著者
奥村 晃史 井村 隆介 今泉 俊文 東郷 正美 澤 祥 水野 清秀 苅谷 愛彦 斉藤 英二
出版者
公益社団法人 日本地震学会
雑誌
地震 第2輯 (ISSN:00371114)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.50, no.appendix, pp.35-51, 1998-03-31 (Released:2010-11-17)
参考文献数
25
被引用文献数
9

The Itoigawa?Shizuoka tectonic line active fault system (ISTL) is one of the longest and the most complex active fault systems on land in Japan with very high activity. The system comprises the northern (55 km long east dipping reverse faults), the middle (60 km long left-lateral strike-slip faults), and the southern (35 km long west-dipping reverse faults) sections. The estimates of the average slip rate range 2 to over 10 m/103 yr in the system. This high slip rate and probable quiescense of the system exceeding 1150 years indicate the possibility of a surface faulting event in the near future. Since historic and instrumental records of seismicity along the ISTL is very poor, geological study on the paleoseismology of the ISTL has an important clue to evaluate the long-term seismic risks of the fault zone. In 1995 and 1996 the Geological Survey of Japan opened six exploratory trenches in the fault system and the results from the three in the northern section are reported in this paper. The Hakuba trench on the Kamishiro fault brought four earthquake events since 6738 BP (dendrocorrected radiocarbon age in calendar year) with the average recurrence interval to be between 1108 and 2430 years. The last event here postdates 1538 BP. The Omachi trench exposed the last event after 6th to 7th century AD and before 12th century at the latest, Only one event after 3rd to 4th century AD was identified in the Ikeda trench. The timing of the last event from each trench is between 500 and 1500 BP, which interval coincides with the timing of the last event in the middle section as well as the 841 AD or 762 AD earthquake reported in historical documents. The dating of the upper age limit of the last event is not precise enough to correlate the event with any of known earthquake. The recurrence interval of the northern section, however, is significantly longer than that of the Gofukuji fault. The difference in the recurrence time from one section to another is concordant with the difference in the apparent slip rate.
著者
鈴木 義和 高尾 誠 奥村 晃史 谷 和夫
出版者
日本地球惑星科学連合
雑誌
JpGU-AGU Joint Meeting 2017
巻号頁・発行日
2017-03-10

In October 2014, the Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ) established an investigative expert committee to develop risk evaluation methods and measures for fault displacement on the basis of engineering approach. Following the launch of the committee, meetings were held seventeen times to discuss and examine the issue, and the committee ultimately published an investigative report in March 2017 to disseminate the research results. In this presentation, we will give an outline of the evaluation method in terms of fault displacement hazards.Fault displacement hazards for risk evaluation should be analyzed both deterministically and probabilistically.On a deterministic basis, a fault displacement, which is necessary for deterministic margin evaluation (hereinafter, ‘the fault displacement for evaluation’), is to be determined on the basis of three kinds of approach, namely: 1) geological investigation approach, 2) numerical simulation approach, and 3) database of earthquake surface faults approach. ‘The fault displacement for evaluation’ should be set not only upon comprehensive consideration of 1), 2) and 3) but also taking into account uncertainties related to 1), 2) and 3).On a probabilistic basis, hazard curves, which are necessary for Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA), should be determined in accordance with Probabilistic Fault Displacement Hazard Analysis (PFDHA), proposed by Youngs et al. (2003), Petersen et al. (2011), Takao et al. (2013) and so on. Furthermore, the hazard curves will be utilized as references when ‘the fault displacement for evaluation’ is examined.As stated above, the AESJ has established a methodology to determine the fault displacement hazards. In order to improve the reliability of the method, it is essential to accumulate technical knowledge and for the related academic fields to cooperate with one another.
著者
藤村 尚 奥村 晃史
出版者
地盤工学会
雑誌
地盤工学会誌 = / the Japanese Geotechnical Society (ISSN:18827276)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.59, no.5, pp.22-25, 2011-05-01
参考文献数
12

