著者
外村 大 宮本 正明 猪股 祐介 坂田 美奈子 伊地知 紀子 菅野 敦志 岡田 泰平 松田 ヒロ子 加藤 恵美 中山 大将
出版者
東京大学
雑誌
新学術領域研究(研究領域提案型)
巻号頁・発行日
2017-06-30

本年度は、それぞれ分担研究者が担当する、過去の紛争、戦争、植民地支配等に起因する対立、葛藤の「和解」に関わる市民の活動についての、資料収集と整理、関係者からの聞取りを進めた。それぞれの研究内容については、適宜、報告を行い、その内容を相互に把握し、比較検討して各自の研究のうえでも参照している。整理に着手した資料のうちには、1970年代以降現在まで、戦後補償運動の各種市民運動、訴訟等に関わってきた市民活動家兼研究者が所蔵する大量の資料があり、これについては、2017年度中に、予備調査を行うとともにデータベース作成の準備を進めた。また、いくつかの重要な市民活動の担い手については、研究分担者全員ないし一般市民にも公開でヒアリングを行った(市民の活動についての関係者からの聞取りとしては、戦時動員の対象となり、死亡した朝鮮人の遺骨返還の活動を行う僧侶や「満蒙開拓」の史実を語り継ぐ活動に取り組むNPO法人理事などからの聞取りなど)。このほか、2018年4月に、脱植民地化と冷戦激化を背景に起きた大規模な住民に対する過剰弾圧、虐殺事件である、済州4・3事件が70周年を迎えるということもあり、それをどのように遺族らが記念し、「和解」を導き出そうとしているか等についても実情把握を進めた。その一環として、3月28~30日には分担研究者ら7名が済州島を訪れて、地元研究者との交流、遺族からの証言の聴取などを進めた。さらに「和解学」の創成をかかげて行なわれている、シンポジウム等にも、分担研究者は積極的に参加し、企画されている「和解学」の研究叢書の執筆の準備を進めている。
著者
中山 大将
出版者
京都大学
巻号頁・発行日
2010-03-23

新制・課程博士 甲第15417号 農博第1802号
著者
中山 大将
出版者
北海道大学スラブ・ユーラシア研究センター内 境界研究ユニット
雑誌
境界研究 (ISSN:21856117)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.10, pp.45-69, 2020

Academica Histrica (ROC) published a series of source books on Chinese repatriation from all over the world after WWII. One of the volumes has sources of Academica Histrica and an explanation on the return of Chinese from Southern Sakhalin after the Soviet–Japanese War. However, the explanation lacks references to other official documents of other archives and media sources. In addition, the author of the explanation failed to weigh the information in official documents from the view of Karafuto/Sakhalin history. This paper clarified the following points on Chinese in Karafuto/ Southern Sakhalin using official documents of Academica Histrica, Archive of Institute of Modern History, Academia Sinica (ROC), The Second Historical Archive of China (PRC) and Archive of Shanghai-city (PRC), in addition, newspapers and magazine articles published in China. Chinese in Southern Sakhalin contacted diplomatic establishments of the ROC in the USSR and returned to China in 1947 under the scheme for overseas Chinese repatriation established by the ROC - the same as other Chinese in the USSR. One hundred and sixty-one persons left Sakhalin for Shanghai, ROC as a Chinese returnee group and at least 4 Chinese remained in Sakhalin. It is estimated that the returnee group consisted of around 120 Chinese and around 40 Japanese families. Anxiety over regime change caused their return. They were not purged under the socialist regime in Sakhalin though they had stood by the Wang Jingwei regime under the Japanese Empire. However, socialization of the economic system and an increase of Soviet citizens damaged their lives because most of them had been engaged in commerce. The government of Shanghai-city shouldered the most important role for supporting these returnees from Southern Sakhalin. The Shanghai branch of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, ROC made every effort to accommodate them just after their arrival; however, the branch and the central government did not have a budget to support them. Not only these returnees from Southern Sakhalin but also returnees from other areas of the USSR and domestic refugees generated by the Chinese Civil War had flowed into Shanghai. Discharge of these populations was an urgent issue for Shanghai-city. Shanghai-city planned to settle these returnees and refugees on uncultivated lands in Zhejiang and Jiangxi provinces as relief works. However, it emerged that those lands were not suitable for agriculture and the returnees from Southern Sakhalin had no intention to move to those lands though some of them came from those provinces. One-third of the returnees from Southern Sakhalin had desired to move from Shanghai to Taiwan just after the return and that rate rose to three-fourths in a month, though there was no one among them from Taiwan. Some of the domestic refugees also desired to move from Shanghai to Taiwan. The Chinese Civil War had already proceeded and these refugees regarded Taiwan as one of the safe areas in China. The reasons specific to returnees from Southern Sakhalin desiring to move to Taiwan were the linguistic barrier in Shanghai, linguistic advantage in Taiwan and reunion of family in Japan. Shanghai and the surrounding areas had a variety of Chinese dialects and there were few people among the returnees from these areas. As an official document stated, it was very difficult for them to get a job there. On the contrary, many people came from Fujian province and spoke Fujian dialects, which was one of major dialects in Taiwan; moreover, it is natural that they expected that they could communicate in Japanese there because Taiwan was a colony of the Japanese Empire the same as Karafuto. In addition, an example of reunion of family in Japan via Taiwan has been known. The colonial government of Karafuto launched the evacuation during the Soviet-Japanese War and many women, children and senior citizens moved to Hokkaido. The Soviet army sealed off La Perouse Strait and many families were separated. The return of Chinese from Southern Sakhalin was a kind of unwilling displacement of citizens of the victorious nations generated by a series of border shifts after WWII, such as the return of the USSR citizens from China to the USSR. For their fatherlands, the victory of the war meant the liberation or the restoration of independence; however, for them, whether victory or defeat, border shifts derived from the war meant the disorganization of the order which they had help build as foreigners.
著者
中山 大将
出版者
日本村落研究学会
雑誌
村落社会研究ジャーナル (ISSN:18824560)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.16, no.1, pp.1-12, 2009 (Released:2012-12-24)
参考文献数
58
被引用文献数
1 1

