著者
池内 裕美 藤原 武弘 土肥 伊都子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.16, no.1, pp.27-38, 2000

"Extended self" is defined as "the aggregation of all obiects that people regard as a part of themselves; for example, their body parts, parents, friends, pet animals, job, social roles, etc." The purposes of this study were 1) to investigate the emotional reaction of involuntary loss of the extended self, that is, "material possessions" and 2) to examine the structure of "extended self" and its relation to the values attached to the possessions. We collected samples from the victims of the 1995 Hanshin Earthquake (209 university students) and the 1994 Northridge Earthquake (87 university students). The questionnaire asked them to describe what kind of favorite possessions they lost, the emotions when they lost them, the values they attached to the possessions and to what extent they regarded the external objects as a part of themselves. The results showed both similarities and differences between the victims of two earthquakes. The main findings were as follows: 1) Most victims of both earthquakes showed a similar emotional reaction, that is, "sadness" to the loss of important possessions. 2) For the values they attached to their lost possessions, "functional value," "emotional value," "self-presentational value," and "symbolic value of relationship" were extracted. 3) The more emotional value the victims of the Hanshin Earthquake gave to their possessions, on the other hand, the more self-presentational value the victims of the Northridge Earthquake gave to their possessions, the more the victims of both earthquake regarded their possession as a part of extended self.
著者
川西 千弘
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, no.3, pp.221-232, 2008

This study investigated how the mind state of a discloser, when self-disclosure of negative contents occurred, might vary with the acceptance or rejection of the recipient, the intimacy of the discloser and the recipient, and the self-esteem of the discloser. A questionnaire investigation using the "scene-assuming" method was conducted among 134 women university students. The main results were as follows; (1) The mind state of the discloser was positive when the recipient was accepted rather than refused; (2) In many dimensions, such as "impression aggravation concern," irrespective of acceptance or rejection, the discloser's mind state when the recipient was the best friend was more positive than in cases where the recipient was just an acquaintance. But in terms of difference from self-disclosure immediately to feedback by the recipient, the discloser's mental damage as a result of rejection was more serious when incurred by the best friend than by an acquaintance; (3) In a dimension such as "waning confidence" or "mutual trust of the future," the mind state of low self-esteem disclosers was more negative than that of high self-esteem disclosers, regardless of acceptance or rejection by the recipient.
著者
中島 誠 吉田 俊和
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.2, pp.98-107, 2008

This research investigated the motives behind helping and exploitive behaviors from the perspective of the Equity with the World (EwW) hypothesis, which claims that people will maintain equity in trans-relational relationships. It was hypothesized that (a) people redress inequity even from third parties, and (b) in comparison with monetary issues, when the exchange resource involves helping out, over-rewarded people offer more resources to others, while the under-rewarded are less likely to exploit others. In addition, (c) people redress inequity more strongly with interested parties. A total of 343 college students completed a questionnaire that contained two hypothetical situations. In each of these situations, respondents were initially either given resources, or had resources exploited from them, and were then asked about subsequent situations. The evaluation of the first interaction and their intent toward offering resources to third parties were assessed. The results generally supported the hypotheses. However, the second hypothesis was not supported. They were less exploitive when they were under-rewarded regarding money allocation. Differences in the method of restoring inequity regarding the resources were discussed in terms of generalized exchange.
著者
相馬 敏彦 浦 光博
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, no.2, pp.131-140, 2010

Romantic partners often consider their relationship to be distinct from their other relationships. Moreover, it has been shown that this perceived distinctiveness promotes cooperative orientation while individually suppressing uncooperative orientation. How does this perceived distinctiveness of romantic partners affect their adaptation? We conducted a panel survey on two hundred and eighty-five married and unmarried partners. Path analysis and supplemental analyses revealed the working of two independent processes. In one process, the more distinct romantic partners perceive their relationship to be, the more cooperative orientation they can have and the less they suffer violence at the hands of their partner. In the other process, it was found that the more distinct romantic partners perceive their relationship to be, the less uncooperative orientation they can have and the more they suffer violence at the hands of their partner. Further, from the results obtained from this study, we discuss the originality of this study and prevention policies related to domestic violence.
著者
田戸岡 好香 村田 光二
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, no.1, pp.46-56, 2010

