著者
筒井 香 藤原 素子
出版者
日本スポーツ心理学会
雑誌
スポーツ心理学研究 (ISSN:03887014)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.41, no.2, pp.115-130, 2014-12-05 (Released:2015-04-14)
参考文献数
35

This research clarified the concrete contents of positive thinking and explored how positive thinking differs according to individual characteristics. Levels of trait anxiety and concerns about evaluation from others and the coaching environment, were defined as individual characteristics. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) for measuring trait anxiety was administered to a university male baseball team. Subsequently, one baseball player with high trait anxiety and one baseball player with low trait anxiety were interviewed. Semi-structured interviews focused on their thoughts during their baseball games and their individual characteristics. Interview data were transcribed verbatim and analyzed qualitatively. Positive thinking was classified according to eight patterns associated with the objects of attention, on 3 axes (emotional expression, body consciousness, and external concern), and the relationship between individual characteristics and positive thinking was considered. Greater trait anxiety and concern about evaluation from others seemed to indicate that self-control thinking contributed to performance. In contrast, when trait anxiety and concern about evaluation from others was lower, self-encouragement thinking was more likely to contribute to performance.
著者
栗林 千聡 佐藤 寛
出版者
Japanese Society of Sport Psychology
雑誌
スポーツ心理学研究 (ISSN:03887014)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.42, no.2, pp.93-102, 2015

The purpose of this study was to develop pilot evaluation of psychometric property of the Coach-Athlete Relationship Maintenance Questionnaire (CARM-Q) in Japanese junior tennis players and to examine its reliability and validity. The athlete version of CARM-Q was administered to 240 Japanese junior tennis players with a mean age of 15.7±1.3 years. Results of a confirmatory factor analysis replicated the factor structure found in the original version of the CARM-Q (Rhind and Jowett, 2012). Furthermore, it was suggested that the athlete version of CARM-Q had sufficient reliability and validity. The effects of the combination pattern of the coach-athlete dyad (athlete male/coach male, athlete male/coach female, athlete female/coach male, and athlete female/coach female) were tested via MANOVA using 7 subscales from the CARM-Q. Results revealed that the athlete male/coach female group was higher in Conflict management, Openness, and Motivational than the athlete male/coach male group. Additionally, the athlete female/coach male group revealed higher Motivational than the athlete male/coach male group. Future applications were also discussed regarding the CARM-Q as an assessment of the quality of the coach-athlete relationship in Japanese junior sport settings.
著者
冨永 哲志 豊田 則成 福井 邦宗
出版者
日本スポーツ心理学会
雑誌
スポーツ心理学研究 (ISSN:03887014)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.42, no.2, pp.51-65, 2015-09-30 (Released:2015-12-08)
参考文献数
42

The objective of this study was to qualitatively examine and conceptualize a model of the development of ability in the performance process. This qualitative research study was based on the research question, “How do performers narrate the process when they develop the ability to do something?” Data were collected observations and introspective reports from 8 performers who had learned to juggling for the first time and were analyzed using the Trajectory Equifinality Model.Results showed that performers slowly developed a sensuous understanding about the exercise task because they sought to perform better. Moreover, performers developed the ability to complete the task because of their improved sensuous understanding. That is to say, performers’ narration of the process of ability development reflects a qualitative shift resulting from an understanding of oneself through repeated “self-regulation”and “over-adjustment” .The following three points are also discussed: 1) The knack of ability development in performance, 2) They were confronted with their personality implied at qualitative shift, 3) The meaning of “stagnant performance” during task achievement.
著者
北 一郎 大塚 友実 西島 壮
出版者
Japanese Society of Sport Psychology
雑誌
スポーツ心理学研究 (ISSN:03887014)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.37, no.2, pp.133-140, 2010 (Released:2010-10-08)
参考文献数
47
被引用文献数
4 2

