著者
加藤 清司 平野 眞
出版者
東海大学
雑誌
東海大学紀要. 課程資格教育センター (ISSN:09169741)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.3, pp.69-77, 1993

In Japan, many public junior high schools have a rule on close-cropped for boys on the grounds for protection against a delinquency, good sanitation, and concentration in school studies as a part of guidance. Although many assert the rule to invide schoolboy's fundamental human rights, little study has been done on the pedagogical value of the rule. Recently, we attempted to clarify the effects of the rule using statistical analysis. Our working hypothesis was that if the rule had pedagogical effects, the prevalence of the rule in each prefecture would be associated with indices on those effects. We calculated single correlation coefficients of the prevalence of rule with some indices on pedagogical effects and also with indices on pedagogical environment or on regional characteristics. The prevalence of the rule in each prefecture was represented by that in the prefectural capital. After the single correlation coefficient analysis, the multiple correlation analysis was done using indices for which the single correlation coefficient with the pevalence was over 0.2. Of the indices of pedagogical effects, the mean score of the Entrance Examination Center test showed a weak but not significant negative correlation, especially physics and English. Ratio of long-term absentees due to illness and ratio of juvenile delinquent arrested under larceny offenses showed weak but not significant positive correlations. Other indices on pedagogical effects showed no correlations. None of the indices on pedagogical environment showed significant correlations. In indices on regional characteristics, ration of runaways showed a strong positive correlation (p=0.45), and perinatal mortality showed statistically significant positive and number of museums per population showed statisitcally significant negative correlations. According to the multiple correlation analysis, ratio of runaways, number of people per copy of the newspaper, perinatal mortality, number of museums per population and ratio of longterm absentees due to illness were selected and the coefficient of determination was 0.33. These results clearly disprove the pedagogical value of the school rule on closecropped hair for boys. Moreover, they suggested that the rule hinders them from developing their flexible thinking power. From the strong correlation of the ratio of runaways with the prevalence of the rule, it is suspected that the educational function of the family is impaired in regions where the prevalence of the rule is high. In conclusion, this rule has inverse educational effects, and its prevalence would be an index for educational incompetence of the family and school, or backwardness in culture.
著者
定方 晟
出版者
東海大学
雑誌
東海大学紀要. 文学部 (ISSN:05636760)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.81, pp.37-63, 2004-09-30

Nitta Yoshisada put an end to the Kamakura Shogunate in 1333. According to the chronicle Taiheiki, he started from the Ikushina shrine in the Gummma-prefecture. It is generally supposed that he marched directly southward, because that is the shortest way to Kamakura. In fact there are several local traditions in the areas to the southward of the Ikushina shrine. One tradition says that Yoshisada crossed the Tone-River at such and such a place and that there still exists a pine-tree to which Yoshisada attached the rope of his boat. Another tradition says that Yoshisada climbed a pine-tree to watch the camp of his enemy and that the pine-tree still exists. Recently, however, a new theory appeared according to which Yoshisada marched westward at first from the Ikushina shrine and, arriving at Yawata (near Takasaki city), he joined with allied armies and then marched southward. When we accept this theory, we can solve some important riddles and get a better understanding of the political situations of the epoch. This article has the aim of making known this theory. (Livshits/Nikitin 1994; Bader 1996: 265), the recent excavations unearthed some texts and the number of these texts will surely increase (see, for example, Morano 1996). The value of this work (Diakonoff/Livshits 1976-2001), however, never decreases. Below are my notes on it. Since it is far beyond my capability to review this vast work generally, I restrict myself here to the "reading" of the texts. First, I discuss the problematic phrase, MN NPSH tyrydt mzn 'sppty HWH, then look into other points.
著者
川崎 康司
出版者
東海大学
雑誌
東海大学紀要. 文学部 (ISSN:05636760)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.78, pp.238-218, 2002

