著者
小野田 竜一 高橋 伸幸
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.29, no.2, pp.65-74, 2013

When people behave more cooperatively toward in-group members than to out-group members, we call it "in-group favoring behavior." However, previous studies have not yet provided a satisfactory explanation for why in-group favoritism can be adaptive. In the current study, we conducted a series of simulations to explain such behaviors from an evolutionary perspective. We used the giving game and constructed a society composed of two groups, A and B. In the game, every player was given a fixed amount of resources and decided how much and to whom he gave. The results showed that the in-group favoring strategy is adaptive only when it has a strict criterion for recipients (not giving any resources to players who had helped other players who did not adopt the in-group favoring strategy). Furthermore, they showed that there were other strategies which have a strict criterion for recipients that could be adaptive as well. These findings suggest that strategies which form a circle of exchange only among themselves by excluding other strategies can be adaptive.
著者
井川 純一 中西 大輔 志和 資朗
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.2, pp.87-93, 2013

The purpose of this study is to reveal people's feelings in Japan about "burnout/moetsuki." In Study 1, we conducted a content analysis using articles in newspapers to confirm the usage of burnout/moetsuki. Results indicated that burnout/moetsuki was viewed negatively: images of burnout were associated with article themes and the profession of the interviewees in the article. In particular, burnout was viewed notably negatively in articles when they were related to human services professionals, although it was viewed positively in articles on sports players (particularly when the sports players themselves talked about their burnout experiences). In Study 2, we confirmed the effect of the article theme (that is, burnout experienced by sports players was viewed more positively than that experienced by workers in human services). However, the study could not support the hypothesis about the effects of the profession of the interviewees. These results imply that the term burnout is defined differently by lay people. Therefore, we should rethink the Japanese translation of burnout.
著者
加藤 司
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, no.2, pp.152-161, 2007

The main purpose of the present study is to investigate the role of the relationship between the coper and the other party in the process of interpersonal stress. Six hundred and ninety undergraduate students completed the measures of interpersonal relationship (intimacy, similarity perception, self-disclosure, expectation of the role behavior), coping with an interpersonal stressor, and psychological distress. Results indicated that interpersonal relationship influenced the selection of coping behavior and moderated the effect of coping behavior on psychological distress. Increased closeness was associated with a higher score on positive relationship-oriented coping (e.g., "I tried to promote a better understanding of the other party.") and a lower score on negative relationship-oriented coping (e.g., "I refused to deal with the other party.") and postponed-solution coping (e.g., "I let the break-up take its own course."). These findings suggest that the interpersonal relationship is an important factor for in the interpersonal stress process.
著者
相川 充 高本 真寛 杉森 伸吉 古屋 真
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.3, pp.139-150, 2012

The purpose of this study was to develop a scale to measure individual teamwork competency in a group. In Study 1, we constructed a preliminary version of the teamwork competency scale consisting of five subscales: communication, team orientation, back up, monitoring, and leadership. Undergraduate students (N=409) answered these preliminary subscales. Based on the results of item analysis, a final and reliable version of the five subscales was constructed. The validity of these subscales was confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis, structural equation modeling, and multiple population analysis. In Study 2, members (N=58) of university student clubs answered these subscales. The self-evaluated scores of the members whose teamwork behavior was highly evaluated by the club leader were statistically higher than those with a lower evaluation. Study 3 addressed industrial workers (N= 76) in a company whose scores of these subscales had a moderately positive or negative correlation with other measures, including self-rated and peer-rated teamwork behavior. It was concluded that these five subscales measure different aspects of teamwork competency with a certain validity.
著者
石田 裕昭
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.20, no.3, pp.208-215, 2005

