著者
船越 理沙 田崎 勝也 潮村 公弘
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.3, pp.180-188, 2013

The present study investigated the cultural equivalence of Self-Monitoring Scales (Snyder, 1974) through an examination of differential item functioning (DIF) using structural equation modeling. The data were collected in Japan (n=211) and the US (n=171). Factorial analyses were conducted on three factors of Self-Monitoring Scales: Extraversion, Other-Directedness, and Acting. DIF analyses were then conducted between the Japan and US data on five items in Extraversion, four items in Other-Directedness, and four items in Acting. The results showed that partial factorial invariance was confirmed in both the Extraversion and Acting factors, and strong factorial invariance was detected in the Other-Directedness factor; therefore, each factor of the Self-Monitoring Scales showed reasonable evidence for their cultural equivalence. Based on the results of the DIF analyses and factor mean comparisons between the Japan and US data, the cross-cultural validity of these scales was discussed.
著者
江利川 滋 山田 一成
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.31, no.2, pp.112-119, 2015-11-30 (Released:2015-12-17)
参考文献数
11

The purpose of this study is to test whether multiple-answer formats (MA) and forced-choice formats (FC) produce similar results in Web surveys. Data were based on a Web survey of 1,559 Japanese adults in the Tokyo metropolitan area in March 2010. The results revealed the following: (1) Respondents endorse fewer options and take less time to answer in MA than in FC. (2) For MA respondents, options are more likely to be endorsed when they appear in the first half of a list than in the second half. These findings suggest that MA may encourage weak satisficing response strategies. In addition, these tendencies can be seen not only in attitudinal questions (judgment-type questions), but also behavioral questions (recall-type questions). However, the differences between FC and MA are greater in attitudinal questions than in behavioral questions.
著者
秋保 亮太 縄田 健悟 池田 浩 山口 裕幸
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.1705, (Released:2018-11-10)
参考文献数
29

Implicit coordination is attracting attention from the viewpoint of the efficiency of team activities. Factors affecting implicit coordination have not been clarified because the empirical research that has been done is insufficient. This study investigated the effect of team after-event review and shared mental model on implicit coordination through a laboratory experiment. We conducted the experiment using a coordinating task. 144 students teamed up in pairs, with 72 teams participating. We found that team after-event review promoted team performance of implicit coordination. However, shared mental model had no relevance to team after-event review or team performance of implicit coordination. Our findings will help to understand the efficiency of team activities.
著者
今瀧 夢 相田 直樹 村本 由紀子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.33, no.3, pp.115-125, 2018-03-25 (Released:2018-03-25)
参考文献数
27

The present study examined how leaders’ evaluation and judgment of members are influenced by their “implicit theories” (e.g., Dweck, 1999). Participants were asked to play the role of team leader and then observed a team member performing poorly. They were asked to decide how much reward they should distribute to the failed member and to allocate the remaining time between him/her and a new member who had not yet worked on the task. As a result, participants who believe in malleable abilities (incremental theorists) increased the evaluation of the failed member when that member claimed that he/she made an effort, whereas participants who believe in fixed abilities (entity theorists) evaluated that member based only on outcome. Furthermore, entity theorists expected a new member to achieve an average level of performance and allotted more time to him/her, whereas incremental theorists expected a new member’s performance to be below average. There was no difference between their expectations of the failed member’s next performance. Results suggest that entity theorists may be better than incremental theorists at placing the right people in the right place.
著者
中川 裕美 横田 晋大 中西 大輔
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, no.3, pp.153-163, 2015-03-20 (Released:2015-06-07)
参考文献数
48

In this study, we tested the theoretical validity of both Social Identity Theory (SIT) and the Bounded Generalized Reciprocity Hypothesis (BGR) for explaining in-group cooperation in real social groups. While most previous investigation on real social groups has found support for SIT, confirmatory evidence for BGR remains limited. We conducted a vignette experiment in which reciprocity was manipulated by controlling knowledge of group membership. The participants were 117 undergraduate students who were baseball fans. To control expectation of reciprocity in the experiment, we asked participants to imagine scenarios where they helped others who wore either the same baseball team T-shirts as they did or plain T-shirts. Consistent with BGR, participants tend to cooperate with in-group members when both they and their partner knew that they might be supporters of the same team. On the other hand, participants showed in-group cooperation even when only they knew their partner’s group membership. This finding coincided with SIT. These results thus further verified the theoretical validity of both SIT and BGR in real social groups.
著者
縄田 健悟 山口 裕幸
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, no.3, pp.167-177, 2011
被引用文献数
1

