著者
定方 晟
出版者
東海大学
雑誌
東海大学紀要. 文学部 (ISSN:05636760)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.84, pp.134-106, 2006-03-30

This article consists of following chapters. 21. Monastery and monks 22. The Essenes 23. Therapeutes 24. Philon 25. Manichaeism 26. Christian literature and Buddhist parabols 27. Saved savior 28. Addenda This article will be the last one of my serial articles "Gnosticism and India-Historical materials", as I retire under the age limit from Tokai University this year.
著者
鈴木 孝典
出版者
東海大学
雑誌
東海大学紀要. 開発工学部 (ISSN:09177612)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.27-44, 1992-03-30

The present paper contains the Japanese translation of Ibn al-Haytham's "Maqala fi al-athar alldhi fi wajh al-qamar," based on the Arabic text edited by A. Sabra in "Maqalat al-Hasan b. al-Hasan b. al-Haytham fi al-athar al-zahir fi wajh al-qamar", Journal for the History of Arabic Science, vol.1 (1977) pp.166-181. Ibn al-Haytham, who flourished in Cairo in the 10th-11th centuries, is one of the representative figures of Arabic science. He is best-known as a physicist who made a great contribution in optics. The treatise on the marks on the surface of the moon in one of his works in this field, written after the great Optics (Kitab al-manazir). As in former treatises "The Light of the Stars" (Maqala fi adwa' al-kawakib) and "The Light of the Moon" (Maqala fi. daw' al-qamar) which are cited in this treatise, he tries here to apply the new methods and theories which he founded in Optics to the heavenly phenomena. There are some new aspects which are not found in Optics concerning radiated bodies and the relation between light and color.
著者
藍檀 オメル Kumsar Halil Toprak Selcuk
出版者
東海大学
雑誌
東海大学紀要. 海洋学部 (ISSN:13487620)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.7, pp.23-51, 2010-01-30

The 2009 L'Aquila earthquake with moment magnitude Mw 6.3 occurred in the Abruzzi Region in Central Italy. The earthquake caused the loss of 294 lives and the casualties were particularly heavy in the old city of L'Aquila. The authors have readily investigated the damages due to this earthquake, which was caused by a normal fault with the heavily damaged part being on the hanging-wall side of the causative fault. Approximately 2 weeks before the earthquake, a technician involved with radon monitoring warned that an earthquake will strike the region and this claim was dismissed by the authorities who were heavily questioned by the Italian and International mass media.This article describes the scientific and engineering aspects of the earthquake with emphasis on earthquake prediction and geotechnical damage. Furthermore, the main causes of the heavy structural damage as well as the prediction of the earthquake are discussed. The close inspection of prediction claims indicated that prediction did not really satisfy the requirements for earthquake prediction. The causes of the heavy damage were low seismic resistance of structures and lack of implementation of modern seismic design codes.2009年4月6日午前3時32分頃 (現地時間) にイタリア中部ラクイラ (L'Aquila) においてML=5.8,MW=6.3の地震が発生し, 多数の犠牲者を出すなど, 大きな被害が生じた.この地震による犠牲者は294名 (4月12日現在), 負傷者は1,000人以上であった.著者らは(社)土木学会, (社)地盤工学会, (社)日本建築学会および日本地震工学会は, 4学会協同による合同調査団のメンバーとして2009年4月18日~23日にかけて, ラクイラ及び周辺地域の現地調査を実施した.本論文でこの地震の特徴, 施設の被害とその評価について報告した.本論文の主な結論は下記の通りである.1) 今回の地震で見られた前震活動は地震予知の観点から大変興味深いものであった.しかし, 前震活動とラドンガスの異状を元にGran Sasso核物理実験所の技術者が地震予知をしたとの報告は地震予知の基礎的条件を満足しなかったため, 正しいものでない.この例から地震予知を行う上で多重パラメータ総合システムが重要であることが明らかになった.2) イタリアはヨーロッパ諸国のなかでは最も地震活動の活発な国の一つであり, 現在までにも繰り返し地震被害を受け, 耐震設計法の充実を図ってきた国であるが, この地震で大きな被害を受けた.3) 交通系施設としては, 交通量の少ない小規模橋梁が落橋したが, 全般的には被害を受けるような構造物は少なかったため被害は限定されたものであった.4) 特異な地盤構成を有するラクイラ市とAterno川沿いの沖積軟弱地盤上に散在する中小の村落において被害が著しい.ラクイラ旧市街では, 地下空洞の崩壊に伴う路面陥没が生じた.5) ラクイラ市で観測された強震記録により, 加速度応答スペクトルは周期0.1~0.5秒で1g を上回る箇所があり, 断層近傍の強震動はかなり強いものであった.6) Aterno川沿いでは, 地盤の滑り, 液状化,流動化が, また, 周辺の山岳地では落石等が発生した.
著者
本名 靖
出版者
東海大学
雑誌
東海大学健康科学部紀要 (ISSN:13474162)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1, pp.107-115, 1995

