著者
杉山 和明
出版者
地理科学学会
雑誌
地理科学 (ISSN:02864886)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.63, no.4, pp.239-259, 2008-10-28

本稿の課題は,英語圏人文地理学における農村性と若者に関する研究の枠組みを援用しつつ,浜松都市圏東部に暮らす高校生を調査参加者として,かれらが日頃訪れるさまざまな場所についての語りを取り上げ,若者集団の主体的な行動を明らかにするとともに,それらの空間に対していかなる意味づけを行い,どのような場所感覚を抱くのかを考察することである。注目すべき調査結果として挙げられるのは以下の3点である。第一に,都市性/農村性の相対性の意識が認められ,都市性と農村性の対比が日常の場所感覚のなかで常に関係づけられていること,第二に,こうした都市性/農村性の意識をもたらす背景にあるのは,かれらの暮らす近隣住区に均質化された消費空間の進出が続いており,かれらにとって肯定的な意味が付与された場所となっていること,第三に,空間行動では男子高校生に比べて女子高校生の移動性が優位であり,学年による行動領域の階層が認められたことである。
著者
香川 雄一
出版者
地理科学学会
雑誌
地理科学 (ISSN:02864886)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.59, no.1, pp.26-46, 2004-01-28 (Released:2017-04-15)
参考文献数
136
被引用文献数
3

In Japanese geographical studies, there were few perspectives to political process except for election studies. Especially studies of social movements have been disregarded from geographers. But political geographers in Anglophone countries tried to analyze for social movements as well as other political problems in 1990's. This study aimed at clarification to studies of social movements by geographers. Those discussions are mainly from sociological studies. In addition to this point, foreign geographical studies influenced to Japanese geographers on the debate of urban social movements and new social movements. At the first, sociological studies are objects in the discussion of social movement. In 1960's two-renewal concepts, which are the theory of new social movements and the resource mobilization theory were introduced. The reason why the new type of social movements arise is the old type of social movements, socialism or labor movement, had transited in renewal style because of the industrialization process and so on. Research points also changed. Thus a new wave of the theory of social movements that born in European and American countries introduced to Japanese sociology. Secondary, new urban sociology was begun by Castells (1977). He applied Marxist urban theory to urban question in Paris. This approach applied to other social movements and urban sociologists used its study method. The theory of urban social movements appeared on the discussion. Gradually sociological debates on social movement came to Japanese sociologist and foreign geographers. Thirdly the relation of social movements studies and geographers is examined. Radical geography is the first impression of social movements to them. Takeuchi (1980) mentioned that Bunge coped with community movement in his style and Harvey challenged Marxist approach to urban inequality. These studies are viewed the political attitudes of geographer at that time. As to Japanese geographer produced some social movement study, too. Next happening occurred in 1990's. Some Political geographers structured a geographical viewpoint to social movements. Smith (1994) dealt with social movements in the textbook of human geography. 0nly one paragraph was given on it. However Painter (1995) used one chapter for social movements study. He explained the theory of social movement and the appliance to experiential studies in geography. Agnew (1997) reviewed geographical studies on social movements. He gathered election studies with political movements and anti-military movement with social movements. Then case studies were showed by Routledge (1993) and Miller (2000). They take social movements with a geogaphical approach. It can be pointed out that those studies are influenced by the sociological theory of social movements. Geographical concepts were applied for actual social movements. That study has originality in geographical works. Lately Japanese geographers tried to study on the politics of place as same as social movements. They are environment, gender, modernization, urbanization, and pollution problems. Social movement studies are just getting to place on Japanese geographical society. It is expected that theoretical and practical study on social movements will develop.
著者
岩崎 公弥
出版者
地理科学学会
雑誌
地理科学 (ISSN:02864886)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.32, pp.13-23, 1979 (Released:2017-04-15)