When an outgroup member's behavior proves harmful for an ingroup member, a member of the victim's group sometimes retaliates against a member of the perpetrator's group. This phenomenon is called intergroup vicarious retribution. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect on intergroup vicarious retribution of being observed by ingroup members (ingroup audience effect). In this study, we allowed the winner of a one-on-one match to impose a fine on the loser in order to manipulate and measure aggression. It was found that participants imposed a bigger fine on an outgroup member when observed by ingroup members than when they were not. Path analysis revealed that being observed by ingroup members has an effect on the fine imposed on the outgroup member through expected admiration from ingroup members and the motivation of retaliation only in the condition of being informed about harm. Being observed by ingroup members enhances the expectations of gaining admiration from ingroup members and intergroup vicarious retribution occurs to a higher degree. The findings of this study suggest that intra-group processes, such as being observed by ingroup members, escalate intergroup conflict.
著者
中谷内 一也 島田 貴仁
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.1, pp.34-44, 2008

The purpose of the present study was to compare the perceived risk of crimes between the lay public and experts. A hypothesis of the lay public's risk perception was deduced using the weight function of prospect theory. It was expected that the lay public would overestimate the number of personal injury crimes, which are statistically low, and underestimate the number of property crimes, which are statistically higher. Experts, on the other hand, were expected to correctly estimate the number of crimes in each category. One hundred and sixty undergraduate students and 259 police officers estimated an average annual number for each of 18 crimes. The results supported the hypothesis, revealing that the public overestimated the number of personal injury crimes, which rarely occur, and underestimated the number of property crimes, which occur frequently. Implications of these results for experts and how they communicate with the lay public regarding crime prevention were discussed.
著者
杉谷 陽子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.3, pp.234-244, 2007
被引用文献数
2

The purpose of this study was to verify that people feel more at ease using Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) compared to other media because of higher self-presentation efficacy. The reason for this may be the lack of nonverbal cues in CMC: it can help people present themselves in a preferred way. To test this hypothesis, I conducted two experiments. The experimental hypothesis of Study 1 was as follows: when people strongly want to make a good impression on others, they feel it is easier to communicate without nonverbal cues than with them. Conversely, when people are unconcerned about the impression they make on others, the amount of nonverbal cues does not influence the level of ease that people feel. The results partially supported the hypothesis. In Study 2, I scrutinized the process of the phenomenon observed in Study 1. The model was: the lack of nonverbal cues in CMC raises self-presentation efficacy, therefore, people feel more at ease during CMC. The result of path analysis significantly supported this assumption.
著者
小林 哲郎 池田 謙一
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.1, pp.58-71, 2006

The development of social capital in an online community was investigated by creating survey data of online game players. The results showed that the frequency of collective communication, the homogeneity of members, and the openness of the online community had positive effects on trust, while the size of community and community hierarchy had negative effects. This shows that participation in online communities can create social capital. Furthermore, the results showed that online social capital influences real-life behavior. For example, reciprocity online facilitated offline social participation, even after controlling for offline social capital and other real-life determinants. These results demonstrate the positive contribution of collective online communication to a democratic social system.
著者
下村 英雄 堀 洋元
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.20, no.2, pp.93-105, 2004
被引用文献数
1

This study investigated the uses and impacts of information sources, such as web sites, alumni and friends, during college student job hunting. Forty-nine college students (27 males, 22 females) were surveyed longitudinally regarding the information they sought for. This information was categorized into four types: company characteristics, company impression, job hunting methods, and self during job hunting. Results showed that there was a specific information medium that enabled the participants to acquire the required information easily. In particular, participants indicated that the information obtained from alumni was useful, as well as generally fruitful. However, web sites and friends were not particularly effective information sources with regard to obtaining desired results.
著者
岩谷 舟真 村本 由紀子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.31, no.2, pp.101-111, 2015-11-30 (Released:2015-12-17)
参考文献数
19
被引用文献数
2