介護福祉学は学会ができたばかりの非常に新しい学問である。それ故、その概念規定がまだ充分ではなく、独自性と専門性についても多くの論議がなされている。介護福祉の概念規定に関する論文も少なく、実践のなかから述べられたものはごくわずかで、その多くは、研究者が現状を整理したにすぎない。そこで、本論は一番ケ瀬が日本介護福祉学会設立準備会の基調講演で取り上げている介護福祉の専門性と独自性をまず吟味し、筆者の実践のなかで整理してきた介護福祉の概念を規定している。介護福祉の概念規定に際し、川廷等が用いた、「障害の構造」との関連で問題を整理し、上田の提唱する「生の構造」を基礎に、介護福祉の概念を規定している。その際、介護福祉と看護、社会福祉援助技術との関係も明らかにしている。さらに、自立生活運動の捉える「主体」との関連で介護福祉の本質にも言及しようとするものである。
著者
菟原 卓
出版者
東海大学
雑誌
東海大学紀要. 文学部 (ISSN:05636760)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.78, pp.250-240, 2002

This paper is intended as a supplement to my three articles hitherto published on the administrative offices and the civil servants under the Fatimids. The purpose here is twofold : to give a clearer understanding of the categories of civil servants by collating the information that I have so far acquired ; and to consider the meanings and usages of "Tawqi" as an administrative term in order to complement the explanation of the functions of civil servants, which I have previously published.
著者
三佐川 亮宏
出版者
東海大学
雑誌
東海大学紀要. 文学部 (ISSN:05636760)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.75, pp.1-28, 2001

"Der Begriff eines deutschen Reiches hat sich wohl am fruhesten in Italien ausgebildet ; im Beginne des 11. Jahrhunderts begegnet er zuerst. Mehr als in Italien ist in Deutschland der Ausdruck ublich, und noch in der Zeit Heinrichs IV....ist er in allen deutschen Gebieten heimisch geworden, wie ja gerade der Reichsgedanke, das Bewuβtsein der politischen Zusammenfassung, der staatlichen Einigung der deutschen Stamme vor allem lebendig war"(Vigener). Gegenuber diesem ublichen Erklarungsversuch, der das Aufkommen des Begriffes regnum Teutonicum unter der Regierung Heinrichs IV.(1056-1106) in Zusammenhang mit der allmahlichen Ausbreitung des deutschen Volksbewuβtseins bzw. Nationalgefuhls bringt, hat E.Muller-Mertens im zweiten Teil seines Buches "Regnum Teutonicum. Aufkommen und Verbreitung der deutschen Reichs - und Konigsaufassung im fruheren Mittelalter"(1970) ein ganz anderes Bild dargestellt : Derjenige, der fur die Verbreitung der Terminologie in Deutschland eine ganz entscheidende Rolle spielte, sei niemand anders als Papst Gregor VII.(1073-1085) gewesen. Er habe den Begriff bewuβt als politischen "Kampfbegriff" benutzt, um den imperial-hegemonialen Herrschaftsanspruch des ottonisch-salischen Konigtums prinzipiell in Frage zu stellen, d.h. mit der Absicht, die Herrschaft des salischen Konigs, des rex Teutonicorum-nicht rex Romanorum, wie der Konig sich selbst nannte-, auf das Reich nordlich der Alpen, das regnum Teutonicum, zu beschranken. Im ersten Teil dieses Aufsatzes wurde es versucht, die uberrraschenden und anregenden Thesen von Muller-Mertens in wichtigen Punkten zu referieren, daneben aber auch seine Ergebinisse, unter Heranziehung der anderen neueren Literatur, z.T. zu revidieren, vor allem fur die Bewertung der politischen Dimensionen des Begriffs "deutsch" bei Lamperts von Hersfeld (†1081/82).
著者
今橋 理子
出版者
東海大学
雑誌
東海大学紀要. 文学部 (ISSN:05636760)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.66, pp.35-49, 1996

