著者
筒井 香 藤原 素子
出版者
日本スポーツ心理学会
雑誌
スポーツ心理学研究 (ISSN:03887014)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.41, no.2, pp.115-130, 2014-12-05 (Released:2015-04-14)
参考文献数
35

This research clarified the concrete contents of positive thinking and explored how positive thinking differs according to individual characteristics. Levels of trait anxiety and concerns about evaluation from others and the coaching environment, were defined as individual characteristics. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) for measuring trait anxiety was administered to a university male baseball team. Subsequently, one baseball player with high trait anxiety and one baseball player with low trait anxiety were interviewed. Semi-structured interviews focused on their thoughts during their baseball games and their individual characteristics. Interview data were transcribed verbatim and analyzed qualitatively. Positive thinking was classified according to eight patterns associated with the objects of attention, on 3 axes (emotional expression, body consciousness, and external concern), and the relationship between individual characteristics and positive thinking was considered. Greater trait anxiety and concern about evaluation from others seemed to indicate that self-control thinking contributed to performance. In contrast, when trait anxiety and concern about evaluation from others was lower, self-encouragement thinking was more likely to contribute to performance.
著者
冨永 哲志 豊田 則成 福井 邦宗
出版者
日本スポーツ心理学会
雑誌
スポーツ心理学研究 (ISSN:03887014)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.42, no.2, pp.51-65, 2015-09-30 (Released:2015-12-08)
参考文献数
42

The objective of this study was to qualitatively examine and conceptualize a model of the development of ability in the performance process. This qualitative research study was based on the research question, “How do performers narrate the process when they develop the ability to do something?” Data were collected observations and introspective reports from 8 performers who had learned to juggling for the first time and were analyzed using the Trajectory Equifinality Model.Results showed that performers slowly developed a sensuous understanding about the exercise task because they sought to perform better. Moreover, performers developed the ability to complete the task because of their improved sensuous understanding. That is to say, performers’ narration of the process of ability development reflects a qualitative shift resulting from an understanding of oneself through repeated “self-regulation”and “over-adjustment” .The following three points are also discussed: 1) The knack of ability development in performance, 2) They were confronted with their personality implied at qualitative shift, 3) The meaning of “stagnant performance” during task achievement.
著者
田中 美吏 柄木田 健太
出版者
日本スポーツ心理学会
雑誌
スポーツ心理学研究 (ISSN:03887014)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2018-1803, (Released:2019-02-06)
参考文献数
44

Wegner (1987) demonstrated that thoughts about white bears are facilitated by instructions not to think about white bears. This phenomenon is widely known as the ironic process theory, and it applies to cognitive tasks as well as motor tasks. Many studies have been conducted on ironic errors in the domain of motor performance. However, there are only a few old reviews providing a comprehensive understanding of this phenomenon. In this review of selected 17 articles, we classified these articles into experimental verification of ironic errors in motor performance, ironic errors when performing motor tasks under pressure, and mechanisms of ironic errors in motor performance in the viewpoints of attentional capacity and eye movement. We also reviewed articles reporting experimental verification of errors in the opposite direction (overcompensation), including the mechanisms of such errors. Finally, based on the results of the review, we have suggested the implications of ironic errors for future studies in sport psychology. This review is expected to provide a systematic understanding of applications of ironic processing theory in the domain of motor performance and contribute to future studies on this topic.
著者
佐々木 万丈 渋倉 崇行 今薗 由望
出版者
日本スポーツ心理学会
雑誌
スポーツ心理学研究 (ISSN:03887014)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.42, no.1, pp.23-34, 2015-03-31 (Released:2015-08-02)
参考文献数
32

