著者
坪見 博之 齊藤 智 苧阪 満里子 苧阪 直行
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.90.18402, (Released:2019-06-20)
参考文献数
139

Working memory (WM) is a capacity-limited cognitive system that strongly relates to higher-order cognitive abilities including fluid intelligence. It has been suggested that WM training can increase memory capacity, which in turn, improves general intellectual abilities. To evaluate these claims, the present review critically re-assessed nine meta-analysis studies, and revealed that the effect of WM training on fluid intelligence (Gf), executive function, and academic performance is relatively small (averaged Hedges’ adjusted g < .20). Moreover, there were several methodological issues regarding the study design (placebo effect, small sample size), analytical approach (inadequate group comparison, lack of correction for multiple comparisons), and theoretical framework (lack of theoretical account of the training mechanisms) in previous WM training studies. We propose a set of recommendations for future training studies that go beyond training the WM ability per se. This includes theoretically possible methods to enhance intellectual abilities by, for example, learning strategies to effectively encode and recall information into long-term memory.
著者
中山 真孝 齊藤 智
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.3, pp.456-462, 2015

Processing fluency influences judgment as metacognitive cue. Laham, Koval, & Al-<br>ter (2012) demonstrated name-pronunciation effect whereby easy-to-pronounce (i.e.,<br>easy-to-process) names were judged more positively. In their study, however, the "pro-<br>nouncability" was not defined by objective criteria, which may cast doubt on the inter-<br>nal validity of the effect. To overcome this limitation, the present study replicated the<br>name-pronunciation effect by manipulating two objectively defined and well-established<br>pronouncability factors: within-item phonological similarity and phonotactic frequency<br>of the name. Phonological similarity is manipulated by making the constituent morae<br>share the same vowel or not. Phonotactic frequency is defined by a composite score of<br>mora, bi-mora and position-mora frequency. We asked participants to rate impression<br>of names, presenting nonwords as names of foreign person who would come to their of-<br>fice. The result indicated independent effects of phonological similarity and phonotactic<br>frequency with phonologically similar and low phonotactic frequency names being rated<br>negatively. The present study confirmed the internal validity of the name-pronunciation<br>effect in the previous study.
著者
中山 真孝 齊藤 智
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.3, pp.456-462, 2015-09-01 (Released:2016-03-01)
参考文献数
27

Processing fluency influences judgment as metacognitive cue. Laham, Koval, & Al-ter (2012) demonstrated name-pronunciation effect whereby easy-to-pronounce (i.e.,easy-to-process) names were judged more positively. In their study, however, the “pro-nouncability” was not defined by objective criteria, which may cast doubt on the inter-nal validity of the effect. To overcome this limitation, the present study replicated thename-pronunciation effect by manipulating two objectively defined and well-establishedpronouncability factors: within-item phonological similarity and phonotactic frequencyof the name. Phonological similarity is manipulated by making the constituent moraeshare the same vowel or not. Phonotactic frequency is defined by a composite score ofmora, bi-mora and position-mora frequency. We asked participants to rate impressionof names, presenting nonwords as names of foreign person who would come to their of-fice. The result indicated independent effects of phonological similarity and phonotacticfrequency with phonologically similar and low phonotactic frequency names being ratednegatively. The present study confirmed the internal validity of the name-pronunciationeffect in the previous study.
著者
坪見 博之 齊藤 智 苧阪 満里子 苧阪 直行
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.90, no.3, pp.308-326, 2019 (Released:2019-08-25)
参考文献数
139

Working memory (WM) is a capacity-limited cognitive system that strongly relates to higher-order cognitive abilities including fluid intelligence. It has been suggested that WM training can increase memory capacity, which in turn, improves general intellectual abilities. To evaluate these claims, the present review critically re-assessed nine meta-analysis studies, and revealed that the effect of WM training on fluid intelligence (Gf), executive function, and academic performance is relatively small (averaged Hedges’ adjusted g < .20). Moreover, there were several methodological issues regarding the study design (placebo effect, small sample size), analytical approach (inadequate group comparison, lack of correction for multiple comparisons), and theoretical framework (lack of theoretical account of the training mechanisms) in previous WM training studies. We propose a set of recommendations for future training studies that go beyond training the WM ability per se. This includes theoretically possible methods to enhance intellectual abilities by, for example, learning strategies to effectively encode and recall information into long-term memory.
著者
中山 真孝 齊藤 智
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.86, no.3, pp.249-257, 2015 (Released:2015-08-25)
参考文献数
42