An Old Assyrian letter (TC 317) adressed to a lady named Waqartum, by Puzur-Assur is a purchase order of textiles being produced by the lady's workshop. It proves that the two parties were in a long and intimate partnership on business, and with the fact and the other evidences Professor K. R. Veenhof has already demonstrated that Assyrian women enjoyed an important role in trading firms managed by their fathers, husbands, and brothers: production of textiles. One question still remains, however, to understand the relationship of both figures, since Puzur-Assur is by no means a family member of Waqartum, neither her husband nor another relative. Waqartum is certainly a nickname of Ahaha, the gubabtum-priestess and the daughter of a famous merchant Pusuken, and she has four brothers whose names and businesses are well-known. What reasons and opportunities, then, made her do single-handed business with the strerrger outside her own family? In this artile, the present author examines Ahaha's career, analysing 'her archive' (47 texts mention her in total) and rearranging the information of them into three periods as follows: (1)In her youth, Ahaha, who had already been nominated a gubabtum-priestess, has been living unmarried. together with her mother. Lamassi. in Assur, while her father and elder brothers were engaged in managing their trading firm, often travelling abroad on business. Meanwhile she started hercareer on textile production by her mother and mastered the business, that is proved mainly by letters of her parents. (2) Many legal documents and letters written down immediately after her father's sudden death, are found in her archive, and almost of them are in concerns with the assets of Pusu-ken and his firm Lawsuits and settlements were concluded in Kanish concerming the assets among his children and buisness partners. One remarkable fact is that Ahaha has right to receive a large inheritance, including some naruqqu-funds invested on his partners by her father at least and possibly also the textile workshop. She remained, however, outside the negotiations managed by her brothers since she somehow stayed alone in Assur, and even her share on the inheritance was kept and used by her brothers without her permission, while only her younger brother. Buzazu, stood by Ahaha as her represetative, but the others-especially her eldest one, Assur-muttabbil, who inherited his father's business and the position of the new head of the family-never and often even against her. Even she personally became in debt because of the maintenance of the family's household in Assur, while Assur-muttabbil should have taken responsibility on it. (3) Letters communicated between Puzur-Assur and Ahaha appear after the latest period of (2). He was a well-established merchant and a business partner of Buzazu. He had, however, been once a junior partner of Pusu-Ken, travelling on business between Kanish and Assur, and that may be the reason Ahaha personally knew him a long time and trusted him. The most important facts for understanding their relationship is that among her inherited share of naruqqu-funds existed that of Puzur-Assur, and that she was still holding her share on it and even investing more on him, while having already converted the funds of the other merchants into money and cleared off the business relations with them. Consequently, the reconstruction of her career thus shows us that Ahaha has enough capital to run her own textile workshop and has quite reasons and chances to have a very trustworthy partner and patron besides her brothers: Puzur-Assur It is also notable that the Old Assyrian society, either or her position of priestess, allows Ahaha such rights and opportunities on her career, although her case might be quite unique.
著者
高月 義照
出版者
東海大学
雑誌
東海大学紀要. 開発工学部 (ISSN:09177612)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.20, pp.53-75, 2011-03-31

およそ半世紀前までは,多くの人々が文学作品や映画などからいろいろな知識を吸収したものであった.ところがマンガ文化の普及とともにそうした文芸に代わってマンガが若者たちの主要な情報源になってきた.その意味で,マンガが現代の文芸に成長しているのである.文芸になったばかりでなく,マンガ文化は,今や世界各地に輸出され,多くの人たちに読まれ,またマンガから派生したコンテンツとともに「MANGA」は今や世界共通語となっている. このように,マンガが文芸へと成長し,世界に誇る日本を代表する文化の一つにまでなりえた秘密はどこにあるのか.その秘密の鍵はどこにあるのか,それを明らかにするのが本論文の目的である. その秘密を解く最大の鍵は,マンガにおける表現技法の進化にある.つまり,この半世紀の間に表現技法の上で様々な工夫が加えられ,進化を遂げてきたことによって,それまで子供の娯楽の対象でしかなかったマンガが大人の鑑賞と読書に十二分に値する文芸に成長してきたというのが私の考えである. それを論証するために,マンガの構成要素である「絵」と「文」と「記号(オノマトペ)」の3 つのそれぞれの表現技法にどのような進化があったのかを明らかにする. 「絵」については,イメージ重視の繊細な描写と精密な描写の進化があり,それに「コマ割り」の多様化によって心理描写が可能となった.また「文」についても「吹き出し」のパターン化と相俟って文字そのものによる感情表現が可能となった.さらに「記号」の多様化と多用によっていっそうダイナミックな表現が可能となったことなどが主な内容である.
著者
坂東 浩司
出版者
東海大学
雑誌
東海大学紀要. 文学部 (ISSN:05636760)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, pp.218-230, 1971
著者
坂部 貢 角田 正史 高野 裕久 欅田 尚樹 立道 昌幸 松田 哲也
出版者
東海大学
雑誌
基盤研究(C)
巻号頁・発行日
2013-04-01 (Released:2014-07-25)