The purpose of this study was to investigate cognitive appraisal of menstruation and menstrual symptoms (MMS) by female athletes in the competitive sports context, and to examine the relationships among the women’s cognitive appraisal of MMS, their interpersonal stress experiences in that environment, and their sports competitive trait anxiety. Female college athletes (n=188) aged 18 to 23 years (m=19.81, sd=1.32) completed three questionnaires: one consisting of cognitive appraisal questions created for this study; another made up of interpersonal stressor questions which they were asked to answer while competing during MMS; and a third relating to the trait anxiety scale for sports (Hashimoto et al., 1986). Factor analysis revealed two cognitive appraisal themes, “threat” and “controllability”, related to both menstruation and menstrual symptoms. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) revealed that the athletes experienced social stress in the competitive environment during MMS, strongly recognized “threat”, and felt it was difficult to handle MMS. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the athletes who showed high levels of cognitive anxiety about losing tended to recognize MMS as a threat to their performance. The results suggest that cognitive appraisal of MMS by female athletes is associated with interpersonal stress and is influenced by sports competitive trait anxiety.
著者
田中 輝海 水落 文夫
出版者
日本スポーツ心理学会
雑誌
スポーツ心理学研究 (ISSN:03887014)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.40, no.1, pp.43-57, 2013 (Released:2013-04-27)
参考文献数
38
被引用文献数
8

In the present study we aimed to confirm that no antagonistic relation exists in the expression between positive and negative affects in male university athletes, and to examine the relation of the positive affect in coping with an aggravating burnout tendency. The subjects for analysis were 456 male university athletes belonging to athletic clubs. We evaluated the positive and negative affects that were characteristic of these athletes by the Japanese version of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) scales. By making an inter-group comparison of the burnout tendency that was classified by the two affects evaluated by the Athletic Burnout Inventory, we obtained the following findings:1) It was confirmed that, even among male university athletes, the expressions of positive and negative affects did not show any mutually antagonistic relationship.2) It was suggested that the relation of the positive affect toward the aggravated burnout tendency acted in a suppressive manner.3) The athletes who usually had a higher level of the expression of negative affect were prone to rather show a suppressive effect from the positive affect upon the burnout tendency. This was observed for all the factors, such as a feeling of emotional exhaustion toward a sports event, a decrease in the individual sense of accomplishment, a lack of communication with his teammates, and a confused self-commitment to a sports event.
著者
来間 千晶 小川 茜 関矢 寛史
出版者
日本スポーツ心理学会
雑誌
スポーツ心理学研究 (ISSN:03887014)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2019-1814, (Released:2019-04-27)
参考文献数
35

The purpose of our study was (1) to clarify the elements and mechanisms of loss of spirit (LOS), and the ways to prevent LOS during competition, and (2) to identify the factors that prevent LOS. We interviewed 18 athletes and analyzed their interview transcripts by creating tags and categories. We divided the text of each transcript into text segments (tags) containing information about LOS or ways to prevent LOS. We then gathered tags with similar meanings and labeled the cluster of tags (categories) to briefly indicate the topic (Côté et al., 1993). Results revealed that the phenomenon of LOS had the following three phases: (1) cause of LOS (e.g., game situations, negative emotions), (2) condition of LOS (e.g., poor concentration, losing the will to fight, negative game situations), and (3) response after the game (e.g., undesirable result). The phenomenon of preventing LOS had the following five phases: (1) cause of nearly experiencing LOS (e.g., game situations, negative emotions), (2) condition of nearly experiencing LOS (e.g., decrease of concentration, losing the will to fight), (3) opportunity to prevent LOS (e.g., positive words and actions of others, heightening the fight), (4) condition after preventing LOS (e.g., improvement of performance, emergence of positive emotions), and (5) response after the game (e.g., evaluation of the game). Furthermore, a comparison of these phenomena revealed that LOS may be prevented by high levels of motivation before the game, positive words and actions of others, keeping the fight, reframing one’s thoughts, improving the game situations, and preserving stamina.
著者
戸山 彩奈 松本 裕史 渋倉 崇行 幸野 邦男
出版者
日本スポーツ心理学会
雑誌
スポーツ心理学研究 (ISSN:03887014)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2019-1905, (Released:2019-12-28)
参考文献数
42