It has been suggested that regular physical exercise is beneficial to not only physiological adaptation, but also psychological health through stress reduction, antidepressant / anxiolytic properties and improvement in mood. However, since exercise regimens have varied widely across experiments, the optimal form, intensity and duration of exertion for producing the maximal benefits of exercise have yet to be established. Recent neuroscience studies have shown that physical exercise could have a positive impact on the brain, raising the hypothesis that the beneficial effects of physical exercise on psychological health are due to morphological and functional adaptation in the brain, rather than physiological adaptation to physical exercise. For example, it has been shown that physical exercise results in increased neurogenesis or expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor as well as improved cognitive abilities or reduced stress-induced depressive behavior. Although evidence of the neural and behavioral benefits of physical exercise is accumulating, the influences of different regimens of physical exercise on the brain and behavior remain unclear. This issue aims to outline the effects of physical exercise on pathological conditions with a focus on mood disorders, including depression and anxiety, and consider the neural mechanisms of the antidepressant / anxiolytic effects of physical exercise.
著者
田中 美吏 柄木田 健太
出版者
日本スポーツ心理学会
雑誌
スポーツ心理学研究 (ISSN:03887014)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2018-1803, (Released:2019-02-06)
参考文献数
44

Wegner (1987) demonstrated that thoughts about white bears are facilitated by instructions not to think about white bears. This phenomenon is widely known as the ironic process theory, and it applies to cognitive tasks as well as motor tasks. Many studies have been conducted on ironic errors in the domain of motor performance. However, there are only a few old reviews providing a comprehensive understanding of this phenomenon. In this review of selected 17 articles, we classified these articles into experimental verification of ironic errors in motor performance, ironic errors when performing motor tasks under pressure, and mechanisms of ironic errors in motor performance in the viewpoints of attentional capacity and eye movement. We also reviewed articles reporting experimental verification of errors in the opposite direction (overcompensation), including the mechanisms of such errors. Finally, based on the results of the review, we have suggested the implications of ironic errors for future studies in sport psychology. This review is expected to provide a systematic understanding of applications of ironic processing theory in the domain of motor performance and contribute to future studies on this topic.
著者
佐々木 万丈 渋倉 崇行 今薗 由望
出版者
日本スポーツ心理学会
雑誌
スポーツ心理学研究 (ISSN:03887014)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.42, no.1, pp.23-34, 2015-03-31 (Released:2015-08-02)
参考文献数
32

The purpose of this study was to investigate cognitive appraisal of menstruation and menstrual symptoms (MMS) by female athletes in the competitive sports context, and to examine the relationships among the women’s cognitive appraisal of MMS, their interpersonal stress experiences in that environment, and their sports competitive trait anxiety. Female college athletes (n=188) aged 18 to 23 years (m=19.81, sd=1.32) completed three questionnaires: one consisting of cognitive appraisal questions created for this study; another made up of interpersonal stressor questions which they were asked to answer while competing during MMS; and a third relating to the trait anxiety scale for sports (Hashimoto et al., 1986). Factor analysis revealed two cognitive appraisal themes, “threat” and “controllability”, related to both menstruation and menstrual symptoms. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) revealed that the athletes experienced social stress in the competitive environment during MMS, strongly recognized “threat”, and felt it was difficult to handle MMS. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the athletes who showed high levels of cognitive anxiety about losing tended to recognize MMS as a threat to their performance. The results suggest that cognitive appraisal of MMS by female athletes is associated with interpersonal stress and is influenced by sports competitive trait anxiety.
著者
田中 輝海 水落 文夫
出版者
日本スポーツ心理学会
雑誌
スポーツ心理学研究 (ISSN:03887014)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.40, no.1, pp.43-57, 2013 (Released:2013-04-27)
参考文献数
38
被引用文献数
8

In the present study we aimed to confirm that no antagonistic relation exists in the expression between positive and negative affects in male university athletes, and to examine the relation of the positive affect in coping with an aggravating burnout tendency. The subjects for analysis were 456 male university athletes belonging to athletic clubs. We evaluated the positive and negative affects that were characteristic of these athletes by the Japanese version of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) scales. By making an inter-group comparison of the burnout tendency that was classified by the two affects evaluated by the Athletic Burnout Inventory, we obtained the following findings:1) It was confirmed that, even among male university athletes, the expressions of positive and negative affects did not show any mutually antagonistic relationship.2) It was suggested that the relation of the positive affect toward the aggravated burnout tendency acted in a suppressive manner.3) The athletes who usually had a higher level of the expression of negative affect were prone to rather show a suppressive effect from the positive affect upon the burnout tendency. This was observed for all the factors, such as a feeling of emotional exhaustion toward a sports event, a decrease in the individual sense of accomplishment, a lack of communication with his teammates, and a confused self-commitment to a sports event.
著者
来間 千晶 小川 茜 関矢 寛史
出版者
日本スポーツ心理学会
雑誌
スポーツ心理学研究 (ISSN:03887014)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2019-1814, (Released:2019-04-27)
参考文献数
35