「いわゆる化学物質過敏症」患者を対象として、化学物質曝露と身体症状出現の相関性の有無について、自律神経機能の変動を主としてリアルタイム測定した。また、本症の主症状である「嗅覚過敏」の病態解析について、脳科学的な解析を行った。1)総揮発性有機化合物(TVOC)変動と自律神経機能の変動は、統計学的に強く相関した。しかし、TVOCの変動と自覚症状については相関は認めなかった。2)脳科学的解析では、嗅覚刺激による前頭前野の活動が、本症では対照群に比して活発化していることがわかった。本症は、化学物質の毒性学的影響というよりも、「臭い刺激」が契機となる、心身相関を主体とした状態であることがわかった。
著者
小田嶋 悟
出版者
東海大学
雑誌
東海大学課程資格教育センター論集 (ISSN:13492438)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1, pp.26-20, 2003-03-31

The Imperial Rescript on Education brought a unity of the view about moral. The result was that moal education was thought of as school subjects. It is important that moral ideas differ from ideas about morality.
著者
石丸 煕
出版者
東海大学
雑誌
東海大学紀要. 文学部 (ISSN:05636760)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.68, pp.23-43, 1997

Le Kamakoura-shogounat, qui a ete fonde par MINAMOTO YORITOMO, a la fin du 12^e siecle, changeait son systeme de la politique. La 1^<ere> epoque : la dictature du Shogoun (YORITOMO), la 2^e epoque : la politique du Shikken (le directeur du gouvernement, de HOJO TOKIMASA a HOJO TSUNETOKI), et la 3^e epoque : l'autocratie par Tokouso (la famille de la ligne de HOJO, de TOKIYORI a TAKATOKI). Les chercheurs de ces dernieres annees disent que le systeme de la conference du Kamakoura-shogounat a commence apres la mort de YORITOMO (1199), c'est a dire, pendant l'epoque de l'autocratie du Shikken. Mais dans la periode de YORITOMO, on deja faisait de temps en temps la conference pour aider la decision du Shogoun, dont ily a les preuves dans "AZOUMAKAGAMI", la chronique officielle du Kamakoura-shogounat, comme les mots Goungui, Sata et Hyojo.
著者
今橋 理子
出版者
東海大学
雑誌
東海大学紀要. 文学部 (ISSN:05636760)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.65, pp.1-18, 1996