The local system of the Meiji government to unify the whole country started with the system of Ward-Section (daiku-shoku 大区小区) in 1872. But studies about the loacal system before 1872 were limited one about the erstwhile Tokugawa's territory. This paper deals with the local system of that time, particular with the trend to the village consolidation. More over, the author tried to make clear the connection among the consolidated village, oaza (大字) and hamlet through hierarchies of agricultural producers. This consolidation of village (administrative village in Edo period) in Saga daimiate was carried out for 1869-1872. The purpose of the consolidation of village was to construct village of more uniform size by dissolving a small village. The consolidation aimed at creating the absolute authority behind the policy with the slogan "wealth and military strength" (Fukoku-kyohei 富国強兵) and then accomplishing the concentralization of a bureaucratic authority by the appointment of man of talent in the public sellection of the village officer etc. These characters in the political reformation of Saga daimiate in 1869 had been inherited from the policy in the late Edo period. The consolidated village as its result became a terminal unit in section formation of Ward-Section in 1872, and then was given the character as a autonomous body by Formation Law of County, Section, Town and Village (gunkuchoson henseiho 郡区町村編成法) in 1872. And the consolidated village has survived as oaza since 1889. But oaza was neither a village community nor an actual administraive unit. The subject possessing a common land is mostly an erstwhile administrative village (an administrative village in Edo period) . Judging from the possessing condition of farm land by peasants, the territorial unit of their agricultural production was a hamlet or rarely a village (an administrative village in Edo period). At the result of the consolidation of village in the early period of Meiji era, the consolidated village performed a part of more administrative unit in the early period of Meiji era, but after 1889 it has not functioned as the actual administrative unit and the territorial unit of an agricultural product.
著者
成瀬 厚
出版者
地理科学学会
雑誌
地理科学 (ISSN:02864886)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.59, no.2, pp.98-114, 2004-04-28 (Released:2017-04-15)
参考文献数
56
被引用文献数
1

This paper consisted of two parts. In the first part, I overviewed some studies of histories of geography. These studies paid attentions to the linguistic figurations (trope, rhetoric and metaphor) of academic descriptions, and pointed out that the forms of the past geographical works deeply intertwined the contents as the academic insistences and that behind the adoption of the specific form, the particular ideological implication did existed. The aim of this paper was to apply these arguments to the popular geographic descriptions outside academy. Though these studies focused the texualities of historical works. I centered the smaller tropes as level of one sentence. This was caused by my interest what kind of role place name as a noun plays in a sentence grammatically, and by critical comments toward the arguments about tropes. These critical comments were that the explanations about metaphor were inevitably metaphorical, and that the ideas which metaphor is needed to express a new insight assumes the meaning of a word. The second part of this paper is an analysis of the popular geographical descriptions. The object of this study is the dty guide, Tokyo Sightseeing published by Japanese publisher, Magazine House Inc. in 2002. It has characteristics of magazine and tourist guide. This text which described Tokyo as a city in English and Japanese and supposed readers of foreigners in Japan was constituted from the lot of sentences. These sentences were that the names which ranged from proper to general referred the various geographical objects from state to city and to facilities. The word of place as a general name was used as a spot to do something concrete. Place names as proper name (Odaiba, Shibuya, Roppongi) were used the destination of public transportation and the area where the reader walks around. In these description of specific behavior, Tokyo as a word of city was not appeared. 0n the other hand, at the moment that the shocks the foreign tourist encountered transformed into the recognition of cultural differences, national cultures were appeared. As a notion of national culture has a different abstract level from cartographic recognition, it was used against the idea that the name of smaller geographical scale appears easily in the sentence which expresses our familiar behavior. Between place and national culture, the word, Tokyo situated a position of the title of this text as a proper name which is able to displace the word of city as a general name, and became a Mater-Signifier.
著者
中村 周作
出版者
地理科学学会
雑誌
地理科学 (ISSN:02864886)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.54, no.4, pp.280-296, 1999-10-28 (Released:2017-04-20)
参考文献数
25
被引用文献数
1

