著者
藤 桂 吉田 富二雄
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, no.2, pp.121-132, 2009

The relationship of Internet behavior to sociability and aggression in real life was investigated in a web-based survey. Weblog users (n=395) and online-game users (n=206) were asked to respond to questionnaires that included their behavior on the Internet, as well as to scales that measured real-life sociability, aggression, and social isolation. Results indicated that Self-reflection on weblogs and Feeling of Belonging during online-games related to enhancement of sociability. By contrast, Internet behavior such as flaming, as well as immersive and addictive use, related to decrease of sociability and increase of aggression regardless of the type of application that was used. These findings suggest that the effects of weblogs and online-games use depend on the type of behavior, as well as the types of application, that are used. It is also suggested that social isolation in real life decreased sociability through immersive and addictive use, and increased aggression through flaming.
著者
小林 哲郎 池田 謙一
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, no.1, pp.82-94, 2007
被引用文献数
2

The effect of mobile phone e-mailing on young people's social tolerance was investigated by analyzing survey data of high school students in Japan. The results show that mobile phone e-mailing had a positive promoting effect on the homogeneity and a negative effect on the heterogeneity of personal networks. This in turn had a negative effect on social tolerance toward others. Mobile phone e-mailing enables students to select homogeneous others as companions of communication and thus brings a bias of homogeneity into their personal networks. This homogeneity bias in turn had a negative effect on the development of social tolerance in the socialization process by reducing the chance of interaction with heterogeneous others.
著者
大坪 庸介
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, no.3, pp.191-212, 2015-03-20 (Released:2015-06-07)
参考文献数
126
被引用文献数
2

This article attempts to obtain a better understanding of human reconciliation processes by integrating the social psychological perspective with an evolutionary perspective. The evolutionary literature on reconciliation suggests that benefits accruing from one’s association with a partner (relationship value) and uncertainty about the partner’s intention (intentional ambiguity) are two crucial determinants of reconciliation processes. Empirical evidence confirms the importance of these two factors. First, research on forgiveness from the victim’s perspective showed that relationship value increases forgiveness, whereas intentional ambiguity (i.e., whether the perpetrator intends to exploit the victim again) decreases forgiveness. Second, research on apology perception from the victim’s perspective showed that costly apologies, as compared to no-cost apologies, reduce intentional ambiguity and thereby effectively convince the victim of the perpetrator’s benign intent. Third, research on apology-making from the perpetrator’s perspective revealed that relationship value and intentional ambiguity (i.e., whether the victim intends to continue/terminate the relationship) increases the probability of costly apology-making. These three lines of research provide support for evolutionary hypotheses about human reconciliation processes.
著者
野口 聡一 木下 冨雄
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, no.1, pp.1-10, 2014-08-18 (Released:2015-03-30)
参考文献数
18

The purpose of this study is to investigate how a microgravity environment affects spatial orientation, the cognitive system, and interpersonal relationships, hence changes in gravity reference frames. After leaving the terrestrial globe, astronauts experience drastic perceptual disturbances (temporary loss of the senses of spatial- and self-orientation). However, they gradually learn to adapt to the novel environment by developing new perceptual and behavioral skills. First, we examined video clips of an astronaut’s body movement inside the International Space Station (ISS) by using a motion video analysis technique. We discovered that a microgravity environment definitely affects spatial orientation. Second, we analyzed how social hierarchy organization, metaphorical expression, and psychological stabilization were affected by space adaptation.
著者
三浦 麻子 小林 哲郎
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.31, no.2, pp.120-127, 2015-11-30 (Released:2015-12-17)
参考文献数
16
被引用文献数
3