The present study aimed to examine the antecedent conditions of pluralistic ignorance and its consequences, especially on individuals’ micro processes. Japanese college students participated in a laboratory experiment and met their partners in another room, these actually being confederates. They were asked to do some choice tasks regarding their preferences of gummy candy flavors. Next, they were led to believe that their partners made choices identical to theirs, and estimated the partners’ preferences. They were then asked to choose one flavor as a reward for themselves and their partners, and to evaluate their preferences again. The result suggested a process of the occurrence and consequences of pluralistic ignorance as follows: (1) People tend to see the choices made by others as reflections of their preferences, even when their own identical choices are made to eliminate dislikable alternatives. (2) They tend to take action as group members to meet others’ preferences, even when those are different from their own preferences. (3) When confronted with the inconsistency between their actions and preferences, people are motivated to justify their actions by changing their preferences.
著者
白岩 祐子 荻原 ゆかり 唐沢 かおり
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.1, pp.41-50, 2012

The present study examined the determinants of the sentencing decision for a fictional murder case in which a member of the victim's family participates. Previous research indicates that people see others as more influenced by a victim's statements than themselves, and we focused on whether this asymmetric cognition makes the sentence more lenient or not. The scenario experiment targeting 147 undergraduate students revealed that the majority of participants viewed others as more affected by the victim's statements, and further found that this asymmetric cognition tended to restrain punishment. Attitudes against the victim participant system lead to denying the impact on the self. These results could support the idea that negative attitudes toward the victim participant system have punishment control through asymmetric cognition. Previous studies concerning judicial decisions focused on the assumption that victim participation arouses the judges' compassion towards the victims, resulting in more uncompassionate sentences for the defendant. On the other hand, this study suggests that victim participation could result in a lenient sentence for the defendant.
著者
趙 善英 松本 芳之 木村 裕
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.1, pp.1-12, 2011

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of recalled parental childrearing behaviors on self-esteem in Japanese and South Korean undergraduate students from the viewpoints of behavior analysis. The participants were 201 Japanese students and 206 Korean students. The results showed that the more they recalled that their parents spoke positively about their relatives to others and the more they recalled that they were praised by their parents when they spoke positively about their relatives to others of childhood, the more they were likely in both countries to speak positively about their relatives to others. Furthermore, they were more likely to have high self-esteem. The results also showed that the larger the difference between present self-evaluation and self-evaluation spoken to others, the lower the self-esteem in Japan. On the other hand, the more they had experience of being praised and the more they recalled that they were praised by their parents when they spoke positively about their relatives to others of childhood, the higher the self-esteem in Korea.
著者
小杉 素子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.3, pp.151-160, 2012

This study clarifies why information providers conceal risk information in a continual relationship with asymmetric information, even though it possibly causes damage to the provider in long-term interaction. In an experiment, participants were divided into pairs of "provider" and "receiver," and they interacted repeatedly. The results of the experiment were as follows, (1) Information asymmetry possibly elicited risk aversion in receivers, and the providers' expectation of the degree of this risk aversion influenced the behavior of the providers. (2) Concealing risk information generated benefit as long as the receivers did not detect it, but once they learned of it, they became more risk averse and decreased trust in the provider. The providers, however, did not change their behavior, continuing to conceal the risk information instead of becoming honest. These results suggest certain circumstances in which concealing risk information might benefit providers in the short term and could prevent damage caused by a receiver's risk-averse behavior in the long term.
著者
敷島 千鶴 平石 界 安藤 寿康
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.1, pp.48-57, 2006

With the twin method, we tested the theory of general trust. Among data collected on 1,040 twins, data from 328 pairs of identical twins and 103 pairs of same-sex fraternal twins were analyzed to examine genetic and environmental influences on the general trust level. A univariate genetic analysis showed that genetic factors and nonshared environmental factors accounted for 36% and 64% of the phenotypic variance of general trust respectively, while shared environmental factors did not contribute to it. This supports the argument that the general trust level is set responding to individual social circumstances, not by familial circumstances. A substantial degree of correlation between general trust and extraversion suggested that high trusters were more extraverted, which could support the emancipation theory of trust. Finally, a multivariate genetic analysis demonstrated that there is no genetic factor contributing specifically to general trust. All the genetic factors were shared by general trust and other personality traits, i.e., hostility, positive emotions, warmth, and altruism. The results suggested that heritability of general trust observed with the univariate analysis was a "reactive heritability" from personality traits. The implication of the data from the evolutionary psychological viewpoint is discussed.
著者
高田 利武
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.2, pp.140-163, 2008