Using self-determination theory as a framework, the present study examined the effects of female college athletesʼ perceptions of controlling behaviors by coaches on their motivation toward sports. Specifically, this study examined whether basic psychological needs (satisfaction and frustration) mediated the relationships between perceived controlling coach behaviors and athletesʼ motivation. Female college student-athletes (N=243) completed questionnaires assessing perceived controlling coach behaviors, as well as their motivation (intrinsic motivation and amotivation) and perceptions of psychological need satisfaction and frustration. Structural equation modeling indicated support for a mediational effect. Specifically, the results indicated that controlling coach behaviors significantly predicted psychological need frustration, which, in turn, predicted amotivation. Therefore, it is suggested that controlling behaviors by coaches increase psychological need frustration and facilitate amotivation in female college athletes.
著者
藤井 紀之 中本 浩揮 幾留 沙智 畝中 智志 森 司朗
出版者
日本スポーツ心理学会
雑誌
スポーツ心理学研究 (ISSN:03887014)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.41, no.2, pp.93-103, 2014-12-05 (Released:2015-04-14)
参考文献数
33
被引用文献数
2

This study aimed to investigate whether individual differences in viewpoint (route or survey [bird's eye] view) while playing football are associated with mental rotation ability and domain-specificity. Seventeen varsity football players were assigned to Experienced and Non-Experienced survey view groups according to a questionnaire about their experiences with survey view while playing football. Three tasks were used to compare mental rotation and viewpoint switching ability between groups: a mental rotation task to assess the ability to operate upon visuospatial mental representations; a viewpoint switching task to assess the ability to switch viewpoint internally from route to survey view in response to non-domain-specific information (e.g., toysʼ configuration); and the complex task to assess the ability to switch viewpoint from route to survey view in response to domain-specific information (e.g., playersʼ configuration) and to operate upon visuospatial mental representations. There were significant between-group differences in response time for the mental rotation and complex tasks, but not in response accuracy for any tasks. This indicates that the experienced survey view group could quickly operate upon mental representations and switch viewpoints from route to survey view, but only in a domain-specific environment. Therefore, individual differences in viewpoint when playing football are associated with mental rotation ability and viewpoint switching ability in response to domain-specific information. More specifically, mental rotation ability and viewpoint switching is contingent upon domain-specific information for the attainment of survey view during football gameplay.
著者
雨宮 怜 金 ウンビ 稲垣 和希 坂入 洋右
出版者
日本スポーツ心理学会
雑誌
スポーツ心理学研究 (ISSN:03887014)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2019-1802, (Released:2019-07-04)
参考文献数
49

The relationship between mindfulness, psychological competitive abilities and mood states were investigated among Japanese university athletes.Athletes (N=233, 169 men and 64 women, mean age 18.51 years, SD=1.16) responded to a questionnaire package comprising the Athletes Mindfulness Questionnaire, the Diagnostic Inventory of Psychological Competitive Ability for Athletes 3 (DIPCA. 3), and the Japanese version of the Profile of Moods States short version (POMS).Results indicated that athletes with high compared to low mindfulness scores had higher scores for self-control, ability to relax, concentration, confidence, decision, judgment, as well as higher total DIPCA. 3, and lower score for total POMS scores. Furthermore, mediation analyses indicated direct and indirect associations between mindfulness and total mood disturbance through self-control and ability to relax skills of the DIPCA. 3.These results suggest that mindfulness is one predictor of psychological aspects of performance and mental health of athletes.
著者
有冨 公教 外山 美樹 沢宮 容子
出版者
日本スポーツ心理学会
雑誌
スポーツ心理学研究 (ISSN:03887014)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2013-1219, (Released:2013-09-18)
参考文献数
22
被引用文献数
3

Effect of self-talk on motor performance was investigated. High school and junior high school students (N=24) participated in the study. They performed 400 meter timing trials each week for two weeks, such that first week was the baseline trial, and second week was the intervention trial. After the first trial, participants were assigned to one of two groups based on their swimming times: self-talk group (positive self-statements) or control group (thought suppression). In each of two trials, the participants were instructed to swim as easily as possible. After completing each trial, they requested to fill out the questionnaire that asked about their thoughts and perceived exertion rate while swimming, as well as fatigue, anxiety, and depression after swimming. Results indicated no change in the perceived rating of exertion and fatigue among the groups between the two trials. However, the group assigned to self-talk swam significantly faster in the intervention, compared to the baseline trial. Moreover, depression score in the self-talk group decreased significantly after the intervention, in comparison to the baseline. These results show that positive self-statements influence mood and the emotional state, in addition to the physical state and its cognition. The findings of this study suggest the usefulness of using self-talk by participants who aim to improve movements and enhance their performance.
著者
竹内 竜也 幾留 沙智 森 司朗 石倉 忠夫 中本 浩揮
出版者
日本スポーツ心理学会
雑誌
スポーツ心理学研究 (ISSN:03887014)
巻号頁・発行日
2019