The present study explored perfectionists' task-strategy and its inefficiency in the information-seeking task from the misregulation perspective. Participants were divided into two groups on the basis of Perfectionism Cognitions Inventory (PCI). Twenty-eight students, 15 high- and 13 low-perfectionism participants, were asked to prepare for the test by gathering information, which was designated as either important or unimportant. The amount of unimportant information was regarded as a tangential strategy, such that too much effort or excessive persistence would impair the efficiency in the task. The hypothesis tested was that high perfectionists' inefficient strategy would lead to a drop of their test score. The results suggested that high-perfectionists collect unimportant information more than low-perfectionists, and resulting in them attaining a lower test score. Our findings indicated that perfectionists' high motivation and adherence to problem solving, coupled with their use of careful strategy, could backfire.
著者
小俣 謙二
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.29, no.1, pp.1-10, 2013-08-31 (Released:2017-02-24)
被引用文献数
1

The present study aimed to examine the possibility that the reputation of a rape victim and the prejudice that women desire violent sex interactively influence third party bystanders' blame of the victim and assessment of psychological damage suffered by the victim. College students (n=399; 177 men, 222 women) responded to a questionnaire. Respectability was defined as follows: less respectable victims were part-time cabaret hostesses and the average respectable victims were average female students. Results indicated that less respectable victims were blamed more and assessed as having suffered less damage in comparison to the average student victims. In addition, there was an interaction between respectability and respondents' prejudices about the sexual desires of women, such that the effect of respectability on blaming the victim was limited to respondents with fewer prejudices about the sexual desires of women.
著者
熊谷 智博
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.29, no.2, pp.86-93, 2013

This study examined the effects of intergroup social justice on intergroup aggression inflicted against a wrongdoer by someone who was not directly involved in the wrongdoing (third party aggression). Specifically, it focused on whether third party aggression is retaliatory aggression or not. Sixty-four participants equally or unequally received lottery tickets from a fellow ingroup member; they then observed that the fellow ingroup member or an outgroup member unequally received such tickets from another outgroup member. After this observation, participants were given the opportunity to select the level of unpleasant noise that would be experienced by the outgroup member responsible for the unequal distribution. The results suggested that intragroup social justice enhanced group identification with the ingroup, which in turn enhanced perceived unfairness of intergroup distribution only when the victim was an ingroup member. That perceived unfairness then intensified hostility and aggressive behavior against the unfair outgroup member. Finally, the relationship between the psychological mechanisms of third party aggression and intergroup conflict in the real world was discussed.
著者
石黒 格
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.1, pp.13-23, 2011

The present study examined attitude similarity among the Japanese using data from a national representative dyadic survey. The Euclidean distance of responses to eight 4-point survey items measuring the values of the respondents and alters was used as the index of the attitude similarity of dyads. Relationships between attitude similarity and urbanism and the size of one's personal network were measured as indexes of relational selectability. Multilevel analyses revealed the following results: (1) attitude similarity was significantly high among the Japanese; (2) the size of one's personal network positively and significantly correlated with attitude similarity; and (3) the correlation remained significant even when the similarity of demographic profiles was controlled. These results imply that attitude similarity is determined not by relational structure at the societal level but rather relational structure at the personal network level. The implications of the findings that attitude similarity was relatively weak and did not correlate with urbanism in regard to the subcultural theory of urbanism (Fischer, 1982) are discussed.
著者
北山 忍
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.10, no.3, pp.153-167, 1995
被引用文献数
3

Cultures vary considerably in the views of self that are historically constructed and tacitly shared therein. In European-American cultures there is a strong belief in the independence of self from others, giving rise to a major life task of discovering, confirming, and expressing positively valued internal attributes of the self. By contrast, many Asian cultures do not value such independence. Instead, they emphasize the interdependence of self with others. A major life task of these cultures involves forming and maintaining a social relationship of which the self is seen as its meaningful part. In turn, these cultural views of self as independent or as interdependent shape the very nature of social psychological processes that have traditionally been assumed to be cross-culturally invariant. Within this theoretical framework, cross-cultural differences in a variety of psychological processes including cognition, emotion, and motivation are reviewed and integrated. Implications are discussed for future directions of social psychology in Japan.
著者
相川 充 藤田 正美 田中 健吾
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, no.1, pp.95-103, 2007

