著者
岩佐 佳哉 熊原 康博
出版者
地理科学学会
雑誌
地理科学 (ISSN:02864886)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.75, no.3, pp.109-116, 2020-12-28 (Released:2021-01-26)
参考文献数
12

1945年9月に発生した枕崎台風は,広島県において明治以降に発生した災害の中で最も大きな被害をもたらしたが,その詳細は一部地域を除いて不明である。本研究では広島県東広島市を対象に,枕崎台風に伴って発生した土石流の分布を復元し,死者の分布と数を報告する。さらに,土石流の発生履歴を図示することの防災・減災における意義を示す。空中写真判読の結果,対象地域において811カ所で土石流が発生し,少なくとも13人の死者があったことが明らかになった。また,西日本豪雨の土石流分布と比較すると,2度の土石流の崩壊源は異なる谷に存在し,下流部ではこれらが集まることで土石流による被害を繰り返し受けてきたと考えられる。枕崎台風の土石流による被害を空中写真判読と水害碑や石仏,「学校沿革誌」を用いて復元し,西日本豪雨の土石流と重ねて図示した。これらは住民の防災・減災意識の向上に資する資料となりうると考える。
著者
杉山 和明
出版者
地理科学学会
雑誌
地理科学 (ISSN:02864886)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.63, no.4, pp.239-259, 2008-10-28

本稿の課題は,英語圏人文地理学における農村性と若者に関する研究の枠組みを援用しつつ,浜松都市圏東部に暮らす高校生を調査参加者として,かれらが日頃訪れるさまざまな場所についての語りを取り上げ,若者集団の主体的な行動を明らかにするとともに,それらの空間に対していかなる意味づけを行い,どのような場所感覚を抱くのかを考察することである。注目すべき調査結果として挙げられるのは以下の3点である。第一に,都市性/農村性の相対性の意識が認められ,都市性と農村性の対比が日常の場所感覚のなかで常に関係づけられていること,第二に,こうした都市性/農村性の意識をもたらす背景にあるのは,かれらの暮らす近隣住区に均質化された消費空間の進出が続いており,かれらにとって肯定的な意味が付与された場所となっていること,第三に,空間行動では男子高校生に比べて女子高校生の移動性が優位であり,学年による行動領域の階層が認められたことである。
著者
池田 尭弘
出版者
地理科学学会
雑誌
地理科学 (ISSN:02864886)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.76, no.4, pp.197-212, 2022-05-28 (Released:2022-05-31)
参考文献数
28

本稿は,石川県輪島市の「白米千枚田」を事例に,公的機関などによる保全に向けた支援や取り組みと,様々な立場の主体による水稲作の動向を分析することから,各主体の活動がどのように関わるなかで,「白米千枚田」が維持されてきたのかを明らかにした。その結果,「白米千枚田」は農業生産の場所という役割に加えて,様々な顕彰を受けることで文化財など様々な機能が追加され,農業体験の場所にもなっていた。こうした非農業者による農作業への参加は「白米千枚田」の維持に無視できないものとなっていた。しかし,「白米千枚田」での水稲作の継続に,文化財としての役割も加わることで,文化財としての評価対象の1つとなっていた「水稲作に関わる営為」の生産性の向上を阻むものとなっていた。このことは生産主義的な水稲作にとって障壁となり,水稲作の実施主体が農業者であろうと非農業者であろうと,「白米千枚田」を主たる収入を得る場所とさせにくくしていた。「白米千枚田」自体が商品として提供されることで,現時点では観光的利用による来訪者の増加などに寄与しているものの,喫緊の課題となる水稲作の継続には直接的に寄与していなかった。現行の保全を推進する体制では,若年層の農家が「白米千枚田」での水稲作を中心にした専業的経営をより成立させにくくなっていた。これは観光客や水稲作の当事者以外にはみえにくく,長期的に保全していく上での課題となっていた。
著者
成瀬 厚
出版者
地理科学学会
雑誌
地理科学 (ISSN:02864886)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.59, no.2, pp.98-114, 2004-04-28 (Released:2017-04-15)
参考文献数
56
被引用文献数
1