In this article, monitor attitudes during online surveys were empirically examined, focusing in particular on satisficing (when survey participants do not fully engage their efforts). At first, the extent to which the satisficing tendency was dependent on personal traits was examined. We observed participants’ behavior in an online survey setting that required them to view video stimulus material consisting of news footage, and measured the length of time each participant spent viewing the footage. The results revealed that respondents who had satisficed (half-heartedly read) the scale items in a prior study (Miura & Kobayashi, 2015) were much more likely to satisfice the video footage. Then, agenda-setting and media-priming effects were used to examine the impact of satisficing during online surveys (including experimental manipulation) on empirical findings. Both examinations indicated the strong possibility that data pertaining to participants who satisficed could serve to distort empirical findings.
著者
三船 恒裕 山岸 俊男
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.31, no.2, pp.128-134, 2015-11-30 (Released:2015-12-17)
参考文献数
28

We tested the reputation maintenance hypothesis of ingroup favoritism. Ninety-two non-student participants played one-shot prisoner’s dilemma games with an ingroup and an outgroup partner with minimal groups, and showed ingroup favoritism only when the participant and his/her partner knew each other’s group membership (common knowledge condition). The ingroup favoritism observed in the common knowledge condition positively correlated with fear of negative evaluation. These results provide support for the reputation maintenance hypothesis.
著者
石黒 格
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.29, no.1, pp.11-20, 2013

Traditionally, research in social psychology has focused on the mean values of target variables. In most cases, this is simply because the mean value is the target of most statistical methods and often does not reflect the theoretical basis. Consequently, this has narrowed the perspective of researchers and possibly caused misunderstandings of social phenomena. In this study, we introduce quantile regression to solve this problem, which predicts the pth percentile of a target variable for any value of p. As an example, we theoretically predicted that the effect of extraversion on personal network size is different among the right (upper) and left (lower) parts of the distribution and tested this prediction using quantile regression. The result showed that extraversion positively correlates with the 70th-90th percentile of personal network size to a greater extent than that of the 30th-10th percentile. This result indicates that the distribution of personal network size not only moves toward the right but also becomes right-skewed as extraversion increases.
著者
横田 晋大 中西 大輔
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.2, pp.75-82, 2012

Previous research has shown that ingroup cooperation tends to flourish in intergroup conflict situations. However, the free-rider problem remains unsolved, even in intergroup conflict situations. In this study, based on multi-group selection theory and cultural-group selection theory, we hypothesized that conformity (frequency-dependent behavior) may contribute to enhancing ingroup cooperation. The results of an evolutionary simulation revealed that ingroup cooperation and conformity can evolve in situations of intergroup conflict. When such conflict is mild, agents who cooperate with ingroup members and adjust their behavior to ingroup cooperation rates facilitate cooperation in their own group. However, no effect of conformity on ingroup cooperation was observed during intense intergroup conflict, even though conformity continued to evolve. We discuss the implications of these results and suggest avenues for future research.
著者
橋本 剛明 白岩 祐子 唐沢 かおり
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.1, pp.13-23, 2012

The present study examined the determinants of people's attitudes toward the Japanese government's income inequality policies. We focused particularly on people's perceived inequality of opportunity and self-perceptions of social class, and their effects on the perceived responsibility of income inequality. General survey data of 798 individuals indicated that when people perceive education/work opportunities as generally controllable through personal ability and effort, they attribute both onset and offset responsibilities more to the poor and less to the government, consequently showing less support for government intervention. Moreover, people's perception of social class moderated how they view opportunity: only among low-class respondents did the perception that opportunities are influenced by one's parents' income or their gender lead to the perception that opportunity is uncontrollable. High-class individuals, on the other hand, perceived the effects of parental income and gender on opportunity to be independent of the controllability of opportunities, suggesting that they believe that ability and effort hold strong power over general opportunity.
著者
小森 めぐみ
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.33, no.3, pp.149-155, 2018-03-25 (Released:2018-03-25)
参考文献数
18

