodes in terms of the closeness between them and the offender, forgiveness, and the motives for forgiveness. A factor analysis of the motives produced 6 dimensions: need for acceptance, maintenance of relationship, pervasiveness of negative event, maintenance of social harmony, non-commitment, and consideration. We regarded consideration and pervasiveness of negative events as altruistic and the others as egocentric motives. Noncommitment did not correlate with either forgiveness or forgiving behavior. Need for acceptance correlated only with forgiving behavior. Other motives were positively correlated with both internal forgiveness and forgiving behavior. Our results showed that the maintenance of a relationship was highest in conflicts with high-close others. They also showed that need for acceptance, pervasiveness of a negative event, and maintenance of social harmony were higher in conflict with high-close and middle-close others than with low-close others.
著者
児玉 真樹子 深田 博己
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, no.1, pp.1-12, 2010

This study examined the effects of three types of mentoring, such as career mentoring, childcare mentoring, and double-roles mentoring, on the working intentions of regular female employees rearing children. In addition, it also examined the effects of work-family conflict and vocational identity as mediators. Survey data from 247 regular female employees whose youngest child was less than 16 years old were used. The results showed the following: (a) double-roles mentoring directly promoted working intention, and (b) career mentoring promoted vocational identity formation directly, and the degree of vocational identity formation positively influenced working intention.
著者
小城 英子 坂田 浩之 川上 正浩
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, no.3, pp.246-258, 2008

The purpose of this study was to construct a scale for comprehensive attitudes towards paranormal phenomena which would contain cognition and affect, and to analyze clusters of university students. Undergraduates (N=699) completed a questionnaire about their attitudes towards paranormal phenomena and a number of other individual characteristics including the Big Five. The responses were analyzed by factor analysis, and as a result, six factors were extracted: "Inclination towards Augury and Magic," "Belief in Spirituality," "Enjoyment of Paranormal Phenomena," "Skepticism," "Fear of Paranormal Phenomena," and "Spiritual Experience and Belief." Based on these factors, six subscales were composed. The validity of these subscales was confirmed by the correlation with other individual characteristics. Using cluster analysis, participants were divided into four types: an "Ordinary Group," a "Group Believing in Paranormal Phenomena," a "Group Believing in Science," and a "Group Enjoying Paranormal Phenomena."
著者
荒川 歩 村上 幸史
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.1, pp.85-97, 2006

We investigated why people own lucky charms. One hundred ninety-eight students answered our questionnaire. The results showed that ownership of lucky charms is not entirely related to the desire to connect to a transcendental power; people have lucky charms because they have received them as gifts from family and friends; family and friends give lucky charms when they cannot provide other forms of support directly; the gift of a charm is usually from an older person to a younger person; the relationship between the donor and the recipient affects the type of charm given. These results suggest that donors may give lucky charms to allay their anxiety, and that lucky charms act as a reminder of the donor's support of the recipient in times of trouble.
著者
金政 祐司
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.2, pp.139-154, 2006
被引用文献数
3

This study was conducted in order to examine effects of early adult attachment styles on exclusivity of romantic relationships. Two hundred fifty seven undergraduates participated in Study 1, which examined how early adult attachment styles influence one's "sense of exclusivity" and "expressions of the sense of exclusivity," from the perspective of attachment dimensions. Results showed that, the higher the level of anxiety was, the more regularly a "sense of exclusivity" was experienced. Furthermore, the higher the level of avoidance was, the lower the "sense of exclusivity" was experienced. In addition, participants with high avoidance were less likely to express their "sense of exclusivity." In Study 2, participants were limited to 104 undergraduates who were currently involved in romantic relationships. Exclusivity of romantic relationships as a function of early adult attachment styles was examined with the construction of causal models as follows: first, two dimensions of early adult attachment, second, feelings of discomfort when a third person intervenes in the romantic relationships, and, lastly, coping behaviors for feelings of discomfort. Results revealed that anxiety increased the frequency of lingering/sadness, while avoidance reduced the frequency of these feelings. Moreover, results indicated that avoidance caused a higher tendency to resort to destructive coping behaviors and a lower tendency towards selecting constructive coping behaviors, such as "voice." These results are discussed in terms of the relations between early attachment styles, emotional experiences, and destructive behaviors in romantic relationships.
著者
古谷 嘉一郎 坂田 桐子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.1, pp.72-84, 2006
被引用文献数
1 5

