著者
工藤 彰 岡田 猛 ドミニク チェン
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.4, pp.573-590, 2015-12-01 (Released:2016-06-01)
参考文献数
43

The purpose of this study is to investigate the writing style and revision process ofa contemporary fiction writer from a cognitive science perspective. We focus on the work of Mishima Prize winning author, Otaro Maijo. Using Type Trace, a text editor devised by Dividual Inc., as an analysis tool for observing the writing process, we con-sider features that have not been detected by creative experiment, protocol analysis or manuscript research. Based on observations of Maijo’s writing process, firstly revisions are categorized as additions, deletions, substitutions, distributions, or consolidations. Secondly, revisions are further classified as “revisions at a generative point”, “revisions in a generative sentence”, “revisions in a generative paragraph”, or “revisions beyond the generative paragraph”, according to the remoteness of the revision from the point of composition. The results reveal that revisions such as the substitution of words and adjustments in sentence length were mostly performed together with text generation. All revisions that were made after an interlude took the form of revisions far removed from sentence generation. We find that Maijo’s writing style tends to be maintained for several weeks to months and then changes substantially.
著者
横地 早和子 岡田 猛
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.14, no.3, pp.437-454, 2007 (Released:2009-04-24)
参考文献数
40
被引用文献数
8 5

This study investigated the creative expertise of artists who had been making art for many years. In an initial study, we interviewed four artists at different stages of their careers about their previous artworks to investigate how they made them and how they changed in the course of their making. We asked, for instance, about their concept of each artwork, when and how a new series of artworks emerged, and so on. It was revealed that experienced artists formed their artistic vision (i.e., their long-term intention or main theme related to making art) after changing series of artwork several times, and then created artworks based on it. On the other hand, younger artists did not recognize their artistic vision yet, making artworks based on their temporary interests. In a second study, nine professional artists with more than 10 years of experience were interviewed about their whole body of artworks to identify how they became creative experts and how their artistic vision was formed. As a result, it appeared that there are three periods in creative expertise: the first is “being constrained to external criteria”; the second is “forming their own internal criteria”; and the third is “generating harmonious creations with the artistic vision.” In sum, when the artists were young, they made artworks based on external criteria. Later on, they recognized the limitations of this approach, and started to focus on internal criteria. Finally, on average about 13 years after beginning their artistic careers and creating several series of artworks, artists formed a personal artistic vision. At that point they were confidently able to make original artworks.
著者
野村 亮太 岡田 猛
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.21, no.2, pp.226-244, 2014-06-01 (Released:2015-02-10)
参考文献数
24

How do expert storytelling artists captivate audiences with a single performance? In study 1, we observed the eyeblink responses of expertized 7 of 20 audience members (10 male and 10 female, aged 16 to 67 years; M =40.6, SD =16.4) at the performance of two professional story-telling Rakugo artists. With using a surrogate data method,the statistically significant synchronization of eyeblinks among audience members was detected when performers changed scenes and characters and immediately after the performer delivered words essential to the understanding of the story. In study 2, we conducted a laboratory experiment with 32 (19 male and 13 female) participants aged 20 to 34 years (M =22.56, SD =2.85) to examine whether the expertise of the story-teller affected the frequency and intensity of synchronization of eyeblinks by recording each participant’s eyeblinks. The synchronization of eyeblinks was also detected in this study that each participant viewed videotapes alone, which eliminated potential au-dience interaction. The participants who were assigned to the watching a videotaped performance of an expert storyteller displayed frequent synchronized eyeblinks and had a higher score of transportation into the narrative world of Rakugo compared to those were assigned to watch a videotaped performance of a novice. These results imply that expert performers gain a listener’s unintentional process of attention as well as somatic-emotional responses, evidenced by synchronized eyeblinks.
著者
髙木 紀久子 河瀬 彰宏 横地 早和子 岡田 猛
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.2, pp.235-253, 2015-06-01 (Released:2015-12-01)
参考文献数
28