Suppressing stereotypical thoughts ironically leads to a rebound effect (i.e., an increase in the accessibility of the stereotypes after suppression). Past research has shown that using the counter-stereotypes (e.g., that the elderly are competent) as replacement thoughts was not successful in diminishing the rebound effect. In this research, based on the stereotype content model, we hypothesized that on suppressing one dimension of the stereotype (i.e., incompetence) another dimension (i.e., warmth) could be an effective and practical replacement. Specifically, we tested whether participants who suppressed the incompetence-related aspects of elderly stereotypes would diminish the rebound if they used warmth-related aspects of the elderly as a replacement. Experiment 1 confirmed the rebound effect after suppressing incompetence-related aspects of the elderly, and experiments 2 and 3 examined the effect of the thought-replacement strategy. On suppressing incompetence of the elderly, participants who focused on warmth-related aspects decreased the rebound effect compared to those who focused on the counterstereotypes. We discussed the efficacy of using another dimension of stereotypes to prevent the rebound effect.
著者
具志堅 伸隆 唐沢 かおり
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.2, pp.155-164, 2006

Past research based on the unrelated-affect paradigm has demonstrated that distinct emotions exert specific influences on cognition (e.g., Keltner, Ellsworth, & Edwards, 1993). This study investigated the effects of anger or fear on the perceived persuasiveness of an unrelated statement. Under anger, fear, or neutral conditions, participants read two statements, one critical and the other threatening, regarding a bad debt situation. The participants then made judgments about the pursuasiveness of these statements. As predicted, anger enhanced the persuasiveness of the critical statement by increasing the tendency to think that justice had been violated, whereas fear enhanced the persuasiveness of the threatening statement by increasing the tendency to think there would be negative repercussions. These results suggest that emotions increase the persuasive impact of affect-arousing communication by producing specific cognitive tendencies.
著者
樋口 収 桑山 恵真
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, no.3, pp.178-187, 2011

According to Construal Level Theory, psychological distance (e.g., spatial distance) is an important determinant of how information will be processed. When the target message seems more proximal (vs. distant) to the recipient, people attend to a concrete message (vs. abstract information). We investigated the possibility that people showed more agreement in response to a concrete message (vs. abstract information) when the target is proximal (vs. distant). In Study 1, spatial distance was measured by asking participants how far the target was (from Japan). In Study 2, spatial distance was manipulated using a world map. Results were consistent with our hypothesis. The implications of these findings for psychological distance and persuasion are discussed.
著者
西田 公昭
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.9, no.2, pp.131-144, 1994
被引用文献数
1

This paper is intented as an investigation of process of belief-system change by means of a religious cult mind-control. This study analyzed the process by mainly using a questionnaire survey administrated to 272 persons of the cult exiters, with content analysis of text books of the dogma, videotapes of the dogma, recruiting manual, seminar's manuals and interviews to exiters from the religious cult supplementary used. It should be concluded from the analysis that the cult recruiters take advantage of camouflaged religious recruiting, interpersonal attraction, group attraction, personal and social reality operations for recruiter's mind control. In the process, to begin with, the recruiter are attracted by the recruiter's warm regard and they begin to learn the dogma without knowing that it is a religious recruiting. As the next step, recruiter come to believe the dogma through influence of reality operation and interpersonal attraction. And finally, the recruiters tell the truth of their own group to the recruiters and ask them to be the members of the group.
著者
村上 幸史
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.21, no.2, pp.133-146, 2005