This paper consisted of two parts. In the first part, I overviewed some studies of histories of geography. These studies paid attentions to the linguistic figurations (trope, rhetoric and metaphor) of academic descriptions, and pointed out that the forms of the past geographical works deeply intertwined the contents as the academic insistences and that behind the adoption of the specific form, the particular ideological implication did existed. The aim of this paper was to apply these arguments to the popular geographic descriptions outside academy. Though these studies focused the texualities of historical works. I centered the smaller tropes as level of one sentence. This was caused by my interest what kind of role place name as a noun plays in a sentence grammatically, and by critical comments toward the arguments about tropes. These critical comments were that the explanations about metaphor were inevitably metaphorical, and that the ideas which metaphor is needed to express a new insight assumes the meaning of a word. The second part of this paper is an analysis of the popular geographical descriptions. The object of this study is the dty guide, Tokyo Sightseeing published by Japanese publisher, Magazine House Inc. in 2002. It has characteristics of magazine and tourist guide. This text which described Tokyo as a city in English and Japanese and supposed readers of foreigners in Japan was constituted from the lot of sentences. These sentences were that the names which ranged from proper to general referred the various geographical objects from state to city and to facilities. The word of place as a general name was used as a spot to do something concrete. Place names as proper name (Odaiba, Shibuya, Roppongi) were used the destination of public transportation and the area where the reader walks around. In these description of specific behavior, Tokyo as a word of city was not appeared. 0n the other hand, at the moment that the shocks the foreign tourist encountered transformed into the recognition of cultural differences, national cultures were appeared. As a notion of national culture has a different abstract level from cartographic recognition, it was used against the idea that the name of smaller geographical scale appears easily in the sentence which expresses our familiar behavior. Between place and national culture, the word, Tokyo situated a position of the title of this text as a proper name which is able to displace the word of city as a general name, and became a Mater-Signifier.
著者
小山 耕平 熊原 康博 藤本 理志
出版者
地理科学学会
雑誌
地理科学 (ISSN:02864886)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.72, no.1, pp.1-18, 2017-04-28 (Released:2018-08-19)
参考文献数
29

We examine characteristics of the stone monuments related to flood or debris flow disasters in Hiroshima prefecture based on official records of the past disasters, results of a field survey, and interviews with inhabitants living near the monuments.As a result, there are at least 40 monuments in Hiroshima prefecture in memory of 14 major disaster events dating from AD1831. Most of the monuments are distributed in and around the damaged area. There are located in local community centers, temples, and shrines, where the local people visit frequently.The contents of the inscriptions built during and before World War II, have had plentiful information related to the process of building the foundations of the monuments, and the details of disaster damage and restoration work. The contents inscribed on those monuments built after the war, have mainly implied sentiments about rest for the souls of disaster victims or memorial of restoration work.In conclusion, these monuments have the potential to inform local people about the exact area affected and the situation of past disasters for a long time. There are few cases where local people use the monuments for disaster prevention activities. Although there are currently few cases where local people use the monuments for disaster prevention activities, doing so would definitely prove to be advantageous.
著者
岡田 俊裕
出版者
THE JAPANESE SOCIETY FOR GEOGRAPHICAL SCIENCES
雑誌
地理科学 (ISSN:02864886)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.50, no.4, pp.233-249, 1995 (Released:2017-04-20)
参考文献数
89
被引用文献数
1

小田内通敏(1875-1954)は, 学生時代には史学研究を志向し, 社会学にも強い関心をもっていた。そのため彼の地理学研究は, それらの考察法を重視する傾向をもった。また, 新渡戸稲造(1862-1933)や「郷土会」を介して農政学・農業経済学・植物学などを吸収し, 地域地理学を住民の生業と生活に即して研究する素地が形成された。その最大の成果が社会経済地理学のモノグラフ『帝都と近郊』(1918)であり, 以後, 行政諸機関や企業の委嘱を受け, 朝鮮・満州・樺太・日本各地の集落・人口を社会経済地理学的に調査した。また彼は, このような地理学研究を普及させるための組織づくりにも尽力し, 1926年には地球学団や日本地理学会に対抗して人文地理学会を設立した。歴史学的・社会科学的考察を重視する小田内の学風は, 山崎直方(1870-1929)などの自然科学的な学風に対比される存在であった。しかし, 学界主流を占めた山崎の学風とは異なり, 当時の地理学界・地理教育界に充分波及したとは考え難い。大学の専任教員として地理学研究者の養成にたずさわることのなかった小田内は, その点で小川琢治(1870-1941)や石橋五郎(1876-1946)とも対照的であった。
著者
池内 長良
出版者
地理科学学会
雑誌
地理科学 (ISSN:02864886)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.49, no.4, pp.213-234, 1994 (Released:2017-04-27)
参考文献数
36

