著者
松本 良 青山 千春
出版者
公益社団法人 東京地学協会
雑誌
地学雑誌 (ISSN:0022135X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.129, no.1, pp.141-146, 2020-02-25 (Released:2020-03-17)
参考文献数
5

An initial estimate of the amount of methane carried by a single methane plume was calculated to be 4 × 109 g (4,000 ton CH4) to 2 × 109 g (2,000 ton CH4) per year (Aoyama and Matsumoto, 2009), based on quantitative echo sounder measurements of the methane plume and bubble capture and release experiments. The estimate generated considerable interest because it suggested the potential importance of plumes as natural gas resources. However, a critical mistake in the calculations was found in converting mole amounts to weight of methane. Revised and corrected estimates of annual methane transported by a single plume are between 2.63 × 106 g (2.63 ton CH4) to 1.60 × 106 g (1.60 ton CH4), which are only 0.07% to 0.08% of the original estimates. For comparison, the revised amount of methane discharged from an individual methane seep is estimated based on direct measurements of gas bubbles from seep sites at Joetsu Knoll and Umitaka Spur, Joetsu basin. A total of 200 ml to 1,150 ml of bubbles were captured within 642 to 481 seconds. Total gas flux depends on the composition of the bubbles. Assuming pure gas, the annual discharge is estimated to be 0.71 ton to 4.84 ton CH4. If the bubbles consist of pure hydrate, the seepage is slightly higher at 1.15 ton to 8.83 ton CH4 per year.
著者
松本 良夫
出版者
日本犯罪社会学会
雑誌
犯罪社会学研究 (ISSN:0386460X)
巻号頁・発行日
no.24, pp.129-147, 1999
被引用文献数
1

Recently in Japan, an increase and deterioration of juvenile delinquency is reported by the law enforcement agencies and mass-media. But, I cannot fully agree with these reports. I have, therefore, tried to evaluate the present state of juvenile delinquency as accurately as possible. I adopted these three measures as the criteria of evaluation; (1) rate of delinquency in past 30 years, (2) rate of delinquency of the other countries in the year, (3) rate of adult crime in the year. 1) The rate of juvenile delinquency in 1996 (10.1: per 1000 teenagers) is average compared with the data of past 30 years. 2) This rate is lower than such countries as the United States, Great Britain, Germany and France. 3) But, this rate is extraordinarily high compared with the rate of adult crime in the year. The arrested of teenagers equal 50% of the total, even though they make up 13% of the total population. By the way, these trends began to emerge from around 1980. I regard these trends as "extraordinarily low percentage of adult crime." Why does this peculiar situation arise? I considered this question from the three points of view. 1) Viewpoint of environmental conditions: Environments surrounding crime had differential effects on adults (decriminalization9 and on juvenile (criminalization). 2) Viewpoint of relation between adult and juvenile (on system level and individual level); Systematization of society tends to suppress deviation of adults, while promoting deviation of juvenile. 3) Viewpoint of crime-structure; Crime structure has been changing largely. "Ordinary crime" such as theft and violence became the domain mainly of juvenile, while traffic-crime and business-crime became more serious for adults.
著者
青山 千春 松本 良
出版者
公益社団法人 東京地学協会
雑誌
地学雑誌 (ISSN:0022135X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.118, no.1, pp.156-174, 2009-02-25 (Released:2010-04-05)
参考文献数
28
被引用文献数
9 7