This article reports the distribution of active faults and ground disasters which have caused by earthquakes in Chugoku district. In the district, the occurrence of earthquakes is less frequent than other areas in Japan. However, so far, Tottori Earthquake and Tottori Seibu Earthquake, both of which exceeded magnitude 7.0, hit Tottori prefecture, northern Chugoku region, in 1943 and 2000 respectively. Ground disasters due to the two severe earthquakes are reported herein, such as liquefaction and landslides, after explaining the major active faults distributed in Chugoku district.
著者
奥村 晃史 下川 浩一 山崎 晴雄 佃 栄吉
出版者
公益社団法人 日本地震学会
雑誌
地震 第2輯 (ISSN:00371114)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.46, no.4, pp.425-438, 1994-03-14 (Released:2010-03-11)
参考文献数
25
被引用文献数
9 16

The middle section of the Itoigawa-Shizuoka Tectonic Line (Middle ISTL) is an active fault system that extends NW-SE for 50km from Matsumoto to Kobuchizawa, in central Japan. The Middle ISTL is characterized by high average slip-rate reaching 8 to 10mm/yr during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene. This is one of the highest slip-rate reported from active faults on land in Japan. Empirical relation between slip-rate and recurrence time indicates that the Middle ISTL may rupture more than once a thousand year. The previously known recurrence time estimates of 3500 to 5000 years were significantly longer than the expected recurrence time. The last faulting event on the Middle ISTL most likely occurred in 841 A. D. according to historic record and paleoseismological works. Since the elapsed time is about 1152 years, the estimation of recurrence time is critical to evaluate the potential of next earthquake. In order to know the history of recent faulting events, we excavated the Gofukuji fault, the northernmost segment of the Middle ISTL at Namiyanagi, south of Matsumoto. Investigation of 6 trenches, 3 test pits and topography around the trenches brought following results. The ages of three most recent faulting events are 445-1386 A. D., 150-334 A. D., and 839-189 B. C. The recurrence time is between 111 and 1236 years. Assuming the correlation of the last event with the 841 A. D. event, the recurrence time is estimated to be 338 to 1172 years. Average recurrence interval in this case ranges 515 to 840 years. The elapsed time of 607 to 1152 years is probably longer than the recurrence time. The average slip rate of the fault since c. a. 6000 B. C. is 9.4±4.5mm/yr left-lateral. The left-lateral coseismic slip during the last event is estimated as 7.5±1.5m.
著者
山崎 晴雄 佃 栄吉 奥村 晃史 衣笠 善博 岡田 篤正 中田 高 堤 浩之 長谷川 修一
出版者
日本地質学会
雑誌
地質学論集 (ISSN:03858545)
巻号頁・発行日
no.40, pp.129-142, 1992-12-15
被引用文献数
6

中央構造線(MTL)は西南口本を南北に二分する主要な地質構造線である。この断層は第四紀における日本で最大級の右横ずれ活断層でもある。その活発な活動度にも拘らず, MTLに沿っては歴史地震の発生は知られていない。長期的な地震予知や災害アセスメントに有効な最近の地質時代における断層の運動史を知るため, 1988年の夏中央構造線活断層系の一部である西条市近傍の岡村断層でトレンチ発掘調査を行なった。5つの小トレンチとそれらを繋ぐ細長い溝で構成される調査トレンチでは, 更新世末から歴史時代までの5つの地層ユニットと, それらの顕著な断層変位が認められた。各ユニットの堆積時期は地層中に含まれる有機物試料の^<14>C年代と土器片の考古学的編年によって決定された。断層は2000年前〜4世紀に堆積したIIIb層を切り, 7世紀以降に堆積したIIIc層に覆われるので最終活動時期は4〜7世紀と推定された。この値は1984年に行なわれた同じ断層の発掘調査結果と一致する。また, これ以外の断層活動時期も地層の不整合や変形構造に基づいて識別された。
著者
鈴木 康弘 堤 浩之 渡辺 満久 植木 岳雪 奥村 晃史 後藤 秀昭 STREL'TSOV Mihail I. KOZHURIN Andrei I. BULGAKOV Rustam TERENTIEF Nikolai IVASHCHENKO Alexei I.
出版者
Tokyo Geographical Society
雑誌
地學雜誌 (ISSN:0022135X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.109, no.2, pp.311-317, 2000-04-25
被引用文献数
1 3