It is possible to find out about the rice crops in lean years by studying the reductions in land taxes. In this paper, the auther focuses on land taxes as indices of the crops and elucidates the distribution of the reductions in land taxes in Kyushu, Chugoku and Shikoku district where there were regions severely hit by planthopper damage. The Shogunate government granted loans to feudal lords whose land tax in Kyoho 17 (1732) was less than half of their normal land tax. In Kyushu, Chugoku and Shikoku, loans were granted to all independent clans located within the following boundaries; the southern boundary lay on the south of the Takanabe and Hitoyoshi Clans, and the eastern lay to the east of the Mori and Tosa Clans. With regard to the Chikugo Kurume Clan, Nakatsu Clan (Buzen Domain, Chikuzen Domain, Bingo Domain), Bungo Oka Clan and the lzumo Matsue Clan, clans and domains can be arranged as follows in order of the rate of reduction of their land taxes: Nakatsu Chikuzen Domain, Kurume Clan, Nakatsu Buzen Domain, Matsue Clan, Nakatsu Bingo Domain, Oka Clan. In the villages of the Karatsu Domain, the Fukuoka Domain, the Kokura Domain, the Buzen Domain of the Nakatsu Clan and the Bungo Domain of the Nobeoka Clan, the land taxes paid for the paddy fields dropped to less than 10% of the Harumendaka. There were, however, villages in the long, narrow valleys of the interior where the drop was small. In the Bungo Domain and the Buzen Domain, some villages paid no land taxes for their padday fields although the fall was small compared to villages on private lands. All the villages however, were entirely exempted from paying taxes for their plowed fields. As for the villages in Aki and Bingo in the San'yo belt, there was a great reduction in the land taxes of the Aki villages, marking a sharp contrast with those of Bingo. Among the villages of Bicchu, there were large drops in the land taxes paid by the Shogunate domains while there were little reductions in the land taxes paid by private domains. In the Shogunate domain of Mimasaka, the drop in the eastern part was smaller than that in the western. In the lzumo Matsue Clan and the Shogunate domain of Iwami in the San'in belt, though there were some villages which paid no land taxes for their paddy fields, the land taxes paid for the plowed fields were the same amount as the Jomen. The ratios of the land taxes for the paddy fields and plowed fields in the Hamada Clan are not clear, yet the reductions in their land taxes are almost the same as the overall reduction in the land taxes for both paddy fields and plowed fields in the Shogunate domain of Iwami. In the lyo Matsuyama Clan, priority was given to securing seed rice, which meant that they paid no land taxes. That which could be used as seed rice was presented as tax and compensation was granted instead by the clan in the form of soybeans. In the Ochigun Domain of the Imabari Clan, there were two groups with great reductions in land taxes among the 52 villages located in and around the Imabari plains. As for the villages of the lyo Saijo Domain situated on the Niihama plains, the reductions in their land taxes were extremely small.
著者
香川 雄一
出版者
地理科学学会
雑誌
地理科学 (ISSN:02864886)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.59, no.1, pp.26-46, 2004-01-28 (Released:2017-04-15)
参考文献数
136
被引用文献数
3