During methane hydrate exploration and research, remote and on-board acoustic surveying and monitoring of methane hydrate can be easily and economically conducted using a quantitative echo sounder. Simultaneously, the structure and the floating-up speed of methane plumes can be obtained from an analysis of acoustic data. We conducted a survey of methane plumes from 2004 through 2008 at a spur situated southwest off the coast of Sado Island (tentatively called Umitaka Spur) and at the Joetsu Knoll. In 2007 and 2008, we performed experiments by releasing methane hydrate bubbles and methane hydrate, and letting them float upward. Consequently, we demonstrated that acoustical reflection from the methane plumes correlates with water temperature and depth, that the floating-up speed is constant but depends on the conditions of methane hydrate, that the discharge of methane hydrate bubbles changes, and that there is a wide scattering of materials below the seafloor where methane plumes are located. Furthermore, the amount of methane hydrate bubbles seeping was estimated by a preliminary calculation. The method will be applied not only to basic research on methane hydrate but also to assessments of the environmental impact of methane hydrate exploitation.
著者
松本 良夫
出版者
日本教育社会学会
雑誌
教育社会学研究 (ISSN:03873145)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, pp.111-125,en210, 1967

This articls aims to analyse interrelationships among boy's social origin, school achievement, educational attainment and delinquency, based on the result of the research project entitled &ldquo;Comparative Study on Adolescent Delinquency in Industrial Societies&rdquo; planned by Jackson Toby, an American sociologist.<BR>The project aims to compare subcultural delinquency in several sccieties in relation to the attitude of young people, and their sccial origin and educational attainment.<BR><I>Problem</I>; In this interrelationships among adolescent delinquency are treated as a dependent variable, differential attitude toward education (educational attainment, school achievement) as intervening vasiables and boys' sccio-economic background as an independent variable.<BR><I>Procedure</I>; 6172 boys born in 1942 selected from graduating classes of 30 public junior high schools in Tokyo were traced back to their attitude toward J. H. S. education, educational career and delinquent acts recorded by the police.<BR><I>Results</I>;<BR>I. Of the 6172 J. H. S. graduates, 415 boys were arrested by police by the time they reached 20 years of age. Rate of delinquency was 6. 7%.<BR>II. Rate of delinquency i) by sccial class ii) by educational attainment and iii) by school achievement in J.H.S. are shown in Tables 1, 2, and 3. i) Larger per cent of boys from bluecollar families than from white collar families have records of delinquency. ii) Higher the educational attainment of boys the less likely they have delinquent records. iii) The lower the school achievement of boys in J. H. S., the more likely they have delinquent records.<BR>III. Figures 1, 2, and 3 show the interrelationships i) between sccial origin (S. O) and educational attainment (E. A) and delinquency (D)., ii) betweend S. O and school achievement (S. A) and D., iii) between E. A S. A and D. i) Difference of delinquent rate (d. r) by E.A within the same S.0 is larger then by S. O within same E. A. ii) Difference of d.r. by S. A within same S. O is larger than by S. O within same S. A. iii) Difference of d.r. by S.A within same E. A is larger than by E. A. within same S. A.<BR>IV. Figures 4 indicates associations of each pair in terms of coefficient. S. O-D: 0.10, E. A-D: O. 17, and S. A-D: O. 22, S. O -E.A: 0.45, S. O-S. A: 0.23 and E A-S. A: 0.55.
著者
松本 良 奥田 義久 蛭田 明宏 戸丸 仁 竹内 瑛一 山王 梨紗 鈴木 麻希 土永 和博 石田 泰士 石崎 理 武内 里香 小松原 純子 Antonio Fernando FREIRE 町山 栄章 青山 千春 上嶋 正人 弘松 峰男 Glen SNYDER 沼波 秀樹 佐藤 幹夫 的場 保望 中川 洋 角和 善隆 荻原 成騎 柳川 勝則 砂村 倫成 後藤 忠則 廬 海龍 小林 武志
出版者
公益社団法人 東京地学協会
雑誌
地学雑誌 (ISSN:0022135X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.118, no.1, pp.43-71, 2009-02-25 (Released:2010-04-05)
参考文献数
46
被引用文献数
36 36