Among the paintings left by Sakai Hoitsu (1760-1828), a late-Edo-period painter known for reviving the Rinpa (or Korin) school of painting in the city of Edo, is a singular work entitled Kannon (i.e., the bodhisattva Avalokitesvara). This work differs from the usual Oriental "white-robed Avalokitesvara" paintings in that Kannon is not shown holding in her hand either the standard lotus flower, or sprig of willow in a water jar. Rather, in front of her and to the viewer's right there appears a porcelain celadon vase in which five summer flowers - hollyhocks, pinks, lychnises, hydrangeas, and lilies - have been arranged. In contrast to india ink paintings of Kannon, the flowers in Hoitsu's work are richly colored, attracting and holding the viewer's gaze. It is known that the creation of Kannon was connected to the hundredth anniversary of the death of Ogata Korin (1658-1716). Korin was the prime mover behind the earlier flourishing of the Rinpa school and the painter most highly regarded by Hoitsu, who donated the work to Korin's family temple, Myoken-ji, in Kyoto, where it remains today. It has therefore traditionally been inferred that Hoitsu "arranged" the flowers in the vase in commemoration of Korin's death anniversary and that he used summer flowers because Korin died in June. What has never been clear, however, is why the five flowers noted above were chosen ; indeed, Hoitsu's Flowers in a Vase, painted for the same anniversary, contains the identical five kinds of flowers arranged in a water jar. Hoitsu obviously had a reason for selecting them. In my paper, I will attempt to discern what Hoitsu's intended meaning may have been. The particular flower or bird, or the particular combination of flowers and birds, found in an Oriental flower-and-bird painting ordinarily has an auspicious meaning associated with it, one that the members of the painter's audience will usually be able to identify owing to their shared cultural experience. No traditional, specific meaning, however, can be discerned in the combination of the five summer flowers in Hoitsu's two paintings. To unlock the meaning, I have investigated how the five flowers have been used in classical tanka and haiku poetry - in which Hoitsu himself was unusually well versed - beginning with the eighth-century Man'yoshu. For example, the combination of hollyhocks and lilies has traditionally meant, "We will meet in the next world" when it appears in classical poetry. I found other meanings for other groupings of the five flowers in question. In the course of my research it became clear that Hoitsu clearly did not use the five flowers merely to commemorate Korin's death in the summer ; being familliar with Japanese history and literature, Hoitsu put together his combination with scruplous care in order to express the meaning he desired. Another point of interest is that Korin was particularly fond of the hollyhock and, in fact, replaced his family crest with one depicting a stylized version of this flower. This helps explain why, in Hoitsu's two paintings, the hollyhock is placed highest in the shin position, the all-important central position in traditional flower arrangement. Modern critics tend to view the beautiful flower arrangements in the paintings of the Rinpa school, including the two works discussed here, as random combinations. This evaluation focuses on the beauty of the paintings' form, but essentially denies their interpretive value. However, I believe that the surprising hidden meanings woven into the paintings of the Rinpa school are one of the greatest sources of the paintings' appeal.
著者
今橋 理子
出版者
東海大学
雑誌
東海大学紀要. 文学部 (ISSN:05636760)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.66, pp.35-49, 1996