In Japanese geographical studies, there were few perspectives to political process except for election studies. Especially studies of social movements have been disregarded from geographers. But political geographers in Anglophone countries tried to analyze for social movements as well as other political problems in 1990's. This study aimed at clarification to studies of social movements by geographers. Those discussions are mainly from sociological studies. In addition to this point, foreign geographical studies influenced to Japanese geographers on the debate of urban social movements and new social movements. At the first, sociological studies are objects in the discussion of social movement. In 1960's two-renewal concepts, which are the theory of new social movements and the resource mobilization theory were introduced. The reason why the new type of social movements arise is the old type of social movements, socialism or labor movement, had transited in renewal style because of the industrialization process and so on. Research points also changed. Thus a new wave of the theory of social movements that born in European and American countries introduced to Japanese sociology. Secondary, new urban sociology was begun by Castells (1977). He applied Marxist urban theory to urban question in Paris. This approach applied to other social movements and urban sociologists used its study method. The theory of urban social movements appeared on the discussion. Gradually sociological debates on social movement came to Japanese sociologist and foreign geographers. Thirdly the relation of social movements studies and geographers is examined. Radical geography is the first impression of social movements to them. Takeuchi (1980) mentioned that Bunge coped with community movement in his style and Harvey challenged Marxist approach to urban inequality. These studies are viewed the political attitudes of geographer at that time. As to Japanese geographer produced some social movement study, too. Next happening occurred in 1990's. Some Political geographers structured a geographical viewpoint to social movements. Smith (1994) dealt with social movements in the textbook of human geography. 0nly one paragraph was given on it. However Painter (1995) used one chapter for social movements study. He explained the theory of social movement and the appliance to experiential studies in geography. Agnew (1997) reviewed geographical studies on social movements. He gathered election studies with political movements and anti-military movement with social movements. Then case studies were showed by Routledge (1993) and Miller (2000). They take social movements with a geogaphical approach. It can be pointed out that those studies are influenced by the sociological theory of social movements. Geographical concepts were applied for actual social movements. That study has originality in geographical works. Lately Japanese geographers tried to study on the politics of place as same as social movements. They are environment, gender, modernization, urbanization, and pollution problems. Social movement studies are just getting to place on Japanese geographical society. It is expected that theoretical and practical study on social movements will develop.
著者
冨田 大智
出版者
地理科学学会
雑誌
地理科学 (ISSN:02864886)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.75, no.4, pp.211-228, 2021-07-28 (Released:2021-07-28)
参考文献数
13

本稿では,平成28年熊本地震の発生に伴い,肉牛生産に利用される牧野においてどのような被害が発生し,それらの牧野を利用し維持・管理する牧野組合においてどのように復旧対応がなされたかということを,熊本県阿蘇郡旧長陽村及び旧白水村の11牧野組合を事例として明らかにした。牧野組合での被害内容は,肉牛生産に直結する牛の死亡等よりも,牧野における土砂崩壊や道路被害が大きく,各牧野組合で受け入れられた外部組織による補助事業費もそれらに関するものが主であった。土砂崩壊や道路被害が大きくなると,補助事業費も大きくなる牧野組合がみられる一方で,被害が小さいにもかかわらず補助事業費が大きい牧野組合や,被害が大きいにもかかわらず補助事業費が小さい牧野組合もみられた。背景には,各牧野組合の牧野の維持・管理作業の在り方の違いがあると考えられる。前者の牧野組合では,近隣地区での野焼き事故の発生により,地震発生以前から野焼きが実施されていなかった。ただし,条件が整い次第野焼きを再開する意向が示されており,行政による復旧支援も充実したと考えられる。後者の牧野組合では,地震以前から牧野の維持・管理作業が実施しやすいように独自に恒久防火帯を整備していた場合と,放牧地に対して牛の放牧頭数が多いことから野焼きによる牧野の維持・管理を必要としないと考えられていた場合とがあり,復旧支援も抑えられたと考えられる。
著者
岩崎 公弥
出版者
地理科学学会
雑誌
地理科学 (ISSN:02864886)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.32, pp.13-23, 1979 (Released:2017-04-15)