The present study investigated principles of phonological planning, a common serial ordering mechanism for speech production and phonological short-term memory. Nakayama and Saito (2014) have investigated the principles by using a speech-error induction technique, in which participants were exposed to an auditory distractor word immediately before an utterance of a target word. They demonstrated within-word adjacent mora exchanges and serial position effects on error rates. These findings support, respectively, the temporal distance and the edge principles at a within-word level. As this previous study induced errors using word distractors created by exchanging adjacent morae in the target words, it is possible that the speech errors are expressions of lexical intrusions reflecting interactive activation of phonological and lexical/semantic representations. To eliminate this possibility, the present study used nonword distractors that had no lexical or semantic representations. This approach successfully replicated the error patterns identified in the abovementioned study, further confirming that the temporal distance and edge principles are organizing precepts in phonological planning.
著者
齊藤 智樹 熊野 善介
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
日本科学教育学会研究会研究報告 (ISSN:18824684)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, no.9, pp.51-56, 2015 (Released:2018-04-07)
参考文献数
19

著者らは,科学教育研究における科学的な研究方法論についての研究の手始めとして,NRC(National Research Council, 2002)が示した科学的原則や研究デザイン(計画)の原則を示し,それがいわゆる自然科学と何ら変わらないことを示した.同様に,混合研究法(Creswell・Plano Clark, 2007)にまつわる哲学から,量的な検討や質的な検討のどちらを採用しているかといった方法論が,研究を科学的なものにしている訳ではないことを指摘し,プラグマティズムの基礎となる可謬主義から,現代的教育課題とその実践的・実証的研究との関連性を述べた.また,アクション・リサーチ(Action Research)とデザイン研究(Design-based Research)の比較から,これらを理論的枠組みと捉え,議論可能な文法を持った方法を構築し,その方法論を議論していくという,これからの科学的な教育研究の方向性について考察した.
著者
森田 愛子 齊藤 智
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.19, no.3, pp.365-379, 2012 (Released:2014-10-10)
参考文献数
42
被引用文献数
1

The role of phonology in visual word recognition has been widely researched. Specifically,it is worth investigating whether the phonological processing of Japanese kanji is the same as that of an alphabetic writing system. The current study systematically examined articulatory suppression effects. Although articulatory suppression is a research tool often used to explore phonological processing in reading, it does not impair all types of phonological processing. Experiment 1A and 1B examined whether articulatory suppression disrupts rhyme judgments. Participants were shown pairs of two-kanji compound words and asked to judge whether they contained the same vowel. In both experiments, participants made more errors under an articulatory suppression condition. Experiment 2A and 2Bexamined whether articulatory suppression disrupts homophone judgments. The stimuli of Experiment 2A were the same as experimental stimuli of Experiment 1A. Theresults showed no articulatory suppression effect. The non-homophone pair was a phonologically similar pair in Experiment 2B. The results suggest that articulatory suppression had some interference effect on homophone judgment. The articulatory suppression effect on phonological processing of two-kanji words was similar to that of alphabetic writing system. Articulatory suppression must impair the segmentation process, irrespective of task type.
著者
内ノ倉 真吾 石崎 友規 齊藤 智樹 Rahma Suwarma Irma 今村 哲史 熊野 善介 長洲 南海男
出版者
一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
雑誌
日本科学教育学会研究会研究報告 (ISSN:18824684)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.29, no.1, pp.87-92, 2018 (Released:2018-04-07)
参考文献数
23

現在アメリカでは、科学、技術、工学、数学(Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics;STEM)の教育が推進されている。アメリカでの訪問調査と関連文献と Web 公開資料の分析に基づいて、STEM 教育の推進に関わる主体の具体的な活動事例と相互の関係を把握した。そこでは、州政府、教師教育団体、大学、K-12 教育段階の諸学校が、連邦政府の財政的な支援を基盤として、相互に協力・連携して、子どもの STEM 系教科の学力および興味・関心の向上と教師の職能開発の促進を目指した STEM 教育の推進活動が行われていた。
著者
内海 健太 齊藤 智
出版者
心理学評論刊行会
雑誌
心理学評論 (ISSN:03861058)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.59, no.4, pp.349-366, 2016 (Released:2018-03-21)
参考文献数
67

The goal of this review paper is to elucidate prospective memory (PM) mechanisms by identifying the roles of inhibition. Recently, inhibitory functions in PM have become of interest, but little is known about them. Previous studies examining the relationship between PM and inhibition can be broken into two categories: (1) studies that have examined the relationship using analyses based on the correlation of scores in related tasks and (2) studies that have employed experimental manipulations and have focused on inhibition that actually functioned in the PM remembering process. In reviewing these studies, we have found that both response inhibition and representation inhibition are involved in PM. Based on these results, we suggest that PM involves two control processes and that the separate inhibitory mechanisms apply to each of the control processes. This cognitive psychological hypothesis is supported by neuroscience studies. Finally, we argue that this distinction in the roles of inhibition is important for the development of PM theory.
著者
三宅 晶 齊藤 智
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.72, no.4, pp.336-350, 2001-10-25 (Released:2010-07-16)
参考文献数
79
被引用文献数
6 8