The present study investigated the validity for Japanese students of a vulnerability model of social skills deficits proposed by Segrin (1996). According to the model, it was assumed that social skills deficits were not causes or consequences of depression, loneliness, and social anxiety. Rather, they constituted vulnerability factors, and it was the interaction of social skills deficits and negative life events that predicted the development of depression, loneliness, and social anxiety. Two hundred and fifty-three students recorded scales of social skills, depression, loneliness, and social anxiety three times at intervals of three months. Results indicated that the interaction of social skills deficits and negative life events predicted the development of depression, loneliness, and social anxiety significantly in some cases, but social skills deficits alone were also significant in their prediction. It was considered that the method of using a multiple regression analysis following Segrin (1996, 1999) would not be appropriate for proving the model. The validity of lumping depression, loneliness, and social anxiety together and applying them to the same model was discussed.
著者
鈴木 直人 山岸 俊男
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.20, no.1, pp.17-25, 2004
被引用文献数
2

This study investigated the cognitive basis of self-effacing behavior among the Japanese. Based on the premises that self-effacement among the Japanese is a form of "default self-presentation," we predicted that Japanese self-effacement will dissipate when actual self-evaluation is required. The experiment (n = 110) consisted of two phases. In Phase 1, participants took a "cognitive ability test" that consisted of 20 questions. In Phase 2, they were asked to judge if their performance on the test was above or below the average performance level in their school. In the bonus condition, participants were rewarded for making a correct judgment in their performance. In the fixed-reward condition, no reward was provided for making a correct judgment. The results from experiments 1 and 2, taken together, indicate that self-effacement observed in the fixed-reward condition was not confirmed in the bonus condition. These results suggest that self-effacement among the Japanese is a strategy for self-presentation, which they switch on and off depending on the situation.
著者
三浦 麻子 川浦 康至
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, no.3, pp.233-245, 2008
被引用文献数
10

Web-based knowledge-sharing communities, which are supported by countless voluntary Internet users, are in widespread use today. We explored a number of characteristics of interpersonal communication among participants based on their questioning and answering behaviors. A questionnaire survey on participants of Yahoo! Chiebukuro, one of the most popular knowledge-sharing communities in Japan, was conducted, and access data of their behavior in the community were collected. Based on 7,989 survey samples and access data, we found that there were several significant differences in their behavior and motivation based on their participation style, question content, and gender. Results also suggested that information was exchanged and accumulated actively in the community and interpersonal communication of community participants was developed by an aggressive need for information acquisition and subsequent social support.
著者
上原 俊介 中川 知宏 国佐 勇輔 岩淵 絵里 田村 達 森 丈弓
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.3, pp.158-168, 2013

Anger at the violation of a moral standard has been called moral outrage. However, recent research found that only when the victim of a moral violation was oneself (or a member of one's group) did it evoke strong anger. This suggests that the violation of a moral standard itself does not elicit anger, and such anger may be evidence of personal anger evoked by harm to oneself (or a member of one's group). In our study, we assume that moral outrage may be evoked when the likelihood of restoring fairness (e.g., compensation) is expected. We conducted three experiments in which Japanese university students read a newspaper report (fictitious) depicting an abduction case. For half of the participants, the abducted victim was Japanese; for the other half, Slovenian. After reading the news story, they were asked to report the intensity of the feelings of anger and whether the abduction was morally wrong. We found that the report evoked considerable anger only when the abducted victim was Japanese, regardless of whether restoring fairness was actually expected. This indicated that the reported anger provided evidence only of personal anger, not of moral outrage; thus, the likelihood of restoring fairness is not a determinant of moral outrage. These findings imply that personal anger, rather than moral outrage, is more prevalent in social life.
著者
及川 昌典 及川 晴
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.29, no.1, pp.40-46, 2013