The purpose of this research is to grasp the moving pattern of stall-keepers at fair markets and make it clear how they have come to be these stall-keepers. To sum up, the results are as follows: 1. Rihe Daikokuya, who sold china and porcelain, traveled mainly around (1) his local area, (2) Saitama Prefecture, (3) Niigata Prefecture, and (4) Tohoku District. As for the time of the year, he traveled around his local area in spring and autumn, in Saitama Prefecture in January to March, which is the most important period for his business, and, in summer, to Niigata Prefecture and to Tohoku District where it is rather cool even in Japan. 2. Tadaharu Kitazono, who sold bananas, traveled mainly around (1) Saga Prefecture, (2) Nagasaki Prefecture and (3) Fukuoka Prefecture. He sold mainly in spring and autumn, and as he travels by his own car now, he mostly goes and returns in a day. His traveling area has become smaller compared with the time he traveled by trains and buses. 3. How has Rihe Daikokuya come to be a stall-keepers? He was born in an area where the pottery industry flourished, and worked as an apprentice in a pottery. But he was not contented as he could not get much money nor make much progress in his art, which made him decide to change his work. He became a member of an organization of stall-keepers (This kind of organization is called Tekiya.) and became a stall-keeper who sells china and porcelain. 4. How have these Tekiya-stall-keepers been born? Some of them have become stall-keepers when they wanted to get a job, and others, after some experiences of several jobs, have become ones with their longing for freedom. Thus they become members of a Tekiya group and stand on their own feet. Anyway, stall-keepers are typical "traveling workers" and we may be aware that they are important in playing the part of the prime mover to enliven fair markets.
著者
羽山 久男
出版者
地理科学学会
雑誌
地理科学 (ISSN:02864886)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, pp.13-26, 1978 (Released:2017-04-15)

The purpose of this study is to clarify the process of disposal of feudal clan's forest, the utilization and ownership of them thereafter, and the formation of commual forest in the early period of Meiji era. The followings have been confirmed: (1) Tonogouchi Ohayashi(about 1,600 ha), one of the feudal clan's forest, was established in the upper area of the river Katsuura. Tokushima Prefecture. In the early period of Edo era the villagers of Sezu-mura lived on slash-and-bum cultivation and petty farming on sloping land, and had their commural forest. (2) The slash-and-burn cultivation in Sezu-mura, from Edo era to Meiji era, was very important for dependent peasants as well as independent ones. Comparatively low productivity of slash-and-burn cultivation here was one of the reasons why the clan forest was disposed as a whole to the lumberer (Mr. Nishioka) of Tokushima in the early Meiji era. If the slash-and-burn cultivation here had had high productivity, the clan forest should have almost become the possession of villagers. (3) In Awa clan, all of the feudal clan forest were disposed in 1869 before the abolition of clans and establishment of the prefecture. From 1869 to 1870, private forest which had been permitted to be possessed of private owners by Awa clan in Edo era, and communal forest were disposed by Awa clan. (4) Tonogouchi clan's forest was sold to the lumberer who was politically connected with Awa clan at the beginning of Meiji era. Only ten percent of the forest under discussion was sold to the officers of the nearby villages. Later on, during the middle Meiji era (1887-1893), the higher class of villagers bought the forest back from the lumberer. From 1897 to 1925, they sold it out. At the end of Meiji era (1911), Mr. Hara, a lumber merchant in Tokushima city bought it all. And then, in 1927, it came into possession Nagao lumbering industry. (5) In 1909, in order to develop vast natural forests and charcoal, and communal forest of Sezu-mura, Mr. Hara founded the railway through the Tonogouchi forests, for the first time in Tokushima Prefecture. Stimulated by this railway, the lumberers built more than seven sawmills in these villages, and turned natural forests into planted on in Taisho era. (6) Sezu communal forests (130 ha) which was established in clan's forest in Bunsei era (1818-1829) has remained, through the strong control of the community. Planted sedar trees and trees for charcoal in the communal forest were sold respectively to the lumberers and charcoal makers in the villages. Sedar trees were planted by the villagers and peasants of Ikumi-mura (Sesu-mura, Nogiri-mura, Kubo-mura and Kashihara-mura were united as Ikumi-mura in 1874).
著者
中澤 高志
出版者
地理科学学会
雑誌
地理科学 (ISSN:02864886)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.65, no.2, pp.59-81, 2010
参考文献数
46

