- 史学 (ISSN:03869334)
- vol.42, no.4, pp.447-477, 1970-03
はじめに一 bitikciの登場とその所属二 bitikciの役割 (一) ルブルックのモンゴリア滞在と「一等書記ブルガイ」 (二) ブルガイのulug-bitikciとしての職務 (三) bitikciと官衙組織三 アム行者のbitikciとkatib四 bitikciの地位おわりにThis paper is intended to evaluate the role of the "Bitikci" in the Mongol Empire. The word "Bitikci" itself was borrowed from the Uighur language, and its original meaning was "secretary". The Mongolians, who were illiterate warriors, found it very difficult to administer its vast territories and the conquered peoples. They used the well-educated people of the various peoples such as Mongolian, Persian, Uighur, Khitayan, Tangut, etc. These officials were called "Bitikci". It should be remembered that these officials were generally subordinated to their lord of ulus serving at their court (ordu) as a member of Household Department, or, representing their lord in the Central goverment of Qara-Qorum or in the subordinate states such as China, Turkestan, Iran. Again, let it be understood that their duties within and without the court were :- (1) Administration Responsible for general administrative matters; writing Yarligh or decree ; Conferring the newly appointments; Affixing Tamgha or seal Issuing Paiza or special order which attested the authenticity of the Yarligh. (2) Finance To fulfil the role of Treasurer or Tax-collector; To issue Barat or draft; To be concerned with the affairs of merchants and traders. (3) Diplomatic services (4) Special justices Responsible for the investigation of ambassadors who were not acquainted with the Mongolian customs and committed a crime. This official of "Bitikci" was regarded purely as an official. He was, however, no more or no less than "Patrimonialbiirokrat" or the Household official, and the status of "Bitikci" was not stable since the Royal Favorites were appointed to this office.