This study attempted to replicate Kamise, Hori, and Okamoto’s (2010) survey on perceived occupational stigma among Japanese workers by conducting a survey with employees in a host club—a male cabaret club—in the Kansai region, Japan, to investigate their perceived occupational stigma, coping strategies, occupational self-esteem, and egalitarian sex-role attitudes. The results showed that host-club employees perceived extreme occupational stigma, where novices, part-time workers, and those with fewer work assignments showed higher levels of perceived stigma. Regarding coping strategies, attribution of discrimination and disengagement were used frequently, while valuing and group identification were used only rarely. Structural equation modeling showed that group identification positively enhanced occupational self-esteem. However, contrary to previous research, individuals who perceived more stereotyping rarely used group identification. Stigma awareness facilitated attribution of discrimination, resulting in lowered occupational self-esteem, and egalitarian sex-role attitude significantly influenced valuing and attribution of discrimination.
著者
田村 達 大渕 憲一
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.2, pp.165-171, 2006

Assuming that labels describing a victim as a dehumanized entity reduce a harm-doer's control over aggressive behavior, we attempted to examine the effects of such labels on levels of aggression. A one-on-one fighting video game was used in order to conduct this experiment. During the game, 63 male undergraduates exhibited uncomfortable noises to an opponent who was given either a dehumanizing or anonymous label. We predicted that the dehumanizing label would decrease empathetic concern for, and increase both perceptual and outward hostility towards the opponent (this was measured by high levels of noises during matches). To examine the question of whether the dehumanizing label actually lessens aggressive behavior, or in fact motivates aggressive behavior, we compared the effects of the label on levels of aggression observing whether the opponent showed hostile behavior or not. The results partially-supported our hypothesis. Although the dehumanizing label did not directly increase aggression, further analysis showed that it indirectly increased aggression by lowering empathetic concern for the opponent. Similarly, our results suggested the possibility that dehumanizing labels may in fact increase aggressive behavior in people.
著者
樋口 匡貴 中村 菜々子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, no.2, pp.151-157, 2010

The proper use of condoms is one of the most effective types of protection against HIV. One of the major factors that negatively affect the use of condoms is embarrassment caused by using or negotiating to use condoms. To clarify the causes and effects of embarrassment on using or negotiating to use condoms, 186 undergraduate student volunteers were investigated. The results showed that patterns of types of embarrassment were unclear when they used or negotiated to use condoms. Moreover, structural equation modeling revealed that the embarrassment felt by males was strongly promoted by apprehension of the partner's evaluation, while the embarrassment felt by females was strongly promoted by vagueness in the kind of guidelines aimed at behavior regarding condom use or negotiation to use condoms. Implications of this study on HIV prevention, especially the intervention method of promoting condom use or negotiation to use condoms, are also discussed.
著者
広瀬 幸雄
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1, no.1, pp.45-53, 1985-10-05 (Released:2016-11-18)

This study proposes a tentative model of consumer's decision making in the hoarding panic and presents some evidence that in the present system of goods distribution the hoarding panic is triggered easily by less than 10% of total consumers. The toilet paper hoarding panic in 1973 in Kansai is divided into four sequential stages; precursor, outbreak, expansion, and termination of panic. Four categories of consumers, based on different decision making processes are hypothesized, corresponding with each stage. The early hoarding consumer begins to lay in a large stock from a self-reward maximization motive, anticipating the high rise in price of toilet paper by low credible rumor. The middle hoarding consumer acts by indirect support of the rumor from newspaper accounts. The late hoarding consumer rushes into hoarding from a defensive motive, strongly afraid of life without toilet paper. The no-hoarding consumer with enough stock is also dragged into the tragedy of commons, thus suffering from high price caused by panic.
著者
工藤 大介 中谷内 一也
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, no.1, pp.35-44, 2014-08-18

This study investigated why the restrained buying called reputational risk occurred after The Great East Japan Earthquake, focusing on the psychological factors influencing consumers. A preliminary investigation (N=112) identified affective (System 1) factors - "negative affect," "association with Fukushima," "support for quake-hit areas," and "radiation anxieties" - and reason (System 2) factors - "knowledge-based judgment" and "rational decision" - based on the dual-process theory. Initially, the results of structural equation modeling (SEM) conducted on the main survey data (N=310) indicated the influence of multi-collinearity. Accordingly, the factors "negative affect," "association with Fukushima," and "radiation anxieties" were integrated as "anxiety over radiation and nuclear power." The result of SEM on the refined model suggested this factor causes restrained buying while "support for quake-hit areas" is effective in its mitigation. Finally, future contingency plans to combat reputational risk were discussed based on the findings of this study.
著者
高 史明 雨宮 有里
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.2, pp.67-76, 2013