A number of extensive methane plumes and active methane seeps associated with large blocks of methane hydrates exposed on the seafloor strongly indicate extremely high methane flux and large accumulations of methane hydrate in shallow sediments of the Umitaka spur and Joetsu knoll of the Joetsu basin 30 km off Joetsu city, Niigata Prefecture. Crater-like depressions, incised valleys, and large but inactive pockmarks also indicate methane activities over the spur and knoll. These features imply strong expulsions of methane gas or methane-bearing fluids, and perhaps lifting and floating-up of large volumes of methane hydrate to the sea surface. High heat flow, ∼100 mK/m, deposition of organic-rich strata, ∼1.0 to 1.5%TOC, and Pliocene-Quaternary inversion-tectonics along the eastern margin of the Japan Sea facilitate thermal maturation of organic matters, and generation and migration of light-hydrocarbons through fault conduits, and accumulation of large volumes of methane as methane hydrate in shallow sediments. Microbial methane generation has also contributed to reinforcing the methane flux of the Joetsu basin. Regional methane flux as observed by the depth of the sulfate-methane interface (SMI) is significantly high, < 1 m to 3 m, when compared to classic gas hydrate fields of Blake Ridge, 15 to 20 m, and Nankai trough, 3 to 15 m. δ13C of methane hydrate and seep gases are mostly within -30 to -50‰, the range of thermogenic methane, while dissolved methane of the interstitial waters a few kilometers away from seep sites are predominated by microbial with δ13C of -50 to -100‰. Seismic profiles have revealed fault-related, well-developed gas chimney structures, 0.2 to 3.5 km in diameter, on the spur and knoll. The structures are essential for conveying methane from deep-seated sources to shallow depths as well as for accumulating methane hydrate (gas chimney type deposits). The depth of BSR, which represents the base of gas hydrate stability (BGHS), on the spur and knoll is generally 0.20 to 0.23 seconds in two-way-travel time, whereas the BSRs in gas chimneys occur at 0.14 to 0.18 seconds, exhibiting a sharp pull-up structure. The apparent shallow BGHS is due to the accumulation of large volumes of high-velocity methane hydrate in gas chimneys. The depth to BGHS is estimated to be 115 m on an experimentally determined stability diagram, based on an observed thermal gradient of 100 mK/m. Then the velocity of the sediments on the Umitaka spur is calculated to be 1000 m/s, which is anomalously low compared to normal pelagic mud of 1600-1700 m/s. This exciting finding leads to the important implication that sediments of the Umitaka spur contain significant amounts of free gas, although the sediments are well within the stability field of methane hydrate. The reasons for the existence of free gas in the methane hydrate stability field are not fully explained, but we propose the following possible mechanisms for the unusual co-existence of methane hydrate and free-gas in clay-silt of the spur. (i) High salinity effect of residual waters, (ii) degassing from ascending fluids, (iii) bound water effect and deficiency of free-waters, and (iv) micro-pore effect of porous media. All of these processes relate to the development of gas hydrate deposits of the Umitaka spur.(View PDF for the rest of the abstract.)
著者
岩井 宜子 内山 絢子 後藤 弘子 長谷川 眞理子 松本 良枝 宮園 久枝 安部 哲夫
出版者
専修大学
雑誌
基盤研究(C)
巻号頁・発行日
2002