The purpose of our study was (1) to clarify the elements and mechanisms of loss of spirit (LOS), and the ways to prevent LOS during competition, and (2) to identify the factors that prevent LOS. We interviewed 18 athletes and analyzed their interview transcripts by creating tags and categories. We divided the text of each transcript into text segments (tags) containing information about LOS or ways to prevent LOS. We then gathered tags with similar meanings and labeled the cluster of tags (categories) to briefly indicate the topic (Côté et al., 1993). Results revealed that the phenomenon of LOS had the following three phases: (1) cause of LOS (e.g., game situations, negative emotions), (2) condition of LOS (e.g., poor concentration, losing the will to fight, negative game situations), and (3) response after the game (e.g., undesirable result). The phenomenon of preventing LOS had the following five phases: (1) cause of nearly experiencing LOS (e.g., game situations, negative emotions), (2) condition of nearly experiencing LOS (e.g., decrease of concentration, losing the will to fight), (3) opportunity to prevent LOS (e.g., positive words and actions of others, heightening the fight), (4) condition after preventing LOS (e.g., improvement of performance, emergence of positive emotions), and (5) response after the game (e.g., evaluation of the game). Furthermore, a comparison of these phenomena revealed that LOS may be prevented by high levels of motivation before the game, positive words and actions of others, keeping the fight, reframing one’s thoughts, improving the game situations, and preserving stamina.
著者
河津 慶太 杉山 佳生 中須賀 巧
出版者
Japanese Society of Sport Psychology
雑誌
スポーツ心理学研究 (ISSN:03887014)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.39, no.2, pp.153-167, 2012 (Released:2012-11-23)
参考文献数
39
被引用文献数
11 3

The purpose of this article is to evaluate the collective efficacy of sport teams and to investigate whether the relationships among collective efficacy, the behavior of sportspersons during a game, and team performance differs depending on the type of sporting event. Hence, we developed and examined a scale of efficacy to measure the above relationships in the first part of the study and applied this instrument in the second part of the study. The results of the first part of the study indicated that our scale consisted of 10 items with one common factor and had internal consistency, stability, construct validity, and criterion-related validity. In the second part of the study, we conducted a simultaneous analysis of several groups in order to investigate the above relationships. The results showed that the relationships among collective efficacy, the behavior of sportspersons during a game, and team performance differed depending on the type of sporting event. From these results, we inferred that the impact of different sporting events should be considered while examining the effects of collective efficacy on team performance.
著者
江田 香織 伊藤 正哉 杉江 征
出版者
Japanese Society of Sport Psychology
雑誌
スポーツ心理学研究 (ISSN:03887014)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.36, no.1, pp.37-47, 2009 (Released:2009-05-08)
参考文献数
31
被引用文献数
1 1

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of sense of authenticity (SOA) and contingent self-esteem (CSE) in college athletes' self-development on their mental health. University students (n =241) answered the sense of authenticity scale (SOAS) and the contingent self-esteem scale (CSES) administered as indicators of self-development, and the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28: somatic complaints, anxiety and insomnia, and severe depression). They were classified as athletes (n =156) or non-athletes (n =85). The results of examining the effect of SOA and CSE were as follows. SOA promoted the mental health in athletes and non-athletes. CSE promoted anxiety and insomnia in athletes, but showed no effect on any subscales of the GHQ-28 in non-athletes. Almost no difference in CSE was seen between athletes and non-athletes, although SOA was higher in athletes than non-athletes. The effect of CSE on anxiety and insomnia among athletes did not disappear with the influence of SOA. It has been suggested that SOA and CSE are located at opposite poles conceptually. However, the commitment of athletes to the athletic setting was promoted by their self-worth contingent on sporting achievements, which lead to performance enhancement. This indicates that neither SOA nor CSE is necessarily located at opposite poles conceptually for athletes. These results suggest first the possibility that there are states of SOA and CSE characteristic to athletes, and second the need to consider self-development from both of SOA and CSE in relation to athletes.
著者
井田 博史 福原 和伸 高橋 まどか 石井 源信 井上 哲理
出版者
Japanese Society of Sport Psychology
雑誌
スポーツ心理学研究 (ISSN:03887014)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.37, no.1, pp.1-11, 2010 (Released:2010-04-15)
参考文献数
26
被引用文献数
3 2

