著者
八ッ塚 一郎
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.29, no.3, pp.170-179, 2014

Changes in the usage of the verb "ijimeru" (to bully) and the noun "ijime" (bullying) in Japanese newspaper articles were investigated. Full-text searches and postpositional particle analysis were performed on issues of three major Japanese newspapers published between 1987 and 2011. The passive form of ijimeru (to bully) was used much more often than was the active form during the entire period investigated. During several specific years, the noun, ijime (bullying), appeared as a subject very frequently, but this trend was not consistent, and the number of articles containing this word decreased in most of the other years. Ijime (bullying) refers to an action that occurs independently of any particular actor. As such, it would be expected to appear frequently during any period of time. However, the word is construed to refer to suffering endured by an unlucky passive victim or to rare events such as natural disasters. The dissociation of the denotation from the actual usage of ijime (bullying) as well as the use of the term ijime (bullying) more generally are discussed from the perspective of social representations.
著者
村山 綾 三浦 麻子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.1, pp.51-59, 2012

This study focused on perceived relationship conflict and task conflict within groups and investigated the possible misperceptions and differences in preferences of conflict management behavior. Both types of conflict were manipulated in a crossed design with respect to their conflict level, resulting in four different scenarios (i.e., low conflict, relationship conflict, task conflict, and mixed conflict situations). Two hundred and thirty-one undergraduate students were asked to answer (1) perceived task and relationship conflict within each scenario and (2) preferred management behavior in that situation. Results showed that both types of conflict could be misperceived with regard to the other. Avoidant management behavior was preferred more in the relationship conflict situation than the task conflict situation. In addition, preferred management behavior in the mixed conflict situation, where both relationship and task conflict were strongly perceived, was the same as the management behavior in the relationship conflict situation. Differences in management behavior in each conflict situation were discussed based on the dual process theory.
著者
村上 幸史
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, no.1, pp.30-41, 2009

After obtaining positive results from uncertain events, individuals tend to feel confident in their skills (Langer, 1975). However, according to popular usage like lay theory, the word "lucky" carries relatively negative connotations for some people. This reflects the idea of "Luck Resource Belief," whereby luck supposedly decreases if it is consumed. In this study, we developed and administered a scale to survey this personal belief. We compared attitudes toward forthcoming uncertain events in the aftermath of a lucky or unlucky lotto outcome from the perspective of the "Luck Resource Belief." Results showed that when individuals adhering to the Luck Resource Belief obtained "lucky" lotto results, confidence and risky choices with regard to subsequent uncertain events were reduced. Such results have been discussed with regard to the Gambler's fallacy, anticipated regret, and mental simulation (Kahneman & Tversky, 1982).
著者
小野田 竜一 高橋 伸幸
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.29, no.2, pp.65-74, 2013

When people behave more cooperatively toward in-group members than to out-group members, we call it "in-group favoring behavior." However, previous studies have not yet provided a satisfactory explanation for why in-group favoritism can be adaptive. In the current study, we conducted a series of simulations to explain such behaviors from an evolutionary perspective. We used the giving game and constructed a society composed of two groups, A and B. In the game, every player was given a fixed amount of resources and decided how much and to whom he gave. The results showed that the in-group favoring strategy is adaptive only when it has a strict criterion for recipients (not giving any resources to players who had helped other players who did not adopt the in-group favoring strategy). Furthermore, they showed that there were other strategies which have a strict criterion for recipients that could be adaptive as well. These findings suggest that strategies which form a circle of exchange only among themselves by excluding other strategies can be adaptive.
著者
清水 裕士 大坊 郁夫
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.3, pp.295-304, 2007
被引用文献数
1

This study had two main purposes. The first was to clarify the relationship between structure of interaction and stability of romantic relationships, and the second was to compare the effect of the total intimacy level of a couple with the individual levels of intimacy using a pairwise correlation analysis in order to determine a couple's interdependency. Questionnaires were completed by 59 couples (college students in romantic relationships). The feature of interaction structure was measured by the frequency, strength, and diversity of interactions, while the stability of a relationship was measured by satisfaction, commitment, and prospects of a continued relationship. The pairwise correlation analysis separated the correlation of the couple level from the individual level. The results indicated that the stability of relationships was affected by the degree of diversity of interaction at the couple level, and by the strength of interaction at the individual level. Finally, we discussed the function of relationship stability, showing the degree of diversity and strength of interaction.
著者
稲増 一憲 三浦 麻子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.31, no.3, pp.172-183, 2016-03-18 (Released:2016-03-28)
参考文献数
52
被引用文献数
3