In this research, we considered in what way face-to-face, mobile phone, and Short Message Service (SMS) modes of communication are associated with the relationship satisfaction of samesex friends. Specifically, from a media and content suitability perspective, we investigated 9 modes of communication, 3 media (face-to-face, mobile phone, and SMS)×3 types of content (task, emotional, and consummatory), and their association to relationship satisfaction. The results showed that relationship satisfaction and mode of communication were different for friendships where the partners were physically near each other and could see each other face to face even daily (short-distance friendship) and friendships where partners were physically separated and could only rarely meet face to face (long-distance friendship). Primarily, for short-distance friendships, a positive relation was observed for face-to-face consummatory communication and relationship satisfaction. Additionally, for long-distance friendships, SMS consummatory communication had a positive relationship with relationship satisfaction. We looked at these results from interpersonal research and communication research perspectives.
著者
野寺 綾 唐沢 かおり 沼崎 誠 高林 久美子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, no.2, pp.195-201, 2007

The purpose of this study is to examine the promoting effect of a fear of death on the activation of gender role stereotypes. Terror management theory proposes that when mortality is salient, people heighten the tendency to support their cultural worldview. Since stereotypes are considered to represent cultural worldview, a fear of death should increase the responses consistent with the stereotype. In this study, the activation of stereotypes regarding gender roles (e.g., "Housekeeping is a job for women.") was measured with an Implicit Association Test (IAT). Participants were 48 male undergraduate and graduate students. The results showed that the participants who completed the questionnaire implying mortality had a larger IAT effect than those who completed the questionnaire unrelated to mortality, and that death-related anxiety led to the activation of gender role stereotypes. It is claimed that terror management theory has theoretical value for studies on stereotype activation, as well as a function in justifying a system such as gender role in stereotype activation.
著者
唐沢 かおり
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.2, pp.172-179, 2006
被引用文献数
3

This study explored the determinants of intent of primary caregivers to continue taking care of elderly family members. The exploration was guided by two previous lines of study, one arguing the additive effect of positive and negative aspects of caregiving, and the other arguing the effect of attitude towards family caregiving. Four hundred and forty-five family caregivers answered questions relating to depression, caregiving intent, attitude towards family caregiving, and positive and negative aspects of caregiving. Structural equation modeling revealed that attitude to wards family caregiving increased both depression and intent to continue family caregiving. It is argued that when constructing a support system for family caregivers one must consider the possibility of family members being trapped by their attitude towards family care.
著者
赤澤 淳子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.21, no.2, pp.147-159, 2005
被引用文献数
2

The effects of variables of the social exchange model for gender role division on satisfaction level in a marital relationship and sense of fulfillment were analyzed based on the data of 236 couples, whose children's average ages were 18 or younger. The major findings are as follows. 1) It is suggested that a husband's egalitarianism in terms of gender roles enhances his commitment to housework. 2) The higher a wife's income, the greater is her husband's commitment to housework. 3) Except for perceptions of comparison level, satisfaction in a marriage is highly dependent on a husband's perception of the other's-outcome (efforts and accomplishments), and a wife's perception of the other's-outcome, together with her own achievements in housework. 4) In addition to comparison level for alternatives in both husbands and wives, a husband's perceptions of self-input and the other's-outcome in an income-generating job, and a wife's perception of the other's-outcome and her own achievements in housework affect the sense of fulfillment. Such differences are thought to be caused by differences in the quality of labor that occur in gender role division.
著者
鷹阪 龍太 山田 一成
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.35, no.1, pp.19-27, 2019-07-31 (Released:2019-08-15)
参考文献数
23