The process of formation by an artist of an art concept for the production of a new series of artwork has not yet been empirically elucidated. The goal of this study is to describe the process of art concept formation by a contemporary artist through metrical analyses of a text corpus based on interviews with the artist. From an analysis of the frequency of occurrence of items of vocabulary in the interview data and the TF-IDF (term frequency-inverse document frequency), we find that the second of three phases in the artist’s creative process was the most critical for the formation of the art concept,as shown in our previous qualitative study. Additionally, it is demonstrated that the art concept, White Noise, was inspired by a motif generated by the artist, and its contents were continuously modified and developed over time. Further, based on an analysis of co-occurrence frequencies of words, the structure of the art concept was deduced from the importance of co-occurring vocabulary. By means of visualizing the network of co-occurrence analysis, it is clarified that the feature words Large Glass functioned in the first phase as an intermedium for dividing the structure of the concept into two parts. In the second phase, these two parts of the structure of the concept became integrated into one. In the last phase, the structure of the concept was elaborated with the revived feature words, White Noise and Duchamp.
著者
岡田 猛
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.20, no.1, pp.10-18, 2013-03-01 (Released:2014-11-20)
参考文献数
34
被引用文献数
2
著者
縣 拓充 岡田 猛
出版者
日本教育心理学会
雑誌
教育心理学研究 (ISSN:00215015)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.58, no.4, pp.438-451, 2010-12-30
被引用文献数
1 1

本研究では,創造性神話に代表される美術の創作活動に対するイメージが,どのように表現や鑑賞への動機づけに影響するかを検討した。その際,表現に対する効力感,及び,アートに対するイメージを媒介変数として仮定し,創作活動に対するイメージは両者を介して表現・鑑賞への動機づけに効果を及ぼすという仮説モデルを構築した。まず予備調査として,人々が美術創作やアートに対して持つイメージを,自由記述式の質問紙によって抽出した。続いて首都圏の大学生・専門学校生306名に対して,上述の仮説モデルを検証する本調査を行った。構造方程式モデリングを用いた主な分析結果は以下の通りである。 1)創作・表現に対するステレオタイプは,表現に対する低い効力感,及び,アートに対するネガティヴなイメージを予測した。 2)表現に対する効力感やアートに対するイメージは,どちらも表現・鑑賞への動機づけに影響していた。以上の結果から,表現のみならず,鑑賞を促す上でも表現に対する効力感を高めるような実践が有用である可能性や,その一つの方法としての,創作・表現に対するステレオタイプを緩和するというアプローチの有効性が示唆された。
著者
岡田 猛 横地 早和子 難波 久美子 石橋 健太郎 植田 一博
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学
巻号頁・発行日
vol.14, no.3, pp.303-321, 2007

The goal of this case study was to describe creation processes of contemporary artists from the perspective of Cognitive Science. We focused on the interaction among activities that affect long term processes of expertise and those that affect shorter term processes as the artist creates a series of work. We conducted retrospective interviews with two contemporary artists in their 40's using the portfolios of their past works so that they could recall their creation processes in detail. We found that the artists used an analogical modification process to produce a new series of artwork. Analogical modification is a cognitive process similar to analogical mapping, but modifies major features of the source structure while mapping it to the target. Artistic vision, which is formed through many years of creative activities and consists of main themes and goals for creation, plays an important role in guiding the usage of analogical modification. Analogical modification correspondingly appeared to deepen artistic vision.
著者
岡田 猛 横地 早和子 難波 久美子 石橋 健太郎 植田 一博
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.14, no.3, pp.303-321, 2007 (Released:2009-04-24)
参考文献数
46
被引用文献数
8

The goal of this case study was to describe creation processes of contemporary artists from the perspective of Cognitive Science. We focused on the interaction among activities that affect long term processes of expertise and those that affect shorter term processes as the artist creates a series of work. We conducted retrospective interviews with two contemporary artists in their 40's using the portfolios of their past works so that they could recall their creation processes in detail. We found that the artists used an analogical modification process to produce a new series of artwork. Analogical modification is a cognitive process similar to analogical mapping, but modifies major features of the source structure while mapping it to the target. Artistic vision, which is formed through many years of creative activities and consists of main themes and goals for creation, plays an important role in guiding the usage of analogical modification. Analogical modification correspondingly appeared to deepen artistic vision.
著者
石黒 千晶 岡田 猛
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.90.17056, (Released:2018-11-15)
参考文献数
35

Through art appreciation, viewers are sometimes inspired to express or implement creative ideas. Such an experience is thought to be important for art learning. In this study, we conducted a questionnaire to examine how art appreciation promotes creative inspiration in non-experts. We hypothesized that: (a) individual experience with art-related activities and self-evaluation of artistic expression affect creative inspiration, mediated by the method of appreciation of artworks; and (b) the type of artworks affects creative inspiration, mediated by the method of appreciation of artworks. The participants were 373 adults, who were not art professionals (179 women, age: M = 45.02, SD = 13.45, range: 20–69 years). The data were analyzed using structured equation modeling for the two hypotheses. The two hypotheses were mostly supported, suggesting that self-evaluation of artistic expression and the type of artworks (especially classical works of art) influence creative inspiration, mediated by the method of appreciation of artworks. However, experience with art-related activities has no significant direct effect on the inspiration to create something.
著者
石黒 千晶 岡田 猛
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.88, no.5, pp.442-451, 2017 (Released:2017-12-25)
参考文献数
28