The role of emotional suppression and expression in the affective priming effect was addressed by examining the consequences of expressing one's emotions toward the primes within the framework of the affect misattribution procedure (AMP: Payne, Cheng, Govorun, & Stewart, 2005). Consistent with previous findings, pleasant or unpleasant picture primes influenced subsequent evaluations of unrelated neutral targets, despite blatant warning to ignore the primes. Interestingly, however, the affective priming effect disappeared when participants expressed their affective responses toward the primes. Moreover, the effect of negative emotional expression was moderated by individual differences in self-rumination. These findings suggest that an affective priming effect ensues when affect is kept unexpressed.
著者
川浦 康至 山下 清美 川上 善郎
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.14, no.3, pp.133-143, 1999
被引用文献数
12

Thies research was conducted to examine the psychological implications of the people who post their diaries on the internet (i.e., Webdiaries). Web diary authors, compared with normal diary authors, are thought to feel better function of self-disclosure and interpersonal communication. Out of 1,529 surveyed subjects 377 valid responses (24.7%) were received. As a result, our hypothesis, "the higher their self-consciousness are, or the more positive feedback they received, the higher they value their diaries, increasing level of gratification and intention to continue the Web diary" was basically verified. To write a web diary is a kind of opportunity to develop communication with others. In conclusion, writing a Web diary is an act of self-recognition through communication with others.
著者
金政 祐司
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, no.1, pp.11-20, 2009

This study was conducted to reveal the commonality between mother-child and romantic dyads in early adults, based on the relationships between early adult attachment dimensions, emotional experiences in the relationships, and evaluation of the relationships. Participants were 209 pairs of early adults and their mothers, and 103 romantic couples in early adulthood. The main results were as follows: in both relationships, attachment anxiety was positively correlated to one's own and one's partner's negative emotion in the relationship and negatively related to one's own and one's partner's evaluation of relationships. But attachment avoidance was only related to one's own negative and positive emotion in those relationships. Moreover, the relations between attachment anxiety and one's own and one's partner's evaluation of relationships were mediated by one's own and one's partner's negative emotion respectively in both relationships. The results were discussed in terms of the self-fulfilling prophecy of attachment styles.
著者
森本 裕子 渡部 幹 楠見 孝
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.2, pp.108-119, 2008

We investigated how differently people punish a free-rider in three experiments. Experiment 1 was conducted to examine how individual levels of trust and self-fairness influence their punishing behavior in a 5-person social dilemma. The results showed that trustful and unfair people, as well as distrustful and fair people, punish a free-rider more. To account for these results, we carried out a vignette-type study in Experiment 2, in which participants rated how likely they were to engage in a variety of punishing behaviors that typically happen in the real world. A factor analysis indicated that people usually assign two different types of meanings to punishing behaviors. One is "Vengeance," which unfair people, regardless of their levels of trust, tend to inflict; the other is "Warning," which tends to be favored by fair people. The results of Experiment 3, another vignette study, showed that observers also consider Vengeance as unfair and Warning fair. These findings imply that participants assigned one of the two meanings to their punishments in Experiment 1 depending on their levels of trust.
著者
船越 理沙 田崎 勝也 潮村 公弘
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.3, pp.180-188, 2013

The present study investigated the cultural equivalence of Self-Monitoring Scales (Snyder, 1974) through an examination of differential item functioning (DIF) using structural equation modeling. The data were collected in Japan (n=211) and the US (n=171). Factorial analyses were conducted on three factors of Self-Monitoring Scales: Extraversion, Other-Directedness, and Acting. DIF analyses were then conducted between the Japan and US data on five items in Extraversion, four items in Other-Directedness, and four items in Acting. The results showed that partial factorial invariance was confirmed in both the Extraversion and Acting factors, and strong factorial invariance was detected in the Other-Directedness factor; therefore, each factor of the Self-Monitoring Scales showed reasonable evidence for their cultural equivalence. Based on the results of the DIF analyses and factor mean comparisons between the Japan and US data, the cross-cultural validity of these scales was discussed.