大分市では,新産業都市への指定を機に人口が増加し,その受け皿として多くの郊外住宅地が形成された。本稿では,大分市の郊外化の過程を跡付けるとともに,ある郊外住宅地の住民像とそこにおける世代交代の現状を把握し,子世代の動向や親世代の意向に基づいて今後の変容について展望した。大都市圏の郊外住宅地と同様に,対象世帯のほとんどはホワイトカラーの夫と専業主婦からなる核家族世帯であったが,夫に関しては,転勤を契機として大分市に住み始めた者が多い点が特徴的である。対象世帯のほとんどは現住居への住み続けを希望しているが,住民の高齢化に伴って日常生活に不便をきたすことが懸念される。大分市内に居住する既婚の子世代の大半は親と別居しており,半数以上はすでに自分で持家を取得している。したがって,子世代が親世代の住居を継承して住むことはそれほど期待できず,長期的には空き家の発生などが懸念される。一方で,世代間の社会階層の再生産はなされており,大分市内に居住する子世代には,ホワイトカラー層が多く居住する大分市の西部に居住地を選択する傾向がみられた。このことは,都市内部の居住地域構造が,子世代の居住地選択を通じて世代を超えて引き継がれていく可能性を示唆している。
著者
小山 耕平 熊原 康博 藤本 理志
出版者
地理科学学会
雑誌
地理科学 (ISSN:02864886)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.72, no.1, pp.1-18, 2017-04-28 (Released:2018-08-19)
参考文献数
29

We examine characteristics of the stone monuments related to flood or debris flow disasters in Hiroshima prefecture based on official records of the past disasters, results of a field survey, and interviews with inhabitants living near the monuments.As a result, there are at least 40 monuments in Hiroshima prefecture in memory of 14 major disaster events dating from AD1831. Most of the monuments are distributed in and around the damaged area. There are located in local community centers, temples, and shrines, where the local people visit frequently.The contents of the inscriptions built during and before World War II, have had plentiful information related to the process of building the foundations of the monuments, and the details of disaster damage and restoration work. The contents inscribed on those monuments built after the war, have mainly implied sentiments about rest for the souls of disaster victims or memorial of restoration work.In conclusion, these monuments have the potential to inform local people about the exact area affected and the situation of past disasters for a long time. There are few cases where local people use the monuments for disaster prevention activities. Although there are currently few cases where local people use the monuments for disaster prevention activities, doing so would definitely prove to be advantageous.
著者
成瀬 厚
出版者
地理科学学会
雑誌
地理科学 (ISSN:02864886)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.67, no.1, pp.1-23, 2012-01-28

In this paper, I focused on a town, Shimokitazawa. By examining the activities of musicians there, I considered the relationship between the urban user and the place. A pop musician's occupation is singing her/his songs repeatedly. As the facilities where they play their music are scattered around the city, they move around as mobile laborers in a similar manner like nomads. Therefore, the audiences who appreciate the performance of the musicians are called mobile consumers. To understand some of these actual situations, I investigated the facilities that hold such music performances in Shimokitazawa and the behaviors of three musicians who give these performances around the town and an audience. I considered the relationship between the musicians and Shimokitazawa by focusing on the former's practices in their music performances, especially in 2005 and the musical landscape depicted in their songs. The upsurge of the redevelopment problem was observed in Shimokitazawa around 2005. As a result, it can be said that music played the significant role in the development of people's connections with the musicians, and of positive associations of the musicians with the town.
著者
中澤 高志 阿部 誠 石井 まこと
出版者
地理科学学会
雑誌
地理科学 (ISSN:02864886)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.64, no.1, pp.1-21, 2009-01-28