During the last years of his life, Katsushika Hokusai (1760-1849), the most well known ukiyoe artist of the late Edo period, left us an original painting entitled Watermelon, now in the collection of the Imperial Household Agency. Over the years numerous researchers have assessed the unusual shape and composition of the watermelon in the painting as striking evidence of Hokusai's originality. However, I question whether this repeated assessment would have been made if Hokusai had not included his signature, which is clearly evident in the painting. Eastern paintings of vegetables and fruit are commonly known as "Vegetable drawings"(sosai-zu) and are considered as belonging to the broad category of fower-and-bird pictures. With a style far removed from that of traditional vegetable drawings, however, Hokusai's Watermelon evokes among viewers a feeling contrary to what they might have expected from such a painting. Eastern flower-and-bird paintings traditionally have something in them that allows a hidden meaning to be drawn out from animals or plants depicted. Similarly, we need to investigate whether or not the watermelon in Hokusai's painting-considering the unexpectedness of its style-is imbued with a hidden meaning. To corroborate my interpretation of Watermelon, I have made use of the painting entitled Tanabata by Sakai Hoitsu (1761-1828). Hoitsu's painting is not a portrayal of the modern-day Japanese celebration known as Tanabata, or Star Festival, but rather depicts Tanabata's predecessor, Kikkoden, a ceremony carried out by the imperial court beginning in the eighth century, which in turn had its origins in early China. Kikkoden combined astrology with the romance of the Milky Way-the love story of the Herdsman (in Japanese tradition, the star Altair in the constellation Aquila) and the Weaver (the star Vega in the constellation Lyra). Japanese paintings entitled Kikkoden are usually genre paintings portraying the full year's worth of ceremonies ; it was tacitly understood from early times that depictions of the Kikkoden or Tanabata festivals within these paintings would show a scene from the seventh lunar month, when these festivals were held. In Hoitsu's Tanabata, however, human figures, ordinarily found in genre paintings, are missing. Only string given in offering and a basin filled with water-two items symbolic of the climax of Kikkoden-are depicted. By extracting these two motifs from Kikkoden, Hoitsu turns them into symbols for the ceremony. When Hokusai's Watermelon is viewed once again, this time in light of this understanding of Hoitsu's work, the congruence between the two paintings is striking. Since watermelons were in early China and Japan an important item given as an offering during Kikkoden, the watermelon half and the long, thin rind in Hokusai's painting can be seen as corresponding exactly to Hoitsu's basin and string. Further, we can discover of a bit of the romanticism involved in how the Japanese, inheritors of the romance of the Milky Way story from China, have since the time of the Man'yoshu "borrowed" the heroes of that story in their own love poetry. Essentially, then, Hokusai's Watermelon is a genre painting in which Kikkoden is represented by a watermelon, and is a narrative painting of the romance of the Milky Way.
著者
石橋 宏之
出版者
東海大学
雑誌
奨励研究
巻号頁・発行日
2008 (Released:2008-04-01)

近年、子どもたちの理科離れが深刻な問題となってきている。本来、好奇心旺盛な幼児期に「遊び」を通して様々な体験や経験から学んでいた原理や仕組みが、おもちゃの複雑化・IT化によって、体験から学ぶ事が非常に難しい環境になってきている。更に、小学校以上の義務教育機関では、カリキュラムや単位数に縛られ、子どもたちに体験的学習をさせる事が難しい。そこで本研究では、「遊び」を通して子どもたちに科学的要素を体験できる教育プログラムを実施し、当該プログラムの有用性の調査として、過去に本プログラムを実施した卒園生(保護者含む)と実施しなかった卒園生(保護者含む)を対象にアンケート調査を併せて行ない、より教育効果の高いプログラムの開発を目指す。1. 本田記念幼稚園卒業生へのアンケート調査(対象:1年生~6年生、対象:401名 有効回答193名)を実施設問22.『生活科・理科・算数はすきですか(卒業生回答)』の問では、本プログラム参加者58名中、95%の方が『すごく好き』・『好き』を選択した。不参加者131名中、86%の方が『すごく好き』・『好き』を選択した。したがって、本プログラムを選択した子どもたちは、小学校に進学後も、継続して理系科目に興味を持ち続けていることが読み取れる。さらに、設問36.『当時お子様と一緒に、何かを作ったり直したりした事はありましたか(保護者回答)』の問では、参加者の90%の方が、『よくあった』『時々あった』を選択、不参加者の86%を上回っている。つまり、理系科目に興味を持つには、保護者との関わりも重要であることが読み取れる。2. 全国幼児教育研究大会で報告。2008年8月5日 テーマ:『考えよう思考力の芽生え』研究大会での講評では下記の4つの点を称賛いただいた。a. 材料を自由に選択して制作できる。(材料の紹介はするが、使い方は教えない。自分で考えアイデアを形にしていく)b. 子どものつぶやきを捉える。(子どものアイデアから、新しい素材や材料を準備する。指導者の固定観念にとらわれず、子どものアイデアを尊重する。子どもたちが自己有能感を持てるようにする)c. 子どもが体験から学ぶ時間を作る。(答えを先に教えない。指導者は待つ姿勢を忘れない)d. 本物に出会う(東海大学動力機械工学科の見学(実車のカットモデル、レーシングカー、ソーラーカーなど)京商株式会社来園(電動ラジコンカー、エンジンカーの披露と説明)3. 以上の事を踏まえ、2008年度レッツサイエンスのプログラムでは、期間中の保護者向けの説明会を実施。内容:1.理論 全国幼児教育研究大会での発表内容。2.実践 子どもたちと同じ環境で材料を自由に選択いただき、自由に作る。4. 2008年度レッツサイエンス参加者へのアンケート調査参加園児32名説明会参加保護者18名設問3.『レッツサイエンスグループの活動は楽しかったですか』の設問に『とても楽しかった』88%、『楽しかった』12%と非常に好評であった。説明会の効果は、設問9.『レッツサイエンス説明会はいかがでしたか』の設問に、参加者18名全員の方が『とても良かった・良かった』と評価していただいた。さらに感想の中で、「いままでは、完成した物をほめていたが、この説明会の後では子どもの工夫やプロセスを見るようになった。子どものアイデアを褒めることができるようになった」など、指導者がわの意図が伝わっていた。設問13.『ものづくりを好きになりましたか(車に限らず)(園児回答者)』の問に保護者が説明会に参加した園児は、『とても好きになった』89%、『好きになった』11%と、保護者が不参加の園児は『とても好きになった』57%、『好きになった』43%という回答になった。このように、幼児時期に科学的遊びを体験すことは、世界的に問題視されている理系(技術者)不足への効果的な手段である。その科学的遊びには、幼児が主体的に『作る⇒遊ぶ(試行)⇒考える(学び、工夫)』のサイクルができる内容であり、自己有能感を持てるように関わることが大切である。さらに、保護者に対しても、内容や重要なポイントを十分に説明し、作ることの楽しさを体験していただくことも大切である。指導者と保護者が相互理解をはかり、子どもたちと向き合うことが重要である。
著者
春田 晴郎
出版者
東海大学
雑誌
東海大学紀要. 文学部 (ISSN:05636760)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.86, pp.19-43, 2006

