- 奈良女子大学文学部研究教育年報 (ISSN:13499882)
- vol.1, pp.101-111, 2005-03-31
"Tacuinum Sanitatis (in Medicina)" is the medievalhealth handbook which contains the informationof healthy alimentation etc., translated from themedical book written by the eleventh centuryphysician named Ibn Butlan (Abu al-Hasan al-MukhtarIbn al-Hasan Ibn 'Abdun Ibn Sa'dunIbn Butlan) in Arabic. He explained elementsthat are necessary for everybody in dailypreservation of his health in the form of simpletables, and then the book was called "Taqwim al-Sihha.The Latin term "Tacuinum" is derived from"Taqwim" which means tables.We cannot say the date and the place of translationinto Latin, but at least there was Latinversion in Kingdom of Sicily in the thirteenthcentury. Neither original works of Ibn Butlanin Arabic nor did earlier manuscripts of translationin Latin have illuminated pictures. Butwe can find some illuminated manuscripts of"Tacuinum Sanitaits" in the later Middle Ages, mainlydrawn up in Northern Italy.As the primary step of the research on TacuinumSanitatis, here are sketched features and datesof some illuminated manuscripts of TacuinumSanitatis : codex vindobonensis series nova 2644,Osterreichische Nationalbibliothek, Wien; ms.4182,Biblioteca Casanatense, Roma (of which title is"Theatrum Sanitatis"); ms.Nouvelle Acquisitions latines1673, Bibliotheque Nationale de France, Paris;ms.1041, Bibliotheque de l'Universite de Liege;ms.3054 (anciently Leber, 1088), Bibliothe queMunicipale Rouen.The earliest manuscript might be ms.1673 ofParis, which had belonged to Verde, daughterof Bernabe) Visconti, "signore" of Milan (13541385).The second one seems to be ms.1041 ofLiege in 1370s attributed to Giovannino deGrassi, master of the cathdral of Milan andfamous drawer of sketch book of Bergamo. Themost famous manuscript, ms.2644 of Vienna wasdemanded by Archibishop of Trent in 1390s,though it also had the coat of arms of the Cerrutiof Verona. The circumstances of completationof ms.4182 of Rome is obsure, but the similarityof ms. 4182 of Rome and ms.2644 of Vienna showsus that these two codex were made at the workshopsof close relationships. The codex of ms.3054 of Rouen might be made in the fifteenthcentury.The original "Taqwim al-Sihha" has 280 items,but those illuminated manuscripts generally haveless. The items treated are mostly alimentary:fruits, vegetables, herbs, corns, beans, pains,birds, animals, fishes, wines, oils etc. thoughseasons, winds, actions and sentiments are alsoreferred. Every page has only one largeillumination and some medical explanations onthe item. The red-framed pictures are drawn toindicate not only the objects but also scenesrelated, so they vividly image the ordinary livesin later Middle Ages.