The purpose of this study is to examine whether a commitment to the study of art affects how students receive inspiration from their external environment. The frequency and intensity of external inspiration is compared in art majors versus non-art majors. In addition, we examine whether attitudes developed through the study of art are correlated with inspiration. Specifically, we focus on attitudes to art-making and art appreciation. We developed psychological scales and questionnaires to measure three parameters: (a) the frequency and intensity of inspiration from the external environment, (b) self-evaluation of art-making, and (c) attitudes toward art appreciation. We then asked 190 undergraduates who majored in the fine arts and 189 undergraduates with non-art majors to complete these questionnaires. The results show that art majors experience inspiration from their external environment more frequently and intensely than non-art majors. Attitudes toward art-making and appreciation, which differed between non-art majors and art majors, were positively correlated with externally-derived inspiration.
著者
石橋 健太郎 岡田 猛
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.17, no.1, pp.196-223, 2010 (Released:2010-10-22)
参考文献数
71
被引用文献数
3

The purpose of this study is to investigate whether copying works of art facilitates creative drawing. Thirty undergraduates, not majoring in art, individually participated in a three-day experiment. Each one was assigned to one of three experimental groups: the Copy and Create (CC) group, the Copy and Reproduce (CR) group, or the control (No copy but Create, NC) group. The participants who copied an artist's drawings (CC group) produced more creative drawings in the post-test than those who did not (NC group). Furthermore, the designs of the drawings by the CC group were different from those by the CR group. Analyses of questionnaires and verbal protocols indicate that copying an unfamiliar style of art (in this case, the abstract style) facilitated a change in the participants' mental representation of artistic creation through the following two cognitive processes: First, it relaxed the constraint of their existing idea about drawing, i.e., ‘a realistic drawing style is important’, and second it helped them to construct a new idea about drawing, i.e., ‘Subjective impression or evaluation is essential’, so that they were able to have a new perspective in drawing their original pictures. They consciously tried to express such impressions or evaluations in the post-test drawing, and the result was that they produced more creative works. Although it has been claimed that copying often plays a negative role in creation, our findings suggest that active interaction with the ideas of others through copying their works of art has great potential to facilitate student's artistic creation.
著者
杉本 覚 岡田 猛
出版者
美術科教育学会
雑誌
美術教育学 : 美術科教育学会誌 (ISSN:0917771X)
巻号頁・発行日
no.34, pp.261-275, 2013-03-25

近年,美術館においてワークショップという形態の教育普及活動が頻繁に行われるようになってきている。しかし,ワークショップの実践家の数はまだ少なく,その育成が喫緊の課題として挙げられている。この課題を解決するためには,まずはファシリテーターの熟達過程を調査し,その実証的なデータに基づいた教育プログラムを作成する必要があるだろう。そこで本研究では,実際のワークショップにおいてスタッフの活動の様子を参与的に観察するとともに,参加したスタッフに質問紙を実施して,その回答やミーティングでのやり取りをもとに学習や認識の変化を分類し,ワークショップ内の活動との対応を検討した。その結果,スタッフの学習として「ファシリテーションに関する学習」「ワークショップ自体に対する認識の変化」「作品との関わり方に対する認識の変化」「日常の自身の姿勢に対する認識の変化」の4つのカテゴリが見出された。
著者
横地 早和子 岡田 猛
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 = Cognitive studies : bulletin of the Japanese Cognitive Science Society (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.14, no.3, pp.437-454, 2007-09-01
被引用文献数
8