The Cave Automatic Virtual Environment (CAVE), which is a computer-simulated 3D virtual reality (VR) system, is expected to provide sport learners with interactive and immersive learning materials. The purpose of this study was to reveal perceptual characteristics of tennis players when they viewed the tennis ball flight reconstructed in CAVE. The visual stimuli of this study were reconstructed based on the actual measured values of the tennis court and the ball flight. Perceptual performances, subjective impression scoring and shot type discrimination (flat, topspin and slice), were assessed by varying the conditions of three visual VR settings: binocular disparity, screen number, and viewpoint. The augmented-disparity setting was likely to induce a higher sense of discomfort than the no-disparity and normal-disparity settings. The four-screen condition was more likely to induce a correct response than the one-screen condition. The viewpoint of the umpire induced a significantly higher sense of discomfort than the field player viewpoints, and the viewpoint close to the approaching ball made it more difficult to discriminate the shot type. This research was a pilot study on sport perception in VR, and the results will contribute to the construction of sport-simulating VR systems.
著者
松竹 貴大 實宝 希祥 門岡 晋 菅生 貴之 浅井 武
出版者
Japanese Society of Sport Psychology
雑誌
スポーツ心理学研究 (ISSN:03887014)
巻号頁・発行日
2016

Primary scientific data for evaluating information processing ability of the central nervous system that are associated with decision making was investigated in football players, by using event-related potentials (ERP; N200, P300) and reaction times. Participants were college football players who were winners of the all Japan university championship (n=8; Elites) and 8 graduate students with no football experience (n=8; Novices). They used an oddball paradigm consisting of a simple visual stimulus (Choice Reaction Task 1: CRT1) and an oddball paradigm consisting of a complex visual stimulus (Choice Reaction Task 2: CRT2). Results indicated that Elites had a significantly shorter reaction time than Novices in the CRT2. This finding corroborated many previous studies, and indicated that reaction times of Elites were faster than Novices. In addition, ERP (N200 and P300) was observed in all participants and there were no significant differences between the two groups in N200, or P300 latencies in the CRT1. However, Elites showed latencies that were significantly shorter than Novices in the CRT2. These results indicated that the process of evaluating and classifying stimuli was faster in Elites, suggesting that information processing ability of Elites was superior to Novices. In conclusion, this study identified basic scientific data on reaction times and ERP associated with evaluating information that are indicative of central nervous system processing ability associated with decision making by football players.
著者
林 晋子 土屋 裕睦
出版者
Japanese Society of Sport Psychology
雑誌
スポーツ心理学研究 (ISSN:03887014)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.39, no.1, pp.1-14, 2012 (Released:2012-04-27)
参考文献数
35
被引用文献数
4

Athletes alike continually endure stresses and pressures during the four-year preparation period between Olympic competitions. Olympians often need support for their psychological problems. However, athletes' experiences of such support have not been fully elucidated. This study clarified Olympian's experiences and psychological changes from their interview. In addition, according the result we discussed what kind of psychological supports Olympian needs in the future. We interviewed three, two time Olympic athletes, who did not achieve their Olympic goals and analyzed their experiences using the Trajectory Equifinality Model (TEM). Results showed that the athletes were influenced by social expectations, as well as by their relationship with coaches, teammates, and others. throughout Olympic campaigns. The results also revealed that there were psychological processes by events and the influences of society surrounding the athlete. Four characteristics of psychological support required by Olympic athletes were identified sequentially: (1) change of the competition environment, (2) surge of social attention, (3) environmental changes before the Olympics, and (4) giving meaning to the Olympics. The results also indicated that (3) and (4) were the most significant aspects of support.
著者
戸山 彩奈 松本 裕史 渋倉 崇行 幸野 邦男
出版者
日本スポーツ心理学会
雑誌
スポーツ心理学研究 (ISSN:03887014)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2019-1905, (Released:2019-12-28)
参考文献数
42