It has been said that the reason why fortune telling in popular magazines (for women) is seen to "come true" derives from the authoritarian personality of the reader combined with the Barnum effect given by the text. However, past research had focused mostly on fortune telling of a personal character, and very few studies have been carried out which investigate matters of luck or fortune itself. The aim of this research is to investigate how people come to believe that a particular instance of fortune telling has actually "come true", focusing on the use of a "determination view of fate" as a descriptive style of text, and paying attention to both the presentation of material and the reader's cognition process, in four different studies. The "determination view of fate" is described as not varying no matter how readers act; it is something that readers accept as a set of values. For the purposes of this research, using the fortune telling descriptions in women's magazines, a line was drawn between cases in which the reader actually judged the contents as "likely to come true" (predictions) and those that actually "come true"(results), and the contents were analyzed. Consequently, among those who believed the prophecy at the stage of prediction and later judged it to have "come true, " certain structures of a self-fulfilling nature were seen to be held in common. In the light of the contents of the text, both negative and other contents described as nonvariable "fortune" contents were judged to have "come true." Although it can be concluded that, based on such results, fortune telling was recognized as actually dealing in "fortune, " it is conjectured that it evokes in the reader a feeling of hitting the mark through a revelation of fate. The reason why negative contents "come true" is discussed from the viewpoints of memory and content evaluation. The study indicates that those who believe in fortune telling do not do so because of authoritarianism, but rather because of flexible interpretation.
著者
中西 大輔 横田 晋大
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.31, no.3, pp.193-199, 2016-03-18 (Released:2016-03-28)
参考文献数
23

Using evolutionary simulation, Yokota and Nakanishi (2012) have shown that majority syncing (generalized tit-for-tat strategy) is an adaptive strategy in intergroup conflict situations. When intergroup conflict is mild, agents who cooperate with ingroup members and ensure their behavior conforms to other members’ cooperation rates facilitate cooperation in their own group. This finding is supported by multi-group selection theory and by cultural group selection theory. However, this model addresses only majority-syncing as a social influence strategy. The current study introduced a minority-syncing strategy to Yokota and Nakanishi’s (2012) model. There were four conditions: Majority-syncing (agents conformed to the majority, but not to the minority), no conformity (agents did not conform), minority-syncing (agents conformed to the minority, but not to the majority), and mixed (both majority- and minority-syncing strategies were used). Computer simulation revealed that the cooperation rate decreased when minority-syncing was introduced. The cooperation rate of the no-conformity condition was higher than of both the minority and the mixed conditions. We discuss the implications of minority-syncing.
著者
竹中 一平 落合 萌子 松井 豊
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.33, no.3, pp.135-148, 2018-03-25 (Released:2018-03-25)
参考文献数
34

In modern society, the filtering of illegal or harmful content on the Internet is necessary for the healthy development of young people. However, the mental damage that Internet filtering workers may suffer has been overlooked. We examined occupational stress and related factors among Internet filtering workers in Japan. Workers (N=160) in a company providing a web-content filtering service completed a questionnaire. The percentage of all respondents with high-risk Impact of Event Scale Revised (IES-R) scores was 10.4% and with high-risk General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) scores was 47.0%. These results indicated that rates of mental damage among Internet filtering workers were as high as those of firefighters and journalists. IES-R and GHQ-12 scores were used as the dependent variables in the quantification method (Type 1). The results showed that these scores related to stress responses in the aftermath of witnessing traumatic illegal or harmful content, emotional empathy, and so on.
著者
藤 桂 吉田 富二雄
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, no.2, pp.121-132, 2009-11-30 (Released:2017-02-20)
被引用文献数
3

The relationship of Internet behavior to sociability and aggression in real life was investigated in a web-based survey. Weblog users (n=395) and online-game users (n=206) were asked to respond to questionnaires that included their behavior on the Internet, as well as to scales that measured real-life sociability, aggression, and social isolation. Results indicated that Self-reflection on weblogs and Feeling of Belonging during online-games related to enhancement of sociability. By contrast, Internet behavior such as flaming, as well as immersive and addictive use, related to decrease of sociability and increase of aggression regardless of the type of application that was used. These findings suggest that the effects of weblogs and online-games use depend on the type of behavior, as well as the types of application, that are used. It is also suggested that social isolation in real life decreased sociability through immersive and addictive use, and increased aggression through flaming.
著者
三浦 麻子 小林 哲郎
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.0932, (Released:2016-09-12)
参考文献数
20
被引用文献数
3

