著者
田村 達 大渕 憲一
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.2, pp.165-171, 2006

Assuming that labels describing a victim as a dehumanized entity reduce a harm-doer's control over aggressive behavior, we attempted to examine the effects of such labels on levels of aggression. A one-on-one fighting video game was used in order to conduct this experiment. During the game, 63 male undergraduates exhibited uncomfortable noises to an opponent who was given either a dehumanizing or anonymous label. We predicted that the dehumanizing label would decrease empathetic concern for, and increase both perceptual and outward hostility towards the opponent (this was measured by high levels of noises during matches). To examine the question of whether the dehumanizing label actually lessens aggressive behavior, or in fact motivates aggressive behavior, we compared the effects of the label on levels of aggression observing whether the opponent showed hostile behavior or not. The results partially-supported our hypothesis. Although the dehumanizing label did not directly increase aggression, further analysis showed that it indirectly increased aggression by lowering empathetic concern for the opponent. Similarly, our results suggested the possibility that dehumanizing labels may in fact increase aggressive behavior in people.
著者
橋本 剛明 白岩 祐子 唐沢 かおり
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.1, pp.13-23, 2012

The present study examined the determinants of people's attitudes toward the Japanese government's income inequality policies. We focused particularly on people's perceived inequality of opportunity and self-perceptions of social class, and their effects on the perceived responsibility of income inequality. General survey data of 798 individuals indicated that when people perceive education/work opportunities as generally controllable through personal ability and effort, they attribute both onset and offset responsibilities more to the poor and less to the government, consequently showing less support for government intervention. Moreover, people's perception of social class moderated how they view opportunity: only among low-class respondents did the perception that opportunities are influenced by one's parents' income or their gender lead to the perception that opportunity is uncontrollable. High-class individuals, on the other hand, perceived the effects of parental income and gender on opportunity to be independent of the controllability of opportunities, suggesting that they believe that ability and effort hold strong power over general opportunity.
著者
工藤 大介 中谷内 一也
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, no.1, pp.35-44, 2014-08-18

This study investigated why the restrained buying called reputational risk occurred after The Great East Japan Earthquake, focusing on the psychological factors influencing consumers. A preliminary investigation (N=112) identified affective (System 1) factors - "negative affect," "association with Fukushima," "support for quake-hit areas," and "radiation anxieties" - and reason (System 2) factors - "knowledge-based judgment" and "rational decision" - based on the dual-process theory. Initially, the results of structural equation modeling (SEM) conducted on the main survey data (N=310) indicated the influence of multi-collinearity. Accordingly, the factors "negative affect," "association with Fukushima," and "radiation anxieties" were integrated as "anxiety over radiation and nuclear power." The result of SEM on the refined model suggested this factor causes restrained buying while "support for quake-hit areas" is effective in its mitigation. Finally, future contingency plans to combat reputational risk were discussed based on the findings of this study.
著者
小林 哲郎 池田 謙一
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.2, pp.120-130, 2008
被引用文献数
1

The effect of PC e-mail usage on social tolerance was investigated by analyzing representative survey data collected from electorates in Yamanashi Prefecture, Japan. The results showed that PC e-mail usage had a positive effect on social tolerance because it allows for mediating communications with heterogeneous others. These results are a clear-cut contrast to previous research, which showed that mobile-phone e-mail usage had a negative effect on social tolerance because of the increasing homogeneity of personal networks. The results indicated that while the technological limitations of mobile phone e-mail usage selectively strengthen communications with homogeneous others through the exchange of short messages, PC e-mail usage facilitates communications between heterogeneous people, because it is suitable for the exchange of the longer messages necessary for sharing the assumptions made during correspondence. From the viewpoint of nourishing "bridging" social capital, it is suggested that the promotion of PC e-mail should be encouraged by establishing appropriate policies and that the functional development of the use of the Internet on mobile phones should be empirically investigated.
著者
高 史明 雨宮 有里
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.2, pp.67-76, 2013