Using self-determination theory as a framework, the present study examined the effects of female college athletesʼ perceptions of controlling behaviors by coaches on their motivation toward sports. Specifically, this study examined whether basic psychological needs (satisfaction and frustration) mediated the relationships between perceived controlling coach behaviors and athletesʼ motivation. Female college student-athletes (N=243) completed questionnaires assessing perceived controlling coach behaviors, as well as their motivation (intrinsic motivation and amotivation) and perceptions of psychological need satisfaction and frustration. Structural equation modeling indicated support for a mediational effect. Specifically, the results indicated that controlling coach behaviors significantly predicted psychological need frustration, which, in turn, predicted amotivation. Therefore, it is suggested that controlling behaviors by coaches increase psychological need frustration and facilitate amotivation in female college athletes.
著者
藤井 紀之 中本 浩揮 幾留 沙智 畝中 智志 森 司朗
出版者
日本スポーツ心理学会
雑誌
スポーツ心理学研究 (ISSN:03887014)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.41, no.2, pp.93-103, 2014-12-05 (Released:2015-04-14)
参考文献数
33
被引用文献数
2

This study aimed to investigate whether individual differences in viewpoint (route or survey [bird's eye] view) while playing football are associated with mental rotation ability and domain-specificity. Seventeen varsity football players were assigned to Experienced and Non-Experienced survey view groups according to a questionnaire about their experiences with survey view while playing football. Three tasks were used to compare mental rotation and viewpoint switching ability between groups: a mental rotation task to assess the ability to operate upon visuospatial mental representations; a viewpoint switching task to assess the ability to switch viewpoint internally from route to survey view in response to non-domain-specific information (e.g., toysʼ configuration); and the complex task to assess the ability to switch viewpoint from route to survey view in response to domain-specific information (e.g., playersʼ configuration) and to operate upon visuospatial mental representations. There were significant between-group differences in response time for the mental rotation and complex tasks, but not in response accuracy for any tasks. This indicates that the experienced survey view group could quickly operate upon mental representations and switch viewpoints from route to survey view, but only in a domain-specific environment. Therefore, individual differences in viewpoint when playing football are associated with mental rotation ability and viewpoint switching ability in response to domain-specific information. More specifically, mental rotation ability and viewpoint switching is contingent upon domain-specific information for the attainment of survey view during football gameplay.
著者
雨宮 怜 金 ウンビ 稲垣 和希 坂入 洋右
出版者
日本スポーツ心理学会
雑誌
スポーツ心理学研究 (ISSN:03887014)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2019-1802, (Released:2019-07-04)
参考文献数
49

The relationship between mindfulness, psychological competitive abilities and mood states were investigated among Japanese university athletes.Athletes (N=233, 169 men and 64 women, mean age 18.51 years, SD=1.16) responded to a questionnaire package comprising the Athletes Mindfulness Questionnaire, the Diagnostic Inventory of Psychological Competitive Ability for Athletes 3 (DIPCA. 3), and the Japanese version of the Profile of Moods States short version (POMS).Results indicated that athletes with high compared to low mindfulness scores had higher scores for self-control, ability to relax, concentration, confidence, decision, judgment, as well as higher total DIPCA. 3, and lower score for total POMS scores. Furthermore, mediation analyses indicated direct and indirect associations between mindfulness and total mood disturbance through self-control and ability to relax skills of the DIPCA. 3.These results suggest that mindfulness is one predictor of psychological aspects of performance and mental health of athletes.
著者
有冨 公教 外山 美樹 沢宮 容子
出版者
日本スポーツ心理学会
雑誌
スポーツ心理学研究 (ISSN:03887014)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2013-1219, (Released:2013-09-18)
参考文献数
22
被引用文献数
3

Effect of self-talk on motor performance was investigated. High school and junior high school students (N=24) participated in the study. They performed 400 meter timing trials each week for two weeks, such that first week was the baseline trial, and second week was the intervention trial. After the first trial, participants were assigned to one of two groups based on their swimming times: self-talk group (positive self-statements) or control group (thought suppression). In each of two trials, the participants were instructed to swim as easily as possible. After completing each trial, they requested to fill out the questionnaire that asked about their thoughts and perceived exertion rate while swimming, as well as fatigue, anxiety, and depression after swimming. Results indicated no change in the perceived rating of exertion and fatigue among the groups between the two trials. However, the group assigned to self-talk swam significantly faster in the intervention, compared to the baseline trial. Moreover, depression score in the self-talk group decreased significantly after the intervention, in comparison to the baseline. These results show that positive self-statements influence mood and the emotional state, in addition to the physical state and its cognition. The findings of this study suggest the usefulness of using self-talk by participants who aim to improve movements and enhance their performance.
著者
竹内 竜也 幾留 沙智 森 司朗 石倉 忠夫 中本 浩揮
出版者
日本スポーツ心理学会
雑誌
スポーツ心理学研究 (ISSN:03887014)
巻号頁・発行日
2019