This study focuses on “satisficing” (answering behaviors in which participants do not devote appropriate attentional resources to the survey (Krosnick, 1991)) in an online survey and aims to investigate, via various indices, to what extent these behaviors are observed among students whose participation was solicited by the researchers in their universities. This study also aims to explore effective techniques to detect individuals who show satisficing tendencies as efficiently and accurately as possible. Online surveys were carried out at nine universities. Generally speaking, the predictive capability of various types of detection indices was not high. Though direct comparison with online survey panels was impossible because of differences in measurement methodology, the satisficing tendencies of university students were generally low. Our findings show that when using university students as samples for a study, researchers need not be “too intent” on detecting satisficing tendencies, and that it was more important to control the answering environment, depending on the content of the survey.
著者
戸谷 彰宏 中島 健一郎
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.33, no.2, pp.84-92, 2017-12-25 (Released:2017-12-25)
参考文献数
19

Our purpose is to examine the affect-free claim in terror management theory. Lambert et al. (2014) reported findings that disconfirm the claim that mortality salience (MS) manipulation does not produce any changes in self-reported affect including negative affect, which is the affect-free claim. As a conceptual replication of their findings, we conducted three studies to examine whether MS manipulation influences self-reported mood. Participants in Study 1 were college students, while Studies 2 and 3 included individuals in their 20s and 50s who were recruited using a web survey. Multiple-choice questions (Studies 1 and 2) and open-ended questions (Study 3) were used as experimental manipulation. Through these three studies, it was shown that MS manipulation elevated negative mood regardless of the experimental manipulation type and participants’ age. In these studies, participants did not demonstrate a cultural worldview defense. Results suggest that we should reconsider the affect-free claim in terror management theory.
著者
石井 国雄 沼崎 誠
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.31, no.1, pp.25-34, 2015-08-31 (Released:2015-09-09)
参考文献数
37

It has been consistently demonstrated that self-threat induces automatic prejudice. The present study investigated whether men would not exhibit automatic prejudice even in the self-threat condition if the gender category was not salient. We manipulated the salience of the gender category and the threat to self-worth, and then measured automatic gender prejudice with an evaluative priming task. Our results showed that when the gender category was salient, men in the self-threat condition automatically inhibited activation of positive concepts by the woman prime compared with those in the non-threat condition. In contrast, such an effect did not emerge when the gender category was not salient. Hence, when the salience of the ingroup–outgroup category is decreased, men do not exhibit automatic prejudice even under self-threat.
著者
宮崎 弦太 矢田 尚也 池上 知子 佐伯 大輔
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.33, no.2, pp.61-72, 2017-12-25 (Released:2017-12-25)
参考文献数
18
被引用文献数
2

This study investigated the determinants of exchange anxiety in close relationships—generalized worries that one’s partner will replace him/her with a more suitable person. We hypothesized that exchange anxiety would increase when individuals compare themselves with others who are more competent (experiencing upward social comparisons), especially in environments where they cannot easily find alternative relationships (environments with low relational mobility). By experimentally manipulating the type of social comparison, the results from Study 1 revealed that undergraduates (n=299) living in environments with low relational mobility felt stronger exchange anxiety when they experienced upward social comparison than downward social comparison. In Study 2, an online survey was conducted with a sample of adults living in either urban or rural areas (n=1000). The results showed that the frequency of upward social comparison was positively associated with exchange anxiety and that this tendency was moderated by the combined effect of relational mobility and trait self-esteem. These results suggest that the characteristics of one’s interpersonal environments affect the impact of the perceived risk of being replaced on exchange anxiety in one’s close relationships.
著者
橋本 剛
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.31, no.1, pp.35-45, 2015-08-31 (Released:2015-09-09)
参考文献数
38
被引用文献数
1

In general, the norm of reciprocity is assumed to be a facilitating factor in helping behavior. However, excessive help-seeking combined with insufficient contribution to others would be perceived as a selfish, free-riding deviation. To avoid this negative evaluation, people who feel they have a low sense of contribution (the subjective feeling of one’s contribution to others’ well-being) might be more reluctant to seek help. Thus, it was hypothesized that sense of contribution will be positively associated with help-seeking tendencies. It was also hypothesized that positive associations between sense of contribution and help-seeking will be amplified by recognition of the norm of reciprocity in groups; that is, greater pressure regarding the norm of reciprocity in groups means less help-seeking from those whose sense of contribution is low, and greater help-seeking from those whose sense of contribution is high. To examine these hypotheses, 500 Japanese adults completed an Internet survey regarding occupational relationships. Both hypotheses were supported.