Although the spread of the “high-choice” Internet brings a great deal of attention to research in partisan-selective exposure, there are not many people choosing media based on their partisanship in reality. On the other hand, preference-based selective exposure, widening gaps in knowledge about political or international news between news seekers and entertainment fans as a result of reducing opportunities for incidental or by-product exposure to news in a high-choice media environment, may become a serious problem in a society made up of less partisan voters. This research focused on this selective exposure and, using an online survey, examined whether online services would widen or narrow voters’ gaps in political knowledge. The results indicate that while exposure to portal sites, newspaper sites, and summary of 2-channel sites decrease in the gap, exposure to news curation applications and Twitter increase in the gap. The implications for possible change in the media environment are discussed.
著者
荒川 歩 村上 幸史
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.1, pp.85-97, 2006-08-25 (Released:2017-02-08)

We investigated why people own lucky charms. One hundred ninety-eight students answered our questionnaire. The results showed that ownership of lucky charms is not entirely related to the desire to connect to a transcendental power; people have lucky charms because they have received them as gifts from family and friends; family and friends give lucky charms when they cannot provide other forms of support directly; the gift of a charm is usually from an older person to a younger person; the relationship between the donor and the recipient affects the type of charm given. These results suggest that donors may give lucky charms to allay their anxiety, and that lucky charms act as a reminder of the donor's support of the recipient in times of trouble.
著者
石田 裕昭
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.20, no.3, pp.208-215, 2005

The present study explored perfectionists' task-strategy and its inefficiency in the information-seeking task from the misregulation perspective. Participants were divided into two groups on the basis of Perfectionism Cognitions Inventory (PCI). Twenty-eight students, 15 high- and 13 low-perfectionism participants, were asked to prepare for the test by gathering information, which was designated as either important or unimportant. The amount of unimportant information was regarded as a tangential strategy, such that too much effort or excessive persistence would impair the efficiency in the task. The hypothesis tested was that high perfectionists' inefficient strategy would lead to a drop of their test score. The results suggested that high-perfectionists collect unimportant information more than low-perfectionists, and resulting in them attaining a lower test score. Our findings indicated that perfectionists' high motivation and adherence to problem solving, coupled with their use of careful strategy, could backfire.
著者
田崎 勝也 二ノ宮 卓也
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.29, no.2, pp.75-85, 2013

The aim of this study is to identify response styles among Japanese participants. Response style research has had a methodological concern that biased responses defined by the number of counts responding to certain category options run the risk of being confounded with item contents. Thus, following the approach delineated and outlined by Billiet and McClendon (2000), this study identifies response styles with the aid of structural equation modeling. Based on the premise that stable tendencies in response behavior are related to personality traits, the impact of response styles is partialed out from item responses by modeling a "style factor." Confirmatory factor analyses on two distinctive psychological scales found a significant effect of the acquiescence response style (ARS) on item responses. On the other hand, strong evidence of the (in) extreme response style (ERS) and the mid-point response style (MRS), often mentioned as Japanese response styles, was not identified.
著者
村上 幸史
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.3, pp.147-157, 2013

Murakami (2009) demonstrated the tendency toward underestimating the possible success of uncertain events after "lucky" events in terms of "Luck Resource Belief." However, this notion does not necessarily entail a consequent decision to avoid a high-risk option due to low expectations. A "relativity hypothesis of luck" has been proposed to explain this tendency from the perspective of the relative value of several relevant events. This hypothesis suggests that a lucky result by itself does not carry a negative value. Indeed, when considerations include future outcomes, the value of the lucky outcome shifts, which demonstrates relative cognitive change. To examine this change and the tendency to assign value to lucky results, we distributed questionnaires (Study 1) and conducted an experiment involving predictions about the actual outcomes of World Cup soccer matches (Study 2). The results indicated that the occurrence of a lucky event before subsequent important events was associated with avoidance of a high-risk option only for respondents with a "Luck Resource Belief," because this belief involves devaluing the lucky outcome before subsequent important events. These results support the "relativity hypothesis of luck" and are discussed in terms of their implication for anticipated regret.
著者
三隅 譲二 木下 冨雄
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.7, no.1, pp.8-18, 1992
被引用文献数
1 2