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the TIPI-J (a Japanese version of the Ten Item Personality Inventory: Oshio, Abe, & Cutrone, 2012) in volunteer panel Web surveys. First, a Web survey was conducted (264 males, 256 females, age range 20–69 years), and the internal consistency of the TIPI-J was tested by correlation analysis. Moreover, the concurrent validity and discriminant validity of the TIPI-J was tested by correlation analysis between the TIPI-J and another Big-Five scale (BFS short version: Uchida, 2002). These results indicated that the TIPI-J had satisfactory internal consistency and adequate validity. Next, as a result of a two-wave volunteer panel Web survey (316 males, 306 females, age range 20–69 years, 4-week interval), the TIPI-J showed satisfactory test–retest reliability (r=.72~.84). These results confirmed that the TIPI-J had sufficient validity and reliability in volunteer panel Web surveys in Japan. Finally, the effectiveness of the TIPI-J and its development were discussed.
著者
横山 智哉 稲葉 哲郎
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.32, no.2, pp.92-103, 2016-11-30 (Released:2016-11-30)
参考文献数
54
被引用文献数
1

Recent studies find that political talk influences political participation. However, as of yet, there has been no clear demonstration of how political talk translates into increased political participation. This study proposes a bridging effect, which reduces the perceived psychological distance between citizens and politics. In order to test this explanation, we collected panel data on an online national volunteer sample in November 2012 and January 2013. Findings suggest that the direct relationship between political talk and participation in governmental politics may be mediated through perceived psychological distance to politics. These findings support the bridging effect explanation.
著者
池内 裕美
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.34, no.1, pp.1-15, 2018-07-31 (Released:2018-08-01)
参考文献数
27

In this study, a hoarding tendency is defined as a trait whereby many possessions are saved and cannot be discarded because of their subjective meaning. For this study, an internet-survey of non-clinical individuals was conducted. First, the effects of age and gender on expression of hoarding were investigated. Next, as the main purpose of this study, the causal relationships between hoarding tendencies and various problems that hoarding causes were investigated. Four hundred and fifty-three participants were asked to complete a questionnaire. The main findings were as follows: 1) Females and people in their 30s significantly tended to hoard possessions. 2) The results of analysis indicated that hoarding caused mental problems, economic problems, social problems, and functional problems. In addition, a covariance structure analysis for the proposed model suggested that excessive attachment to possessions, such as “avoidance of discarding possessions” and “extended self,” caused an excessive build-up of items in the home, and these functional problems resulted in the above-mentioned problems. 3) Furthermore, the results of multi-sample simultaneous analysis indicated that the causal model for participants in their 60s was greatly different from that of other age groups. That model revealed that people in their 60s did not hesitate to throw belongings away and did not have the various problems that hoarding causes.
著者
林 幸史 小杉 考司
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.34, no.1, pp.38-46, 2018-07-31 (Released:2018-08-01)
参考文献数
29

This study attempted to investigate the differences in tourists’ perceptions of destination images based on their past travel experiences. Tourism research suggests that past travel experiences affect present tourist behavior in terms of travel career and number of visits. In this study, we consider the tourist as a person seeking mastery through travel experiences and use measures of guest experience from 47 prefectures in Japan. Five hundred respondents living in Osaka were asked to complete a questionnaire via the Internet. Respondents had to identify 10 destination images and write about their travel experiences in as many of the 47 prefectures as they had visited. The main results were as follows: (1) respondents were classified into four clusters according to their travel experiences, (2) tourists who had traveled to more prefectures had an image of the destination based on geographical location and destination characteristics, and (3) tourists who had previously visited a particular destination and had been to more prefectures had a clear image of the destination. Based on these results, the process through which tourists develop expertise was discussed.
著者
原田 知佳 土屋 耕治
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.35, no.1, pp.1-10, 2019-07-31 (Released:2019-08-15)
参考文献数
30

In this research, we examined the hypothesis that group performance will increase as a result of accelerating the timing of goal sharing and role differentiation by height of sociality of the group such as social sensitivity and self-regulation. One hundred fifty-six undergraduates (5–7 people×26 groups) participated in consensus-building tasks. After the tasks, they completed the questionnaire about their satisfaction level, social sensitivity, self-regulation, and timing of goal sharing and role differentiation in the group. As a result of the analysis, it was confirmed that the group performance was high in the group with higher social sensitivity and self-regulation. However, the timing of goal sharing and role differentiation was not earlier in the higher social sensitivity group than in the other groups. The process in which sociality influences group performance was discussed.