The purpose of the present study was to clarify the influence of individual differences in the automatic imitation tendency on efficiency in observational motor learning. First, twenty participants each having higher or lower automatic imitation tendency were chosen from 210 according to their reaction times in the imitation-inhibition task indicating automatic imitation tendency. Each group performed the observational motor learning that alternately repeated action observation and execution. The participants in each group were further divided into two groups: appropriate model group that observed a model performing the task correctly and inappropriate model group that observed a model performing the task incorrectly. Results revealed that when participants observed the appropriate model, people with higher imitation tendency demonstrated better task performance in the acquisition phase and retention test than did those with a lower imitation tendency. On the other hand, when the participants observed the inappropriate model, the higher imitation tendency group exhibited lower performance in the acquisition phase and the retention test than did the lower imitation tendency group. Additionally, the higher tendency group was more influenced by difference between the appropriate and inappropriate model than was the lower tendency group in learning efficiency. These findings indicate that individual differences in the automatic imitation tendency affect the learning efficiency and retention in observational motor learning. Further, automatic imitation is likely to have a strong influence on observational motor learning regardless of the learnersʼ intention.
著者
熊谷 史佳 門岡 晋 菅生 貴之
出版者
日本スポーツ心理学会
雑誌
スポーツ心理学研究
巻号頁・発行日
2018

Event-related potentials and reaction times were compared between athletes and non-athletes using a serial choice reaction task to obtain basic knowledge on cognitive information processing ability of athletes. Three sets of oddball tasks were conducted using visual stimuli that demanded complex assessments. The task was to raise the difficulty step by step from task 1 to 3. Results indicated that the P3 latency of the athlete group was shorter than that of the non-athlete group for all the tasks. Moreover, although the P3 amplitude of the athlete group had been amplifying from task 1 to 3, while the non-athlete group had been attenuated. There was also an interaction between the reaction times. Furthermore, there were no differences between the groups for the task 1, whereas there were differences for the task 2 and task 3, with the athlete group showing significantly shorter reaction times. The results of the reaction times and the P3 latency time obtained in this study indicated that the cognitive processing of stimuli was superior in the athlete group compared to the non-athlete group. Furthermore, athletes processed stimuli using fewer processing resources than non-athletes, which facilitates athletes to continue rapid information processing even in the case of tasks with increasing difficulty.
著者
松竹 貴大 實宝 希祥 門岡 晋 菅生 貴之 浅井 武
出版者
日本スポーツ心理学会
雑誌
スポーツ心理学研究 (ISSN:03887014)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.43, no.1, pp.1-13, 2016

Primary scientific data for evaluating information processing ability of the central nervous system that are associated with decision making was investigated in football players, by using event-related potentials (ERP; N200, P300) and reaction times. Participants were college football players who were winners of the all Japan university championship (n=8; Elites) and 8 graduate students with no football experience (n=8; Novices). They used an oddball paradigm consisting of a simple visual stimulus (Choice Reaction Task 1: CRT1) and an oddball paradigm consisting of a complex visual stimulus (Choice Reaction Task 2: CRT2). Results indicated that Elites had a significantly shorter reaction time than Novices in the CRT2. This finding corroborated many previous studies, and indicated that reaction times of Elites were faster than Novices. In addition, ERP (N200 and P300) was observed in all participants and there were no significant differences between the two groups in N200, or P300 latencies in the CRT1. However, Elites showed latencies that were significantly shorter than Novices in the CRT2. These results indicated that the process of evaluating and classifying stimuli was faster in Elites, suggesting that information processing ability of Elites was superior to Novices. In conclusion, this study identified basic scientific data on reaction times and ERP associated with evaluating information that are indicative of central nervous system processing ability associated with decision making by football players.
著者
米丸 健太 鈴木 壯
出版者
日本スポーツ心理学会
雑誌
スポーツ心理学研究 (ISSN:03887014)
巻号頁・発行日
2016