It has been shown that with regard to Blacks in the US, in addition to old-fashioned racism (a traditional and blatant form of racism), modern racism (a more subtle form, where one denies racism but nevertheless holds negative affect and belief against Blacks) has appeared in the post-Civil Rights Movement era (McConahay, 1986). Using the questionnaire method and exploratory factor analysis for Japanese college students, the present article revealed that this distinction between the two forms of racism is useful to describe racism against Zainichi Koreans (Korean residents in Japan). Furthermore, the present research investigated the consequences and underlying factors of the two forms of racism. Racism intensified contradictory discontent against Zainichi Koreans simultaneously, and had expected effects on the estimation of the number of Zainichi Koreans per unit of a certain kind of worker and people on social welfare in Japan. Protestant work ethics (Mirels & Garrett, 1971) intensified and humanitarianism-egalitarianism (Katz & Hass, 1988) weakened the two forms of racism. Implications of these findings were discussed.
著者
塩谷 芳也
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.29, no.3, pp.157-169, 2014

Th purpose of the study is to examine the impact of received social support on the mental health of victims of the Great East Japan Earthquake. An Internet survey was conducted on September 9, 2011. Participants were victims of the disaster aged 18-69 years who lived in Miyagi prefecture (N=1,000). Depression was measured using the Japanese version of K6. Types and times of social support received within one month from the earthquake were measured. Samples were divided into lightly damaged victims (n=781) and severely damaged victims (n=219). Statistical analyses showed that cases who received "psychological encour-agement" tend to have depression after half a year of the earthquake only in the case of lightly damaged victims. Controlling for stressful events such as the death of family members and depression in the one month following the earthquake, psychological encouragement maintained a significant effect on depression for half a year from the earthquake. The mechanism that produced this correlation was explained in terms of the ambiguous and unstable identity of lightly damaged victims of the disaster.
著者
小林 哲郎 池田 謙一
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.2, pp.120-130, 2008
被引用文献数
1

The effect of PC e-mail usage on social tolerance was investigated by analyzing representative survey data collected from electorates in Yamanashi Prefecture, Japan. The results showed that PC e-mail usage had a positive effect on social tolerance because it allows for mediating communications with heterogeneous others. These results are a clear-cut contrast to previous research, which showed that mobile-phone e-mail usage had a negative effect on social tolerance because of the increasing homogeneity of personal networks. The results indicated that while the technological limitations of mobile phone e-mail usage selectively strengthen communications with homogeneous others through the exchange of short messages, PC e-mail usage facilitates communications between heterogeneous people, because it is suitable for the exchange of the longer messages necessary for sharing the assumptions made during correspondence. From the viewpoint of nourishing "bridging" social capital, it is suggested that the promotion of PC e-mail should be encouraged by establishing appropriate policies and that the functional development of the use of the Internet on mobile phones should be empirically investigated.
著者
浅井 暢子 唐沢 穣
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.3, pp.137-146, 2013

The present study investigated the impact of the narrative representation of trial information on judicial decisions and judgments about the victim among Japanese lay people. In an experiment, participants read 20 testimonies of a stabbing case. The implications of the testimonies leaned either toward a murder or toward a self-defense case. To manipulate the difficulty of story construction, we presented the testimonies either in a temporal or in a mixed order. The results showed that more extreme sentence decisions were made (i.e., longer imprisonment for the murder case and shorter for the self-defense case) when the testimonies were presented in an organized order. Consistent with this, estimations about the victim's likelihood of avoiding such incidents were polarized in the organized-order condition. Although the presentation order did not clearly affect some judgments, the results of our study strongly suggest that the story construction process has a substantial impact on judicial judgments. Cognitive processes underlying judicial judgments were discussed.