Working memory is a set of processes or a system that allows us to temporarily maintain task-relevant information during performance of complex cognitive tasks. It has recently been an intensively investigated topic in cognitive psychology, cognitive neuroscience, and other related disciplines, and important empirical and theoretical advances have been made during the last several years. In this article, we review the current state of working memory research, focusing on important recent methodological and theoretical developments in the field. Specifically, we provide an update of recent influential working memory theories (e.g., Baddeley's multicomponent model and an ACT-R model) and discuss the current status of various controversial theoretical issues, such as the unitary versus non-unitary nature of working memory, the nature of working memory limitations, the control and regulation of working memory, and the relationship of working memory to long-term memory. We conclude our review by pointing out some important future directions for working memory research.
著者
湯澤 美紀 湯澤 正通 齊藤 智 河村 暁
出版者
ノートルダム清心女子大学
雑誌
若手研究(B)
巻号頁・発行日
2009

本研究では,学習に困難を抱える子どもの読み書きに関する能力の向上を目指し,ワーキングメモリならびに音韻認識に着目した学習支援の研究を行った。まず,個人のワーキングメモリのプロフィールを測定するために,オートメーティッド・ワーキングメモリ・アセスメント(以下AWMA)の日本語版を作成した(2009年)。次に, AWMAを用い,特別支援学級に所属する児童10名のワーキングメモリのプロフィールを測定した(2010年)。次に,英語の活動を週1回, 14カ月(2010年~2011年)の長期にわたって実施した。学習支援プログラムについては, (1)ワーキングメモリの小ささに由来するエラーの軽減(2)ワーキングメモリプロフィールに応じた支援(3)音韻認識に着目したプログラム内容を目指し,構成した。結果,子どもたちの英語の音韻認識に向上が見られ,最終的には,英語の読み能力を身につけ,主体的に学習に取り組む姿が見られた。
著者
中山 真孝 齊藤 智
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.86, no.3, pp.249-257, 2015

The present study investigated principles of phonological planning, a common serial ordering mechanism for speech production and phonological short-term memory. Nakayama and Saito (2014) have investigated the principles by using a speech-error induction technique, in which participants were exposed to an auditory distractor word immediately before an utterance of a target word. They demonstrated within-word adjacent mora exchanges and serial position effects on error rates. These findings support, respectively, the temporal distance and the edge principles at a within-word level. As this previous study induced errors using word distractors created by exchanging adjacent morae in the target words, it is possible that the speech errors are expressions of lexical intrusions reflecting interactive activation of phonological and lexical/semantic representations. To eliminate this possibility, the present study used nonword distractors that had no lexical or semantic representations. This approach successfully replicated the error patterns identified in the abovementioned study, further confirming that the temporal distance and edge principles are organizing precepts in phonological planning.
著者
中山 真孝 齊藤 智
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.86.14029, (Released:2015-05-28)
参考文献数
42

The present study investigated principles of phonological planning, a common serial ordering mechanism for speech production and phonological short-term memory. Nakayama and Saito (2014) have investigated the principles by using a speech-error induction technique, in which participants were exposed to an auditory distractor word immediately before an utterance of a target word. They demonstrated within-word adjacent mora exchanges and serial position effects on error rates. These findings support, respectively, the temporal distance and the edge principles at a within-word level. As this previous study induced errors using word distractors created by exchanging adjacent morae in the target words, it is possible that the speech errors are expressions of lexical intrusions reflecting interactive activation of phonological and lexical/semantic representations. To eliminate this possibility, the present study used nonword distractors that had no lexical or semantic representations. This approach successfully replicated the error patterns identified in the abovementioned study, further confirming that the temporal distance and edge principles are organizing precepts in phonological planning.
著者
藤田 大誠 青井 哲人 畔上 直樹 遠藤 潤 菅 浩二 森 悟朗 藤本 頼生 佐藤 一伯 岸川 雅範 今泉 宜子 福島 幸宏 齊藤 智朗 昆野 伸幸 柏木 亨介 北浦 康孝 河村 忠伸 吉原 大志 吉岡 拓
出版者
國學院大學
雑誌
基盤研究(C)
巻号頁・発行日
2010

本研究では、「公共空間」や「公共性」をキータームとして、神道史と都市史・都市計画史、地域社会史の分野などを接続することで、具体的な史料に基づく新たな「国家神道」研究を試みた。神社境内やその隣接空間を「公共空間」として捉え、新旧〈帝都〉である東京と京都との比較の観点を導入することによって、寺院とは異なる神社独自の「公共性」の歴史や、神社の造営と環境整備に係わる人的系譜やその相関関係について解明した。