本研究においては、平成になってからの日本における殺人・傷害致死の第1審の判決例を収集し、その加害者・被害者関係をジェンダーの視点で分析し、おもに、家庭内暴力(DV)が原因として働くものがどの程度存在し、どのような形で殺害というような結果をもたらしたかを詳察することにより、今後の対策を考察することを意図した。昭和年間の殺人の発生状況との比較において、まず、注目されるのは、えい児殺の減少であるが、昭和年間にかなりの数のえい児殺が存在したのは、女性の意思によらない妊娠が非常に多かったことに基づくと考えられ、平成になり、少子化の背景事情とともに、女性の意思によらない妊娠も減少したことが推察される。しかし、年長の実子を殺害するケースは、増加しており、その背景には、被害者の精神障害、家庭内暴力、非行などが、多く存在している。夫・愛人殺の増加の背景にも、長期間にわたる家庭内暴力の存在が観察される。「保護命令」制度などが、うまく機能し、家庭内暴力から脱出し、平穏に暮らせる社会への早期の移行が待たれる。女性が殺人の被害者となり、また加害者となるケースは、多くは家庭内で発生しており、その背景には、種々の形の暴力が存在している。児童虐待の事案も顕在化が進んでいるものと考えられるが、徴表に対し、より迅速に対応し、救済するシステムがいまだ確立していないことが伺える。家庭内の悲劇を社会に救済を求めうる実効的なシステムの構築が必要である。
著者
蛭田 明宏 松本 良 石田 泰士 戸丸 仁 町山 栄章 シュナイダー グレン 青山 千春 弘松 峰男
出版者
The Sedimentological Society of Japan
雑誌
堆積学研究 (ISSN:1342310X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.64, pp.89-93, 2007-04-20 (Released:2008-12-12)
参考文献数
6
被引用文献数
1

The Umitaka (UT) spur in Japan Sea is characterized by methane-induced features such as Bottom-simulating reflectors (BSRs), pockmarks, mounds and ∼600 m high plumes in the water column (Aoyama et al., 2004). These features seem to indicate active fluid and/or gas venting on the UT spur. In order to estimate methane flux and gas hydrate existence, we measured sulfate and chloride ion concentration of pore water. Sulfate ion concentration has revealed much stronger methane flux than Brake Ridge and chloride anomaly seems to result of recent gas hydrate formation and past dissociation.
著者
松本 良
出版者
公益社団法人 東京地学協会
雑誌
地学雑誌 (ISSN:0022135X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.118, no.1, pp.7-42, 2009-02-25 (Released:2010-04-05)
参考文献数
94
被引用文献数
14 17

Gas hydrate, an ice-like solid compound composed of methane and water molecules, was “re-discovered” from ocean sediments in the mid-20th century, while it had been known as a chemical material to chemists and chemical engineers even in the early 19th century. Since the re-discovery of natural gas hydrate it has been attracting growing interest among geoscientists from the viewpoint of potential natural gas resources, possible impact on global environmental changes, and trigger of geo-hazards such as landslides and coastal erosion. The development of gas hydrate science has been marked by a rapid increase of studies in publications from 1991 to 1999, reflecting ODP expeditions to the mid-America Trench and Blake Ridge, where deep corings recovered solid gas hydrate samples. The number of papers in international journals has increased to 500 to 600 annually in the last few years. Recent development of marine geology and geophysics, in particular of the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP), has dramatically increased our knowledge of gas hydrate and related phenomena. Bottom simulating reflector (BSR) on seismic profiles corresponds to the base of the gas hydrate zone in sediments, and is considered to be a useful tool to identify the distribution of marine gas hydrates. The base of gas hydrate stability (BGHS) is determined from P-T conditions of sediments and water depth, and BSR is expected to occur at the depth of BGHS. However, BSR is not always consistent with BGHS; and, in some cases, even two BSRs are identified at around the depth of BGHS. These observations seem to imply that marine gas hydrate is not necessarily stable at the present position but represents ephemeral and transient conditions.  Integrated research activities of scientific projects and industry exploration efforts have identified two types of gas hydrate in marine sediments. These are deep-seated, stratigraphic-type deposits and shallow/structural accumulation. Japan's long-term exploration project led by Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) has been targeting the stratigraphic type in the Nankai Trough, where 40 tcf of methane has been estimated to occur as concentrated gas hydrate deposits. Shallow accumulations are usually associated with gas chimney structures, and are common throughout the marginal seas of the western Pacific. Massive accumulation of the shallow type seems to be promising for gas production from gas hydrate as well.  Sudden and major changes to the earth's environment and mass extinctions are characterized by sharp negative excursions of carbon isotopic composition. Massive dissociation of C-13 depleted gas hydrate with δ13C of -40 to -100‰, is believed to have caused such global changes. The Paleocene-Eocene boundary event (PETM event) is the best-explained case of gas hydrate-induced biotic overturn. However, serious problems have recently emerged from considerations of thermal propagation through sediments. A sudden increase of methane concentration at the Last Glacial Maximum has also been considered to result from gas hydrate dissociation, but the response of gas hydrate was not so simple during the Quaternary, when low sea level during glacial periods possibly de-stabilized subsurface gas hydrate, unlike the PETM of ice-free ocean.
著者
西村 春夫 松本 良夫
出版者
科学警察研究所
雑誌
科学警察研究所報告 防犯少年編 (ISSN:04511999)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.10, no.1, pp.53-61, 1969-03
被引用文献数
2
著者
佐賀 朝 塚田 孝 吉田 伸之 人見 佐知子 神田 由築 小野沢 あかね 松井 洋子 吉田 ゆり子 金 富子 浅野 秀剛 伊藤 毅 米谷 博 杉森 哲也 初田 香成 松田 法子 松本 良太 本康 宏史 横山 百合子
出版者
大阪市立大学
雑誌
基盤研究(B)
巻号頁・発行日
2011-04-01