It has been shown that with regard to Blacks in the US, in addition to old-fashioned racism (a traditional and blatant form of racism), modern racism (a more subtle form, where one denies racism but nevertheless holds negative affect and belief against Blacks) has appeared in the post-Civil Rights Movement era (McConahay, 1986). Using the questionnaire method and exploratory factor analysis for Japanese college students, the present article revealed that this distinction between the two forms of racism is useful to describe racism against Zainichi Koreans (Korean residents in Japan). Furthermore, the present research investigated the consequences and underlying factors of the two forms of racism. Racism intensified contradictory discontent against Zainichi Koreans simultaneously, and had expected effects on the estimation of the number of Zainichi Koreans per unit of a certain kind of worker and people on social welfare in Japan. Protestant work ethics (Mirels & Garrett, 1971) intensified and humanitarianism-egalitarianism (Katz & Hass, 1988) weakened the two forms of racism. Implications of these findings were discussed.
著者
樋口 匡貴 中村 菜々子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, no.2, pp.151-157, 2010

The proper use of condoms is one of the most effective types of protection against HIV. One of the major factors that negatively affect the use of condoms is embarrassment caused by using or negotiating to use condoms. To clarify the causes and effects of embarrassment on using or negotiating to use condoms, 186 undergraduate student volunteers were investigated. The results showed that patterns of types of embarrassment were unclear when they used or negotiated to use condoms. Moreover, structural equation modeling revealed that the embarrassment felt by males was strongly promoted by apprehension of the partner's evaluation, while the embarrassment felt by females was strongly promoted by vagueness in the kind of guidelines aimed at behavior regarding condom use or negotiation to use condoms. Implications of this study on HIV prevention, especially the intervention method of promoting condom use or negotiation to use condoms, are also discussed.
著者
塩谷 芳也
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.29, no.3, pp.157-169, 2014

Th purpose of the study is to examine the impact of received social support on the mental health of victims of the Great East Japan Earthquake. An Internet survey was conducted on September 9, 2011. Participants were victims of the disaster aged 18-69 years who lived in Miyagi prefecture (N=1,000). Depression was measured using the Japanese version of K6. Types and times of social support received within one month from the earthquake were measured. Samples were divided into lightly damaged victims (n=781) and severely damaged victims (n=219). Statistical analyses showed that cases who received "psychological encour-agement" tend to have depression after half a year of the earthquake only in the case of lightly damaged victims. Controlling for stressful events such as the death of family members and depression in the one month following the earthquake, psychological encouragement maintained a significant effect on depression for half a year from the earthquake. The mechanism that produced this correlation was explained in terms of the ambiguous and unstable identity of lightly damaged victims of the disaster.
著者
浅井 暢子 唐沢 穣
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.3, pp.137-146, 2013

The present study investigated the impact of the narrative representation of trial information on judicial decisions and judgments about the victim among Japanese lay people. In an experiment, participants read 20 testimonies of a stabbing case. The implications of the testimonies leaned either toward a murder or toward a self-defense case. To manipulate the difficulty of story construction, we presented the testimonies either in a temporal or in a mixed order. The results showed that more extreme sentence decisions were made (i.e., longer imprisonment for the murder case and shorter for the self-defense case) when the testimonies were presented in an organized order. Consistent with this, estimations about the victim's likelihood of avoiding such incidents were polarized in the organized-order condition. Although the presentation order did not clearly affect some judgments, the results of our study strongly suggest that the story construction process has a substantial impact on judicial judgments. Cognitive processes underlying judicial judgments were discussed.
著者
村山 綾 三浦 麻子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.1, pp.51-59, 2012

This study focused on perceived relationship conflict and task conflict within groups and investigated the possible misperceptions and differences in preferences of conflict management behavior. Both types of conflict were manipulated in a crossed design with respect to their conflict level, resulting in four different scenarios (i.e., low conflict, relationship conflict, task conflict, and mixed conflict situations). Two hundred and thirty-one undergraduate students were asked to answer (1) perceived task and relationship conflict within each scenario and (2) preferred management behavior in that situation. Results showed that both types of conflict could be misperceived with regard to the other. Avoidant management behavior was preferred more in the relationship conflict situation than the task conflict situation. In addition, preferred management behavior in the mixed conflict situation, where both relationship and task conflict were strongly perceived, was the same as the management behavior in the relationship conflict situation. Differences in management behavior in each conflict situation were discussed based on the dual process theory.
著者
清水 裕士 大坊 郁夫
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.3, pp.295-304, 2007
被引用文献数
1