The psychological growth process in becoming an independent athlete, and how others influence this process through psychological counseling was investigated. Counseling was conducted for an athlete that had difficulties in enhancing her performance and complained, "I'm not sure what I am." The counseling continued for three years through 101 interviews. During counseling, she discussed issues related to her performance and how she reconsidered herself. As a result, she became able to take initiatives during competitions and with other people, and grew up to become an independent athlete. Moreover, her performance was enhanced. Analyzing the process of counseling indicated the following. (1) An athlete progresses and becomes independent in the process of attempting to solve performance issues. (2) An athlete that is dependent on the instructions of significant others become a separate individual during the counseling process and grow up to be an independent athlete: namely, the athlete experiences an internal death is reborn as an independent person by overcoming difficulties through trial and error. (3) Listening and understanding an athlete's mind-body experiences can support efforts, lead to new discoveries and to new insights. Ultimately, the athlete accomplishes changes in performance, as well as in personal relationships. These findings suggest that dialogues during counseling are significant for the psychological development and performance enhancements of athletes. These perspectives would help us to understand the process of psychological development in athletes and would be useful for providing future psychological support for athletes.
著者
鈴木 啓央 山本 裕二
出版者
日本スポーツ心理学会
雑誌
スポーツ心理学研究 (ISSN:03887014)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2013-1208, (Released:2013-06-20)
参考文献数
37
被引用文献数
1

The purpose of this study was to quantify human dexterity by examining the movement involved in switching between forehand and backhand strokes when a ball moved from side to the other during table tennis. The hitting movements of expert and novice table tennis players were observed when balls were repeatedly moving in the same direction (periodic input condition) and when they were moving in two different directions successively (switching input condition). From the viewpoint of the switching dynamical system (Gohara and Okuyama, 1999a), the repeated movement under the periodic input condition was treated as an attractor, and the switching movement between strokes under the switching input condition was treated as transition of attractors. The dexterity with which movement were completed was quantified in terms of the fractal dimension. The fractal dimension was calculated according to Poincaré maps depicting the trajectories of the midpoint and angular velocities at the shoulder. Data from experts and novices almost reflected transitions of the third-order sequence effect, and the fractal dimensions included non-integers, which indicate that these fractal transitions had fractal properties. However, the fractal dimension of experts was lower than that of novices. The two output patterns corresponding to the two input patterns overlapped more for novices than for experts. The results suggest that the dexterity shown in switching movements can be quantified in terms of the fractal dimension based on the switching dynamical system.
著者
竹内 高行 猪俣 公宏
出版者
日本スポーツ心理学会
雑誌
スポーツ心理学研究 (ISSN:03887014)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.39, no.1, pp.47-59, 2012 (Released:2012-04-27)
参考文献数
22
被引用文献数
1 1

The purpose of the present study was to examine visual search strategies employed by batters during a pitcher's pre-release motion. Eye movement, response time, and response accuracy were measured and analyzed while subjects were asked to observe images of pitches thrown by a pitcher edited using spatial occlusion techniques and to press a pushbutton switch when they decided to swing the bat. The results showed that the batters gazed at the pitcher's pitching wrist, elbow, and arm during the final period. When the pitcher's pitching arm was selectively occluded, the response time was significantly delayed compared with when the pitcher's other body parts were occluded. The findings suggest the importance of strategies for acquiring visual cues for batting by watching a pitcher's pitching arm during the final period. When the pitching wrist and wrist plus elbow were selectively presented during the final period, the response time was significantly delayed compared with when the pitcher's pitching wrist plus elbow plus arm, upper body, and lower body were shown. These results indicate that experts set their visual pivot on the pitcher's elbow and predict cues of the pitching arm from the whole pitcher's motion.