The purpose of the present study was to clarify the influence of individual differences in the automatic imitation tendency on efficiency in observational motor learning. First, twenty participants each having higher or lower automatic imitation tendency were chosen from 210 according to their reaction times in the imitation-inhibition task indicating automatic imitation tendency. Each group performed the observational motor learning that alternately repeated action observation and execution. The participants in each group were further divided into two groups: appropriate model group that observed a model performing the task correctly and inappropriate model group that observed a model performing the task incorrectly. Results revealed that when participants observed the appropriate model, people with higher imitation tendency demonstrated better task performance in the acquisition phase and retention test than did those with a lower imitation tendency. On the other hand, when the participants observed the inappropriate model, the higher imitation tendency group exhibited lower performance in the acquisition phase and the retention test than did the lower imitation tendency group. Additionally, the higher tendency group was more influenced by difference between the appropriate and inappropriate model than was the lower tendency group in learning efficiency. These findings indicate that individual differences in the automatic imitation tendency affect the learning efficiency and retention in observational motor learning. Further, automatic imitation is likely to have a strong influence on observational motor learning regardless of the learnersʼ intention.
著者
熊谷 史佳 門岡 晋 菅生 貴之
出版者
日本スポーツ心理学会
雑誌
スポーツ心理学研究
巻号頁・発行日
2018

Event-related potentials and reaction times were compared between athletes and non-athletes using a serial choice reaction task to obtain basic knowledge on cognitive information processing ability of athletes. Three sets of oddball tasks were conducted using visual stimuli that demanded complex assessments. The task was to raise the difficulty step by step from task 1 to 3. Results indicated that the P3 latency of the athlete group was shorter than that of the non-athlete group for all the tasks. Moreover, although the P3 amplitude of the athlete group had been amplifying from task 1 to 3, while the non-athlete group had been attenuated. There was also an interaction between the reaction times. Furthermore, there were no differences between the groups for the task 1, whereas there were differences for the task 2 and task 3, with the athlete group showing significantly shorter reaction times. The results of the reaction times and the P3 latency time obtained in this study indicated that the cognitive processing of stimuli was superior in the athlete group compared to the non-athlete group. Furthermore, athletes processed stimuli using fewer processing resources than non-athletes, which facilitates athletes to continue rapid information processing even in the case of tasks with increasing difficulty.
著者
松竹 貴大 實宝 希祥 門岡 晋 菅生 貴之 浅井 武
出版者
日本スポーツ心理学会
雑誌
スポーツ心理学研究 (ISSN:03887014)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.43, no.1, pp.1-13, 2016

Primary scientific data for evaluating information processing ability of the central nervous system that are associated with decision making was investigated in football players, by using event-related potentials (ERP; N200, P300) and reaction times. Participants were college football players who were winners of the all Japan university championship (n=8; Elites) and 8 graduate students with no football experience (n=8; Novices). They used an oddball paradigm consisting of a simple visual stimulus (Choice Reaction Task 1: CRT1) and an oddball paradigm consisting of a complex visual stimulus (Choice Reaction Task 2: CRT2). Results indicated that Elites had a significantly shorter reaction time than Novices in the CRT2. This finding corroborated many previous studies, and indicated that reaction times of Elites were faster than Novices. In addition, ERP (N200 and P300) was observed in all participants and there were no significant differences between the two groups in N200, or P300 latencies in the CRT1. However, Elites showed latencies that were significantly shorter than Novices in the CRT2. These results indicated that the process of evaluating and classifying stimuli was faster in Elites, suggesting that information processing ability of Elites was superior to Novices. In conclusion, this study identified basic scientific data on reaction times and ERP associated with evaluating information that are indicative of central nervous system processing ability associated with decision making by football players.