The imperial Constitution of Japan was established in 1889 and this meant that the modern Japanese imperial institution was also established. The imperial institution in this updated form remained influential throughout the Japanese Empire. In 1928, the Showa Emperor succeeded to the throne and a series of the ceremonies were held to recognize the transition called “Showa-no-Tairei.” Concurrently, in the imperial colony of “Karafuto,” the exemplary farmer campaign was launched by the colonial government of Karafuto. First, this study clarifies the facts on how the colonial agricultural administration of Karafuto utilized the modern imperial institution through the exemplary farmer campaign for its own particular aims. Second, this study discusses the logic for the linkage between Karafuto farmers and the Emperor within the campaign. The colonial government needed to use imperial ideology to make farmers of Karafuto adopt the ideal farming style it had planned, which differed from that of mainland Japan. The colonial government exposed the farmers to Imperial linkages via the ceremony of “Showa-no-Tairei,” in which the farmers were honored, and attempted to legitimize these linkages through the campaign. The logic behind these steps depended on three facts. First, the Showa Emperor toured Karafuto and granted an audience with some of the exemplary farmers when he was the prince. Second, he planted rice on a paddy field in the palace after the demise the Taisho Emperor. Third he made honorable recognition of some of the farmers and used and ate crops dedicated by the farmers at the ceremony of accession, “Showa-no-Tairei.” The colonial government hoped that the farmers and agriculture of Karafuto would become linked with the Emperor and the Empire itself by these facts, and that this linkage would familiarize farmers with an ideology of hard work in order to attain the farming style planned by the colonial government.
著者
宇山 智彦 平野 千果子 秋田 茂 前川 一郎 河西 晃祐 小沼 孝博 水谷 智 長縄 宣博 天野 尚樹 中山 大将
出版者
北海道大学
雑誌
基盤研究(A)
巻号頁・発行日
2013-10-21

近代帝国の植民地および脱植民地化の歴史を、比較と関係性の視角から研究した。帝国権力と周縁・植民地社会を結ぶ媒介者・協力者の役割、植民地の知識人による近代化の試み、諸帝国の競存体制と植民地同士の関係、帝国・植民地における移民の位置づけ、帝国の暴力と反乱、第一次世界大戦とロシア革命のインパクト、脱植民地化をめぐる国際関係などを研究し、帝国論・植民地論の知見を現在の国際問題の分析にも応用した。全体として、帝国権力が国内外に作り出す格差構造と、植民地の被統治者の主体性の両方に目を配りながら、植民地史の多面性と今日的意義を明らかにした。