Among the paintings left by Sakai Hoitsu (1760-1828), a late-Edo-period painter known for reviving the Rinpa (or Korin) school of painting in the city of Edo, is a singular work entitled Kannon (i.e., the bodhisattva Avalokitesvara). This work differs from the usual Oriental "white-robed Avalokitesvara" paintings in that Kannon is not shown holding in her hand either the standard lotus flower, or sprig of willow in a water jar. Rather, in front of her and to the viewer's right there appears a porcelain celadon vase in which five summer flowers - hollyhocks, pinks, lychnises, hydrangeas, and lilies - have been arranged. In contrast to india ink paintings of Kannon, the flowers in Hoitsu's work are richly colored, attracting and holding the viewer's gaze. It is known that the creation of Kannon was connected to the hundredth anniversary of the death of Ogata Korin (1658-1716). Korin was the prime mover behind the earlier flourishing of the Rinpa school and the painter most highly regarded by Hoitsu, who donated the work to Korin's family temple, Myoken-ji, in Kyoto, where it remains today. It has therefore traditionally been inferred that Hoitsu "arranged" the flowers in the vase in commemoration of Korin's death anniversary and that he used summer flowers because Korin died in June. What has never been clear, however, is why the five flowers noted above were chosen ; indeed, Hoitsu's Flowers in a Vase, painted for the same anniversary, contains the identical five kinds of flowers arranged in a water jar. Hoitsu obviously had a reason for selecting them. In my paper, I will attempt to discern what Hoitsu's intended meaning may have been. The particular flower or bird, or the particular combination of flowers and birds, found in an Oriental flower-and-bird painting ordinarily has an auspicious meaning associated with it, one that the members of the painter's audience will usually be able to identify owing to their shared cultural experience. No traditional, specific meaning, however, can be discerned in the combination of the five summer flowers in Hoitsu's two paintings. To unlock the meaning, I have investigated how the five flowers have been used in classical tanka and haiku poetry - in which Hoitsu himself was unusually well versed - beginning with the eighth-century Man'yoshu. For example, the combination of hollyhocks and lilies has traditionally meant, "We will meet in the next world" when it appears in classical poetry. I found other meanings for other groupings of the five flowers in question. In the course of my research it became clear that Hoitsu clearly did not use the five flowers merely to commemorate Korin's death in the summer ; being familliar with Japanese history and literature, Hoitsu put together his combination with scruplous care in order to express the meaning he desired. Another point of interest is that Korin was particularly fond of the hollyhock and, in fact, replaced his family crest with one depicting a stylized version of this flower. This helps explain why, in Hoitsu's two paintings, the hollyhock is placed highest in the shin position, the all-important central position in traditional flower arrangement. Modern critics tend to view the beautiful flower arrangements in the paintings of the Rinpa school, including the two works discussed here, as random combinations. This evaluation focuses on the beauty of the paintings' form, but essentially denies their interpretive value. However, I believe that the surprising hidden meanings woven into the paintings of the Rinpa school are one of the greatest sources of the paintings' appeal.
著者
五十嵐 沙千子
出版者
東海大学
雑誌
東海大学紀要 文学部 (ISSN:05636760)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.84, pp.176-155, 2005

Das ist bemerkenswert, dass M. J. Sandel, der Vertreter des Kommunitar-ianismus, den Liberalismus von John Rawls sehr hart kritisiert hat. Die Aufgabe der vorliegenden Untersuchung ist, die Moglichkeit der Freiheit im Liberalismus durch Sandels Kritik an Rawls nochmals zu uberprufen, und die Spannungen zwischen >Offentlichkeit< und >Gemeinschaft< klarzumachen. Dem Anschein nach sind >Offentlichkeit< und >Gemeinschaft< einander sehr ahnlich. Diese zwei Begriffe sind aber wirklich ganz widerspruchlich. Ich habe aus den Spannungen erklart, dass der Rahmen der Gerechtigkeit sowohl im Liberalismus als im Kommunitarianismus Grenze hat.
著者
川口 章 山野 眞利子 白井 幹康 藤里 俊哉
出版者
東海大学
雑誌
基盤研究(C)
巻号頁・発行日
1995