We have prepared a preliminary active fault map of Sakhalin, Russia, based on an interpretation of aerial photographs and satellite images. Major active structures include 110-km-long active faults along the western margin of the Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk Lowland in southern Sakhalin and 120-km-long active faults along the western margin of the Poronaysk Lowland in central Sakhalin. These active faults are parallel to but are located as far as 10 km east of the Tym-Poronaysk fault. Geomorphic surfaces on the upthrown side of the fault are tilting westward, therefore, the faults are considered to be west-dipping low-angle reverse faults. The vertical component of slip rates of these faults are >0.3 mm/yr in southern Sakhalin and 1.0-1.5 mm/yr in central Sakhalin. The net-slip rates could be much greater because the faults are low-angle reverse faults. If these faults rupture along their entire length during individual earthquakes, the earthquakes could be as great as M7.6-7.7. In northern Sakhalin, we have identified a series of right-lateral strike-slip faults, including the 1995 Neftegorsk earthquake fault. The slip rates for these faults are estimated at 4 mm/yr. The right-lateral shear in northern Sakhalin and east-west compression in central and southern Sakhalin may reflect relative plate motion in far-east Asian region.
著者
奥村 晃史
出版者
Japan Association for Quaternary Research
雑誌
第四紀研究 (ISSN:04182642)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.34, no.3, pp.191-194, 1995-08-31 (Released:2009-08-21)
参考文献数
11
被引用文献数
6 1

正確で高精度な14C年代を求めるために,年代値の補正は不可欠な手続きである.基本的な補正項目である海水および大気のリザーバ効果,同位体選別,大気14C濃度の経年変化についての補正は14C年代測定の一部として普遍的に実施される.同位体選別の補正は,質量分析計を用いて年代測定と同時にδ13C測定を行う必要がある.これ以外の補正は既存のデータをもとにパーソナルコンピュータ用に開発されたプログラムで行うことが可能である.目的に応じた精度をもつ正確な年代を得るためには,これらの補正の内容を理解して高精度年代測定の戦略をたてることが必要である.
著者
奥村 晃史
出版者
古今書院
雑誌
地理 (ISSN:05779308)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.35, no.5, pp.p44-49, 1990-05
被引用文献数
5
著者
鈴木 康弘 堤 浩之 渡辺 満久 植木 岳雪 奥村 晃史 後藤 秀昭 Mihail I STRELTSOV Andrei I KOZHURIN Rustam BULGAKOV Nikolai TERENTIEF Alexei I IVASHCHENKO
出版者
公益社団法人 東京地学協会
雑誌
地学雑誌 (ISSN:0022135X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.109, no.2, pp.311-317, 2000-04-25 (Released:2010-11-18)
参考文献数
12
被引用文献数
3 3

We have prepared a preliminary active fault map of Sakhalin, Russia, based on an interpretation of aerial photographs and satellite images. Major active structures include 110-km-long active faults along the western margin of the Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk Lowland in southern Sakhalin and 120-km-long active faults along the western margin of the Poronaysk Lowland in central Sakhalin. These active faults are parallel to but are located as far as 10 km east of the Tym-Poronaysk fault. Geomorphic surfaces on the upthrown side of the fault are tilting westward, therefore, the faults are considered to be west-dipping low-angle reverse faults. The vertical component of slip rates of these faults are >0.3 mm/yr in southern Sakhalin and 1.0-1.5 mm/yr in central Sakhalin. The net-slip rates could be much greater because the faults are low-angle reverse faults. If these faults rupture along their entire length during individual earthquakes, the earthquakes could be as great as M7.6-7.7. In northern Sakhalin, we have identified a series of right-lateral strike-slip faults, including the 1995 Neftegorsk earthquake fault. The slip rates for these faults are estimated at 4 mm/yr. The right-lateral shear in northern Sakhalin and east-west compression in central and southern Sakhalin may reflect relative plate motion in far-east Asian region.
著者
奥村 晃史
出版者
日本活断層学会
雑誌
活断層研究 (ISSN:09181024)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.2003, no.23, pp.5-12, 2003-06-30 (Released:2012-11-13)
参考文献数
21