The purpose of this study was to find a latent structure of an acquaintance network in our world, or, in other words, to estimate the shortest communication channel between the "starter person" and the "target person" in Japanese society. A modified chain-letter technique was used for the experiment. A total of 200 subjects were randomly selected to be the starter persons in Fukuoka. They were asked to select one of their acquaintances to be an intermediary who would be more likely to approach to the target person who lived in Osaka. The same procedure was repeated until an acquaintance chain reached the target person. There were two target persons, X and Y. X worked in a famous company (F-condition), while Y worked in an obscure company (O-condition). Other variables among target persons, such as age, sex, education, place of residence, position in a company were controlled. It was found that a total number of fifty-five chains reached the target persons, with a mean number of steps equaling 7.2. However, the mean number in the F-condition was 5.5, while that in the O-condition was 9.2. Our world is unexpectedly small. In the former condition, people tended to use information regarding a target person's occupation and alma mater as tactics to select an intermediary. In the latter condition, information regarding a target person's place of residence and the breadth of acquaintances of an intermediary was often used for selecting a friend. There was a strong trend for male subjects to select male acquaintances and female subjects to select female acquaintances. The same applies to age and occupation as well, indicating that there are basic acquaintance networks in Japan such as same-sex, same-age, same-occupation networks.
著者
長谷川 孝治 宮田 加久子 浦 光博
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, no.1, pp.45-56, 2007

This study examined the mutual influence processes between self-appraisal on the Internet and actual self-appraisal. Specifically, we researched the discrepancies in each self-evaluation, and how the degree of those discrepancies related to mental health. In a forum on the Internet, a survey with a two-wave panel design was conducted on the Web for mothers with pre-school children who were exchanging childcare information. At the time of each investigation, the actual self-appraisal (SA), the reflected self-appraisal (RSA: participants infer how a significant other evaluates them), the reflected self-appraisal on the Net (RSA-N: participants infer how a significant other in the forum in which they participate evaluates them), and mild depression were measured as an index of mental health. The result showed that the discrepancy betweerl SA and RSA-N was significantly larger than the discrepancy between SA and RSA. We further found that the level of the RSA-N score was significantly lower than that of RSA or SA. However, depression was not influenced by the lowness of the RSA-N score or the discrepancy between SA and RSA-N, but was instead influenced by the lowness of the SA score or the discrepancy between SA and RSA. Moreover, Path analysis found the self-process on the Internet. Specifically, Time 1 SA affected Time 2 RSA; in turn, RSA correlated with RSA-N at Time 2. These results suggested that the self-appraisal on the Internet was formed based on actual self-appraisal by using the Internet about an actual problem.
著者
宇井 美代子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.21, no.2, pp.91-101, 2005
被引用文献数
1

This study examined the criteria employed in judging the presence or absence of gender equality for dividing roles and resources between men and women in 3 situations-the workplace, domestic labor, and childrearing. Two hundred and forty six female university students responded to the questionnaire. The results indicated individual differences regarding the importance of the principles of "traits of men and women" and "equality". On the other hand, the importance of the other criteria varied according to the situations. In a workplace situation, "equal opportunity" and the principles of "individual ability", "effort", and "need" were perceived as important. "Procedural justice based on discussion" in a domestic labor situation, and "the procedural justice based on one's decision" and the principles of "individual ability" and "effort" in a childrearing situation were considered as important.
著者
中村 早希 三浦 麻子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.34, no.3, pp.119-132, 2019-03-31 (Released:2019-03-31)
参考文献数
28

This study examines the attitude change process based on the heuristic-systematic model (HSM) in persuasion among two individuals holding different opinions, as the simplest situation of multiple directions of persuasion by different sources. Participants with restricted or unrestricted cognitive resources were asked their attitudes after reading two different persuasive messages: one was a persuasion from in-group member with weak arguments and the other was from out-group member with strong arguments. Cognitive resources were manipulated with a dual task (Study 1) and time constraints (Study 2) to allow either heuristic or systematic processes to predominate. Both studies showed participants were more likely to form their attitudes in response to the persuasion from in-group member, which had positive heuristic cues, with weak arguments under a restricted condition than under an unrestricted condition. This provides evidence that the HSM can explain the attitude change process under multiple-source-and-direction persuasion.
著者
井川 純一 中西 大輔 志和 資朗
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.2, pp.87-93, 2013