本課題では、日本近世~近代における「遊廓社会」の形成・普及の歴史について、三都と中核とする列島各地や植民地の事例も視野に入れて、比較類型史論・都市社会=空間構造論の方法を用いて共同研究を実施した。その最大の成果は、『シリーズ遊廓社会』全2巻(吉川弘文館)であり、本課題の代表者・分担者・連携者・協力者21名による論稿を掲載することができた。列島各地で個別の現地調査や、調査と一体の研究会を開催し、遊廓研究のネットワーク化を図るとともに、府県別の遊廓・遊所の沿革と史料情報を内容とするデータベースWEBサイトを構築し、今後の遊廓・遊所研究の発展につながる基盤を構築した点も特筆すべき成果である。
著者
松本 良恵 神 信人
出版者
日本グループ・ダイナミックス学会
雑誌
実験社会心理学研究 (ISSN:03877973)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.50, no.1, pp.15-27, 2010 (Released:2010-08-19)
参考文献数
36
被引用文献数
2 2

現実の社会では,社会的ジレンマはリーダーが非協力者を罰し,メンバーがそうしたリーダーを支援すると言う相互依存関係を通して解決されていると考えられる。この研究の目的は,進化ゲームシミュレーションを用いて,そうした相互依存関係がリーダーとメンバーの間に生まれる条件を明らかにすることにある。我々のシミュレーションでは,20の集団が設定されており,集団はそれぞれ20人のメンバーと1人のリーダーで構成されていた。リーダーは,自分の集団内の非協力者と,自分をサポートしない者を罰することができた。コンピュータ・シミュレーションの結果,ある条件が満たされる時に,非協力者とリーダーを支援しない者の両方を罰するリーダーが出現し,それにより多くのメンバーが協力とリーダーへの支援が強いられることで,社会的ジレンマは解決された。その条件とは,リーダーは個人的利益と集団利益の両方を高めないと,その地位を維持できないというものである。
著者
植村 友里 松本 良恵 神 信人
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.85, no.2, pp.111-120, 2014 (Released:2014-06-25)
参考文献数
26

Why do people behave altruistically toward others, even in situations where nobody would observe their behavior? We formulated the following hypothesis regarding this question: “Reputations are decided by behaviors in situations that nobody can observe, rather than by behaviors in situations that can be observed by others.” The validity of this hypothesis was examined through a Prisoner’s Dilemma experiment. In the first stage, participants played the Prisoner’s Dilemma game in a situation where nobody could observe them. In the second stage, participants selected another partner in the game, based on information about their behavior in the first stage. The results indicated that participants tended to choose people that behaved altruistically in situations where nobody could observe them. Furthermore, this tendency was stronger with cooperative participants. These results support the hypothesis of this study.