Geologists and seismologists in the United States have been compiling and publicizing databases on possible sources of earthquakes including active faults since early 1970s. The ideas about the database and risk assessment have evolved in close response to public demands raised by such unforeseen earthquake hazards in 1 989 Loma Prieta earthquake and 1994 Northridge earthquake. Though the forecasts of future earthquakes failed repeatedly, the scientific communities always analyzed the failure and improved the knowledge and technology. The faultrupture hazard zone mapping under the Alquist-Priolo act was supplemented by the seismic hazard mapping of liquefaction and landslides. Probabilistic earthquake hazard mapping of Southern California and entire United States clearly demonstrated the advantages of regional ground shaking assessment to the evaluation of fault activity.
著者
鹿島 薫 那須 裕郎 奥村 晃史 本郷 一美 高村 弘毅 吉村 和久 小口 高 西秋 良宏 茅根 創 三宅 裕
出版者
九州大学
雑誌
基盤研究(A)
巻号頁・発行日
2008

本研究は、これまで研究の遅れてきた中東および中央アジアにおける平野、盆地、湿地、湖沼などの陸地域における現地調査を行った。これらの地域では多数の遺跡が立地しており、それらを手がかりとして、最新の分析探査手法を用いながら、環境変動の実態を明らかとすることができた。そして地球環境が短期(10~100 年オーダー)で急激に変化してきたという事実とそれが遺跡立地に与えた影響を検証し、それらの結果から今後の地球環境の変動予測への応用を行った。
著者
中田 高 奥村 晃史 今泉 俊文 隈元 崇 堤 浩之 渡辺 満久
出版者
広島工業大学
雑誌
基盤研究(A)
巻号頁・発行日
2005

本研究は,従来の活断層研究により積み重ねられてきた断層の分布や構造に関する静的な断層モデルに対して,地震時の活断層の挙動に関する動的モデルを構築することを主たる目的とした.そのために,1)活断層の位置,形状,変位速度の分布を解明,2)断層変位量計測の新たな手法の開発,3)日本列島の活断層の変位量データベースの作成,4)活断層の挙動に関する動的モデルの検討,を具体的に行った.その結果,議論の多い活断層の不連続部や末端部において,大縮尺空中写真判読による見直しを実施し,これまで活断層の存在が確かではなかった岩国断層や西部や北九州地域の活断層をはじめ多くの活断層について,詳細な位置,形状を確定した.横ずれタイプと逆断層タイプのそれぞれの典型である阿寺断層および横手盆地東縁活断層系について,独自に空中レーザープロファイラーによるDEMを取得し,断層変位地形の把握,断層変位量の計測について,手法の利点と問題点を具体的に検討した結果,レーザー計測データを用いた断層変位地形の立体化が活断層認定に有効であり,正確な変位量の把握には変動地形学的手法の併用が不可欠であることが明らかになった.また,GPS地形測量装置や簡易レーザー計測装置(Handy Station)を用いた断層変位量計測を実施し,その有効性を検討した.さらに,既存の文献に記載された断層変位量などをもとに主要98活断層(帯)の活断層変位量データベースを構築した.これをもとに断層変位量分布の特徴を検討し,幾つかの活断層(帯)について地下のアスペリティの位置を推定した.これらの情報と活断層の幾何学形状から推定した断層の破壊開始点をもとに,主要活断層帯から発生する地震の動的モデルの試案を提示した.