The purpose of this study is to reveal people's feelings in Japan about "burnout/moetsuki." In Study 1, we conducted a content analysis using articles in newspapers to confirm the usage of burnout/moetsuki. Results indicated that burnout/moetsuki was viewed negatively: images of burnout were associated with article themes and the profession of the interviewees in the article. In particular, burnout was viewed notably negatively in articles when they were related to human services professionals, although it was viewed positively in articles on sports players (particularly when the sports players themselves talked about their burnout experiences). In Study 2, we confirmed the effect of the article theme (that is, burnout experienced by sports players was viewed more positively than that experienced by workers in human services). However, the study could not support the hypothesis about the effects of the profession of the interviewees. These results imply that the term burnout is defined differently by lay people. Therefore, we should rethink the Japanese translation of burnout.
著者
加藤 司
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, no.2, pp.152-161, 2007

The main purpose of the present study is to investigate the role of the relationship between the coper and the other party in the process of interpersonal stress. Six hundred and ninety undergraduate students completed the measures of interpersonal relationship (intimacy, similarity perception, self-disclosure, expectation of the role behavior), coping with an interpersonal stressor, and psychological distress. Results indicated that interpersonal relationship influenced the selection of coping behavior and moderated the effect of coping behavior on psychological distress. Increased closeness was associated with a higher score on positive relationship-oriented coping (e.g., "I tried to promote a better understanding of the other party.") and a lower score on negative relationship-oriented coping (e.g., "I refused to deal with the other party.") and postponed-solution coping (e.g., "I let the break-up take its own course."). These findings suggest that the interpersonal relationship is an important factor for in the interpersonal stress process.
著者
熊谷 智博
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.29, no.2, pp.86-93, 2013

This study examined the effects of intergroup social justice on intergroup aggression inflicted against a wrongdoer by someone who was not directly involved in the wrongdoing (third party aggression). Specifically, it focused on whether third party aggression is retaliatory aggression or not. Sixty-four participants equally or unequally received lottery tickets from a fellow ingroup member; they then observed that the fellow ingroup member or an outgroup member unequally received such tickets from another outgroup member. After this observation, participants were given the opportunity to select the level of unpleasant noise that would be experienced by the outgroup member responsible for the unequal distribution. The results suggested that intragroup social justice enhanced group identification with the ingroup, which in turn enhanced perceived unfairness of intergroup distribution only when the victim was an ingroup member. That perceived unfairness then intensified hostility and aggressive behavior against the unfair outgroup member. Finally, the relationship between the psychological mechanisms of third party aggression and intergroup conflict in the real world was discussed.
著者
相川 充 高本 真寛 杉森 伸吉 古屋 真
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.3, pp.139-150, 2012

The purpose of this study was to develop a scale to measure individual teamwork competency in a group. In Study 1, we constructed a preliminary version of the teamwork competency scale consisting of five subscales: communication, team orientation, back up, monitoring, and leadership. Undergraduate students (N=409) answered these preliminary subscales. Based on the results of item analysis, a final and reliable version of the five subscales was constructed. The validity of these subscales was confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis, structural equation modeling, and multiple population analysis. In Study 2, members (N=58) of university student clubs answered these subscales. The self-evaluated scores of the members whose teamwork behavior was highly evaluated by the club leader were statistically higher than those with a lower evaluation. Study 3 addressed industrial workers (N= 76) in a company whose scores of these subscales had a moderately positive or negative correlation with other measures, including self-rated and peer-rated teamwork behavior. It was concluded that these five subscales measure different aspects of teamwork competency with a certain validity.
著者
小俣 謙二
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.29, no.1, pp.1-10, 2013-08-31 (Released:2017-02-24)
被引用文献数
1

The present study aimed to examine the possibility that the reputation of a rape victim and the prejudice that women desire violent sex interactively influence third party bystanders' blame of the victim and assessment of psychological damage suffered by the victim. College students (n=399; 177 men, 222 women) responded to a questionnaire. Respectability was defined as follows: less respectable victims were part-time cabaret hostesses and the average respectable victims were average female students. Results indicated that less respectable victims were blamed more and assessed as having suffered less damage in comparison to the average student victims. In addition, there was an interaction between respectability and respondents' prejudices about the sexual desires of women, such that the effect of respectability on blaming the victim was limited to respondents with fewer prejudices about the sexual desires of women.