The Japanese school lunch system is considered to be a product of the interdependent view of the self derived from Japanese culture, in the sense that it gives weight to children eating the same food at the same place as their peers in order to bring about a mutually close relationship. The latest form of school lunch is the so-called "interactive lunch," where children have lunch with not only their peers but also with the principal, teachers, office staff, and even sometimes with residents of the school area. In the present study, three surveys of schoolchildren were conducted to clarify the effects of the interactive school lunch on their cognition and attitude toward school lunch. It was found that children provided with an interactive lunch generally showed a more favorable attitude to school lunch than their counterparts who were not so provided, and that these effects of an interactive lunch depend on the length of the period for which the service continues. It was also suggested that children internalize an interdependent view of the self through their experiences of school lunch.
著者
元吉 忠寛 高尾 堅司 池田 三郎
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, no.3, pp.209-220, 2008
被引用文献数
3

This study examined factors which influence the extent to which citizens prepare for natural disasters. A questionnaire-based survey was administered to residents (N=849) living in the greater Nagoya area. The items were devised to probe for residents' attitudes toward disaster preparedness, perceived flood and seismic risk, their commitment to the community, and concerns about society. The study revealed that both household and community disaster preparedness were affected by the individual's subjective norm regarding preparation, the perceived benefit of protective courses of action, and general concern about natural disasters. Commitment to the community and concerns about society were the only strong predictors of community-based disaster preparedness. By contrast, perceived flood and seismic risks were weak predictors.
著者
稲増 一憲 池田 謙一
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, no.1, pp.42-52, 2009
被引用文献数
1

This research combines the quantitative content analysis of election coverage and survey data analysis to demonstrate the effect of TV shows on democratic politics in Japan. First, we classified 31 private TV shows into two categories-"hard news" and "soft news"-via the quantitative content analysis of coverage of the 2007 election. Secondly, we examined the effects of the programs on interest in the 2007 election as well as political involvement using the Asian barometer 2/CSES3 dataset. The results show that: 1) exposure to "hard news" positively correlated with interest in the election as well as political involvement, 2) exposure to "soft news" had a positive correlation with interest in the election only among less-informed people. This study reveals the importance of quantitative content-based classification to distinguish the particular effects of TV shows on democratic politics in response to diversifying forms of political news coverage.
著者
大薗 博記 森本 裕子 中嶋 智史 小宮 あすか 渡部 幹 吉川 左紀子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, no.1, pp.65-72, 2010
被引用文献数
2

How do we come to trust strangers? Previous studies have shown that participants trust smiling faces more than they trust nonsmiling faces. In daily communication, both facial and linguistic information are typically presented simultaneously. In this context, what kind of person will be judged as more trustworthy? In our experiment, 52 individuals participated as donors in a Trust Game involving many partners. Prior to the game, participants were shown photographs of their partners' faces (smiling/nonsmiling) as well as answers to questions indicating their partners' level of trustworthiness (neutral/somewhat trustworthy/trustworthy). Participants then decided how much money to give to each partner. The results showed that more trust was placed in partners providing trustworthy answers than in those providing neutral answers. Smiling female partners were trusted more than nonsmiling female partners. In addition, smiling partners were less trusted than nonsmiling partners only when the answers were trustworthy. These results suggest that individuals displaying too many signs of trustworthiness can actually be viewed with distrust.
著者
高木 大資 辻 竜平
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.3, pp.189-199, 2009

In this study, we focused on the effect of the information of others' memories and of the delay of recognition on conformable eyewitness memories to others. A2 (delay: no delay vs. one week) ×2 (experimental group vs. control group) experimental design was employed (both factors were between-subjects variables), and experiments were carried out by four participants per session (a total of 85 participants). First, in a recognition task about a video clip, participants in the experimental group were shown "false responses by others." After that, participants undertook a similar recognition task and a Remember/Know judgment task about these items. As a result, the participants that took the task after one week showed a higher conformity response rate to the false responses others' than participants that took the task immediately after encoding. Moreover, the participants in the experimental group showed a higher Remember-judgment rate in wrong answers than participants in the control group. These results suggest that even though testimony taken from an eyewitness group may be concrete and clear, it is possible that it does not reflect his/her true experience exactly.