In this paper, heterographic writing systems, or kun-reading systems, in the world are classified according to their mother scripts, in which heterograms were/are written but read in other languages. Below are these mother scripts, including numerals: 1. numerals; 2. several pictograms ; 3. Latin alphabets, in which Irish heterograms were written ; 4. Sumerograms, read as heterograms in Eblaite, Akkadian, Hurrian (rarely), Hittite, Palaic (rarely), Cuneiform Luwian, Hattic, Urartian and Elamite, and phonetically written Akkadian words also read heterographically in Hittite and Urartian ; 5. Aramaeograms, employed as heterograms in Parthian, Middle Persian, Sogdian, Khorazmian and possibly in some inscriptions in Mtskheta, Georgia and in Armenia ; 6. Kanji (Sinograms), used for the invention of new scripts in some heterographic ways or read as heterograms in Bai script, Goba script, writing of Hani people, writing of Khamu people, Chuang script, Nushu (Women's script), Chunom (former Vietnamese script), Khitan scripts, Jurchin script, Uighur, Korean and Japanese.
著者
定方 晟
出版者
東海大学
雑誌
東海大学紀要. 文学部 (ISSN:05636760)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.64, pp.1-23, 1995

It is well known that Kenji Miyazawa, a Japanese writer of the Taisho and early Showa periods, is an ardent follower of the teaching of the Buddhist Sacred Scripture Saddharmapundarika-sutra. In his fairy tales, indeed, do we find frequently motifs deriving from this teaching. But, strange enough, his most important work "Night of Galaxy Railway" is full of Christian images and scanty of Buddhist ones. These Christian images are so beautiful that many readers tend to think that this is a work of Christian faith. This is a misreading. Jovanni, a young hero of the work, did not get off the train when many Christian passengers got off at the "Southern Cross" station, which is the entrance to the Christian paradise. He even said to a young Christian girl, "Your god is not a true god". The author does not explain why Jovanni disapproves the Christian god and its blessing. I suppose that Christianity, having a doctrine of Judgement, does not give happiness to all living beings. To Jovanni who has an ardent desire for "true happiness for all" as he repeatedly says, Christianity does not give satisfaction. Poor readers only see that which is criticized and fail to see criticism itself.