The purpose of this study is to investigate the work experiences of the graduates of two vocational high schools in Oita prefecture in the context of the local labor market. J industrial high school is located in Nakatsu City, where the local labor market is buoyant because of the recent establishment of an automobile plant, whereas K commercial high school is situated in Oita City, which is the prefectural capital and boasts a population of 470,000. We interviewed 10 graduates from each vocational high school. Most of them were in their early twenties and had graduated from the high schools when the labor market was quite stagnant. The graduates of J high school whom we interviewed were all male. The typical job of this school's graduates was working as fabrication workers in manufacturing plants. Some of them were compelled to quit the job owing to the monotonous and intense operations or personal problems in the workplace; on the other hand, for others, it was their first job, and they were developing their occupational skills. The main factor that differentiated the two types of work experiences was not personal employability but the status of labor management and human relationships in the workplace. Most of the J high school graduates said that the vocational curriculums in the high schools were not helpful in their jobs in the manufacturing plants. However, they considered the manufacturing jobs to be suitable for the graduates of industrial high schools, such as themselves. They often changed their jobs, but were mainly employed in manufacturing plants. The graduates of K high school whom we interviewed were all female. For all but one interviewee of this school, the current job was their first job. Their typical job entailed working as support staff in the offices of local companies. They planned to quit their jobs when they got married or had children. Although they hoped to follow this course in life, it can be assumed that their jobs and workplaces were not challenging enough, and hence, they did not feel motivated to continue working after marriage or childbirth. Although most of the K high school graduates, similar to the J high school graduates, said that the vocational curriculums were not directly helpful in their workplaces, the business classes helped them develop a positive attitude toward their work in the office. Judging from the accounts of the graduates of the two vocational high schools, the vocational high schools gave the students the ideal environment to develop a positive attitude toward work and an occupational identity, rather than serving as a place where specific knowledge and skills, which were necessary for a specific occupation, could be acquired. Hence, we can conclude that in the context of the local labor markets, the role of the vocational high schools is to prepare graduates who could be immediately absorbed in a specific sector of the local labor markets.
著者
高木 彰彦
出版者
地理科学学会
雑誌
地理科学 (ISSN:02864886)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.50, no.4, pp.272-288, 1995
参考文献数
15
被引用文献数
1
著者
黄 幸
出版者
地理科学学会
雑誌
地理科学 (ISSN:02864886)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.72, no.2, pp.56-79, 2017-08-28 (Released:2018-08-19)
参考文献数
119

Gentrification, firstly coined by British sociologist Ruth Glass, refers to a process of spatial reconstruction with social class upgrading, which focuses on class differentiation and its spatial effect. Nowadays, this process has evolved and mutated along with the transformation of the urban development all over the world. Therefore, this paper aims to review and analyze the changes of gentrification research and its regional expansion.This paper first examines the evolution of the gentrification's definition and the applicability of this term. It then reviews the mutation of gentrification around the 2000s in terms of forms and locations. These results have shown that a broader definition of gentrification has been advocated by most scholars nowadays. After that, it looks at the relationship between gentrification and public policy, and finds that the state has played an important role in the process of gentrification, which is a distinct characteristic of contemporary gentrification. Furthermore, it turns to review the issues of gentrifiers and displacement which have changed and diversified over the past decades. In addition, specific emphasis and reviews have been given to East Asian countries and districts (Korea, China, Hong Kong and Taiwan) where gentrification research has taken off recently and increased dramatically. Research into gentrification in East Asia provides a new theoretical insight and alternative perspectives towards contemporary gentrification. Finally, this paper summarizes the conclusion ans expects the further research on gentrification in East Asia.
著者
小長谷 一之
出版者
地理科学学会
雑誌
地理科学 (ISSN:02864886)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.45, no.4, pp.234-246, 1990-10-28 (Released:2017-04-27)
被引用文献数
1

Formerly, I have pointed out that recent developmental stages of Geography of Urban Transportation can be classified into three fields (Konagaya, 1990), focusing on the relationships between urban structure and three transport elements (mode, establishment, flow) (Fig. 1). Here I reexamined the relationship between urban structure and transport mode, because there are a few but important studies in recent research works. Adams (1970), Kirby and Lambert (1985), Muller (1981, 1982) have studied the influence of transport mode on the structure of urban quarter. Then they have found that prevailing transport mode have changed the structure of urban quarter. So urban quarter can be classified according to four different prevailing transport modes (Fig. 2). They termed four periods that these prevailing transport modes were dominant as 'Urban transport eras'. I have explained these topics in chapter II. Most impotant mode transformation in America was that of transit to auto in 1930's and 1940's (from II Urban transport era to III Urban transport era). Snell (1974), Whitt (1982), Yago (1984) have confirmed the fact that this transfomation was due to 'The Great Transportation Conspiracy's by automobile companies, which had ultimately made American cities into large energy consumers. I have traced this tendency in chapter III. The history of urban transportation policy, planning and study after the World War II are divided into three periods (Fig. 3): In the first period, highway investment is the largest objective, and large scale aggregate analyses are developed. In the second, transit planning revives, and small scale disaggregate analyses are developed. In the third, transit planning tends to be reduced.