肺移植に伴う除神経は咳反射や気管支収縮などの生体防衛反応を廃絶し、移植後の感染症の頻度と重症度を増加させている。移植肺はレシピエントと外界のはざまにあるため、レシピエントからは拒絶反応、外界からは病原微生物による感染の対象となっている。求心性神経の再生の有無、その時期や経路を明らかにすることは、肺移植後の感染症の抑制や免疫抑制療法の改善につながり、肺移植の成績の改善に寄与するものと考えられる。方法右肺移植をした後に左肺を切除し、移植肺に呼吸を依存したラット(移植群)において右肺門を郭清したラット(郭清群)と比較して経時的に、(1)Caspian(30mg/kg)を静注し迷走神経を介した除脈反射の回復を観察し、(2)Hering-Breuer反射の回復を検討した。(3)形態学的検査で神経ペプチド(CGRP,Substance-P)の有無と局在を検討し、(4)神経トレーサーを移植肺に注入し、動物を犠牲死させてその局在を検討した。結果(1)Capsaicin静注に対する除脈反射は73%±10%(減少拍数/前拍数)であった。移植後消失したこの反射が全例で53%(平均-2SD)まで回復するのに郭清群で3カ月、移植群で4カ月を要した。(2)Hering-Breuer反射は正常で5.0±2.6(20cm水柱での無呼吸/前呼吸間隔)であった。これが全例で2.4(平均-1SD)以上となるのに郭清群で3カ月、移植群で4カ月を要した。(3)神経ペプチドを持った神経線維が肺門全域を通して広範に移植肺に入り込んでいた。(4)神経トレーサーは同側の迷走神経下神経節に見られ、対側や後根神経節にはなかった。結論ラットにおいて、移植時に断絶された求心性神経路は術後4カ月までに同側の迷走神経内に再生され、物理・生化学的刺激に対して機能していた。
著者
飯塚 浩一
出版者
東海大学
雑誌
東海大学紀要. 文学部 (ISSN:05636760)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.65, pp.122-136, 1996

The "Information society studies" suggest the coming of the society that information is more important for the production of goods and services, rather than working hours and capital. Besides it makes indices which characterise the information society, demonstrates the emergence of the new society by the use of those indices, and proposes the information policies based on that demonstration. However, the age of the, "information society" is described to be the end of the social development history, and there are many problems-what is information? what is the difference between information and knowledge? what is the value of information? etc.-which have not been solved. Accordingly I would like to deal with the "socio-information studies", which investigate the relationship between the change of the social structure and the "socio-information" which is not the measurable thing, but the "social discourse" which acquire the specific historical meaning in a society. In addition, I am taking a fresh look at the media studies of Marshall McLuhan, who was a Canadian scholar of English literature and studied the social change from the viewpoint of the philosophy of technology, and am considering the possibility of McLuhan's work as the approach of the "socio-information studies".
著者
福島 甫
出版者
東海大学
雑誌
特定領域研究
巻号頁・発行日
2009

本研究申請時に比べ物質輸送モデルの研究が進み、黄砂降下量が一定精度で推定できるようになったこと、また衛星データが蓄積され、「年々変動の解析」がやりやすくなったことを勘案し、研究の重点を「鉄供給源と見なされている黄砂の沈着量と植物プランクトン量(衛星によるクロロフィル濃度推定値)」の関係の解析に移した。併せて東アジア域における大気汚染に関連する指標として、過去12年間にわたる日本近海におけるサブミクロン粒子の増減傾向に関する衛星データ解析を行った。(1)北太平洋における黄砂沈着量分布とクロロフィル濃度の関係に関する解析九大・竹村俊彦らのエアロゾル放射伝達モデルSPRINTARSによる最近13年間の北太平洋黄砂沈着量データと、MODIS・SeaWiFSデータによるクロロフィル濃度データの比較解析を北緯20~69°における北太平洋域の各小海域(緯度・経度各4°幅)について行った。黄砂沈着量とクロロフィル濃度については月間平均値・週間平均値(1・2週間の時間遅れ含む)どうしの直接的な相関を見いだすことはできず、年度内に成果としてまとめることはできなかった。しかし解析を通じて新たな着想が得られたので、引き続き解析を続ける予定である。(2)日本近海における小粒径エアロゾル増加傾向の解析1998~2009の期間の日本近海におけるSeaWiFSデータの独自再解析を行い、Aqua/MODISデータと重複する期間については両者の解析結果がよく一致すること、さらにこの間の小粒径粒子の割合が2006年頃を境に増加から減少に転じることを確認した。SPRINTARSによるモデル計算結果および「立山におけるサブミクロン粒子の体積濃度」の時系列データとの比較検討に関して本特定領域研究のA01班内の九大・鵜野および名大・長田と討論し、共同の成果としてとりまとめつつある。