The local system of the Meiji government to unify the whole country started with the system of Ward-Section (daiku-shoku 大区小区) in 1872. But studies about the loacal system before 1872 were limited one about the erstwhile Tokugawa's territory. This paper deals with the local system of that time, particular with the trend to the village consolidation. More over, the author tried to make clear the connection among the consolidated village, oaza (大字) and hamlet through hierarchies of agricultural producers. This consolidation of village (administrative village in Edo period) in Saga daimiate was carried out for 1869-1872. The purpose of the consolidation of village was to construct village of more uniform size by dissolving a small village. The consolidation aimed at creating the absolute authority behind the policy with the slogan "wealth and military strength" (Fukoku-kyohei 富国強兵) and then accomplishing the concentralization of a bureaucratic authority by the appointment of man of talent in the public sellection of the village officer etc. These characters in the political reformation of Saga daimiate in 1869 had been inherited from the policy in the late Edo period. The consolidated village as its result became a terminal unit in section formation of Ward-Section in 1872, and then was given the character as a autonomous body by Formation Law of County, Section, Town and Village (gunkuchoson henseiho 郡区町村編成法) in 1872. And the consolidated village has survived as oaza since 1889. But oaza was neither a village community nor an actual administraive unit. The subject possessing a common land is mostly an erstwhile administrative village (an administrative village in Edo period) . Judging from the possessing condition of farm land by peasants, the territorial unit of their agricultural production was a hamlet or rarely a village (an administrative village in Edo period). At the result of the consolidation of village in the early period of Meiji era, the consolidated village performed a part of more administrative unit in the early period of Meiji era, but after 1889 it has not functioned as the actual administrative unit and the territorial unit of an agricultural product.
著者
黄 幸
出版者
地理科学学会
雑誌
地理科学 (ISSN:02864886)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.72, no.2, pp.56-79, 2017-08-28 (Released:2018-08-19)
参考文献数
119

Gentrification, firstly coined by British sociologist Ruth Glass, refers to a process of spatial reconstruction with social class upgrading, which focuses on class differentiation and its spatial effect. Nowadays, this process has evolved and mutated along with the transformation of the urban development all over the world. Therefore, this paper aims to review and analyze the changes of gentrification research and its regional expansion.This paper first examines the evolution of the gentrification's definition and the applicability of this term. It then reviews the mutation of gentrification around the 2000s in terms of forms and locations. These results have shown that a broader definition of gentrification has been advocated by most scholars nowadays. After that, it looks at the relationship between gentrification and public policy, and finds that the state has played an important role in the process of gentrification, which is a distinct characteristic of contemporary gentrification. Furthermore, it turns to review the issues of gentrifiers and displacement which have changed and diversified over the past decades. In addition, specific emphasis and reviews have been given to East Asian countries and districts (Korea, China, Hong Kong and Taiwan) where gentrification research has taken off recently and increased dramatically. Research into gentrification in East Asia provides a new theoretical insight and alternative perspectives towards contemporary gentrification. Finally, this paper summarizes the conclusion ans expects the further research on gentrification in East Asia.
著者
岡田 俊裕
出版者
THE JAPANESE SOCIETY FOR GEOGRAPHICAL SCIENCES
雑誌
地理科学 (ISSN:02864886)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.49, no.4, pp.197-212, 1994 (Released:2017-04-27)
参考文献数
70
被引用文献数
1

牧口常三郎『人生地理学』(1903年初版,1908年訂正増補8版)は,当時の非アカデミズム地理学徒に歓迎され高い評価を受けたが,アカデミズム地理学の形成者たちには1970年代前半ごろまで無視ないし軽視されてきた。しかし本書は,環境論的な立場からの地人関係の考察が優れているだけでなく,分布論・立地論による経済地理学的・社会地理学的・政治地理学的な分析に先駆的かつ現代的な意義が認められる。なかでも,チューネン圏を最も早く地理学研究に導入した点が注目される。ただし牧口は,それを原典に忠実に導入することはせず,現実社会への適用および有効性を考慮しつつ吸収しようとした。この応用や実践への志向,および実学的な傾向が彼の学風の特徴であった。アカデミズム地理学者のなかで牧口に最も近い存在は,在野的な人文地理学者で,しかも「郷土会」の活動を共に行った小田内通敏であったと考えられる。しかし小田内でさえ,なぜか牧口とその著書について論及することがなかった。それは,前アカデミズム地理学の成果がアカデミズム地理学にあまり継承されなかったということを示唆していると考えられる。