This study investigated the creative expertise of artists who had been making art for many years. In an initial study, we interviewed four artists at different stages of their careers about their previous artworks to investigate how they made them and how they changed in the course of their making. We asked, for instance, about their concept of each artwork, when and how a new series of artworks emerged, and so on. It was revealed that experienced artists formed their artistic vision (i.e., their long-term intention or main theme related to making art) after changing series of artwork several times, and then created artworks based on it. On the other hand, younger artists did not recognize their artistic vision yet, making artworks based on their temporary interests. In a second study, nine professional artists with more than 10 years of experience were interviewed about their whole body of artworks to identify how they became creative experts and how their artistic vision was formed. As a result, it appeared that there are three periods in creative expertise: the first is “being constrained to external criteria”; the second is “forming their own internal criteria”; and the third is “generating harmonious creations with the artistic vision.” In sum, when the artists were young, they made artworks based on external criteria. Later on, they recognized the limitations of this approach, and started to focus on internal criteria. Finally, on average about 13 years after beginning their artistic careers and creating several series of artworks, artists formed a personal artistic vision. At that point they were confidently able to make original artworks.
著者
清水 大地 岡田 猛
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.1, pp.203-211, 2015-03-01 (Released:2015-09-15)
参考文献数
15

Focusing on the process of a dancer’s acquisition of a new technique in breakdance,,“Inside Ninety”, this longitudinal case study aims to disclose the process of skill acqui-sition through practice. We conducted a fieldwork study (participant observation andinterviews) to analyze the dancer’s endeavours to acquire and improve skills. By avoid-ing the specification of goals and movements by the researchers, as is often the case in experimental settings, we observed the development of movements in each practicesession. The results indicate that the process of acquisition of a new dance techniqueconsists not only of the refinement of a particular skill, but also of two other activities;the exploration of new and original skill utilizing the characters of a particular skill, and the arrangement of that skill so that it should fit into his full performance. Theprocess of an expert’s acquisition of a particular technique is a complicated and creativeone, integrating each skill into a full performance.
著者
清水 大地 岡田 猛
出版者
人工知能学会
雑誌
人工知能学会全国大会論文集 (ISSN:13479881)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, 2013

本研究ではブレイクダンスにおける特定の踊り(技)の習得過程に注目し,エキスパートダンサーを対象とした長期のフィールドワーク,インタビューによる縦断的検討を行った.インタビュー回答や映像の分析より,複数のスランプを経て踊りの質を向上させたこと,スランプでは身体の使い方を試行錯誤し新しい使い方を発見したこと,その踊りにおける身体動作を利用して新しい踊りを随時創作したことが示された.
著者
縣 拓充 岡田 猛
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.20, no.1, pp.27-45, 2013-03-01 (Released:2014-11-20)
参考文献数
89
被引用文献数
4 2

Creative activities are becoming increasingly important in modern society. Studies have been conducted to promote understanding and support of creative experts in various creative domains such as art, music, science, and technology. At the same time, it has also been pointed out that many ordinary citizens do not have opportunities to participate in creative activities and do not have knowledge about creative processes and methods. Does this mean that citizens should be just consumers of creative products? In this paper, we claim that a creative society needs not only creative experts who professionally participate in creative activities, but also ‘people with creative literacy’who understand creative activities and enjoy participating in such activities in their daily life. We discuss practices to cultivate people’s understanding of and motivation for creative activities, and the ways that cognitive science can contribute to the support of such practices.
著者
野村 亮太 岡田 猛
出版者
Japanese Cognitive Science Society
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.21, no.2, pp.226-244, 2014

How do expert storytelling artists captivate audiences with a single performance? In<br/> study 1, we observed the eyeblink responses of expertized 7 of 20 audience members<br/> (10 male and 10 female, aged 16 to 67 years; <i>M </i>=40<i>.</i>6, <i>SD </i>=16<i>.</i>4) at the performance<br/> of two professional story-telling Rakugo artists. With using a surrogate data method,<br/>the statistically significant synchronization of eyeblinks among audience members was<br/> detected when performers changed scenes and characters and immediately after the<br/> performer delivered words essential to the understanding of the story. In study 2, we<br/> conducted a laboratory experiment with 32 (19 male and 13 female) participants aged<br/> 20 to 34 years (<i>M </i>=22<i>.</i>56, <i>SD </i>=2<i>.</i>85) to examine whether the expertise of the story-<br/>teller affected the frequency and intensity of synchronization of eyeblinks by recording<br/> each participant's eyeblinks. The synchronization of eyeblinks was also detected in this<br/> study that each participant viewed videotapes alone, which eliminated potential au-<br/>dience interaction. The participants who were assigned to the watching a videotaped<br/> performance of an expert storyteller displayed frequent synchronized eyeblinks and had<br/> a higher score of transportation into the narrative world of Rakugo compared to those<br/> were assigned to watch a videotaped performance of a novice. These results imply<br/> that expert performers gain a listener's unintentional process of attention as well as<br/> somatic-emotional responses, evidenced by synchronized eyeblinks.