This study had two main purposes. The first was to clarify the relationship between structure of interaction and stability of romantic relationships, and the second was to compare the effect of the total intimacy level of a couple with the individual levels of intimacy using a pairwise correlation analysis in order to determine a couple's interdependency. Questionnaires were completed by 59 couples (college students in romantic relationships). The feature of interaction structure was measured by the frequency, strength, and diversity of interactions, while the stability of a relationship was measured by satisfaction, commitment, and prospects of a continued relationship. The pairwise correlation analysis separated the correlation of the couple level from the individual level. The results indicated that the stability of relationships was affected by the degree of diversity of interaction at the couple level, and by the strength of interaction at the individual level. Finally, we discussed the function of relationship stability, showing the degree of diversity and strength of interaction.
著者
八ッ塚 一郎
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.29, no.3, pp.170-179, 2014

Changes in the usage of the verb "ijimeru" (to bully) and the noun "ijime" (bullying) in Japanese newspaper articles were investigated. Full-text searches and postpositional particle analysis were performed on issues of three major Japanese newspapers published between 1987 and 2011. The passive form of ijimeru (to bully) was used much more often than was the active form during the entire period investigated. During several specific years, the noun, ijime (bullying), appeared as a subject very frequently, but this trend was not consistent, and the number of articles containing this word decreased in most of the other years. Ijime (bullying) refers to an action that occurs independently of any particular actor. As such, it would be expected to appear frequently during any period of time. However, the word is construed to refer to suffering endured by an unlucky passive victim or to rare events such as natural disasters. The dissociation of the denotation from the actual usage of ijime (bullying) as well as the use of the term ijime (bullying) more generally are discussed from the perspective of social representations.
著者
村上 幸史
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.3, pp.147-157, 2013

Murakami (2009) demonstrated the tendency toward underestimating the possible success of uncertain events after "lucky" events in terms of "Luck Resource Belief." However, this notion does not necessarily entail a consequent decision to avoid a high-risk option due to low expectations. A "relativity hypothesis of luck" has been proposed to explain this tendency from the perspective of the relative value of several relevant events. This hypothesis suggests that a lucky result by itself does not carry a negative value. Indeed, when considerations include future outcomes, the value of the lucky outcome shifts, which demonstrates relative cognitive change. To examine this change and the tendency to assign value to lucky results, we distributed questionnaires (Study 1) and conducted an experiment involving predictions about the actual outcomes of World Cup soccer matches (Study 2). The results indicated that the occurrence of a lucky event before subsequent important events was associated with avoidance of a high-risk option only for respondents with a "Luck Resource Belief," because this belief involves devaluing the lucky outcome before subsequent important events. These results support the "relativity hypothesis of luck" and are discussed in terms of their implication for anticipated regret.
著者
三隅 譲二 木下 冨雄
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.7, no.1, pp.8-18, 1992
被引用文献数
1 2

The purpose of this study was to find a latent structure of an acquaintance network in our world, or, in other words, to estimate the shortest communication channel between the "starter person" and the "target person" in Japanese society. A modified chain-letter technique was used for the experiment. A total of 200 subjects were randomly selected to be the starter persons in Fukuoka. They were asked to select one of their acquaintances to be an intermediary who would be more likely to approach to the target person who lived in Osaka. The same procedure was repeated until an acquaintance chain reached the target person. There were two target persons, X and Y. X worked in a famous company (F-condition), while Y worked in an obscure company (O-condition). Other variables among target persons, such as age, sex, education, place of residence, position in a company were controlled. It was found that a total number of fifty-five chains reached the target persons, with a mean number of steps equaling 7.2. However, the mean number in the F-condition was 5.5, while that in the O-condition was 9.2. Our world is unexpectedly small. In the former condition, people tended to use information regarding a target person's occupation and alma mater as tactics to select an intermediary. In the latter condition, information regarding a target person's place of residence and the breadth of acquaintances of an intermediary was often used for selecting a friend. There was a strong trend for male subjects to select male acquaintances and female subjects to select female acquaintances. The same applies to age and occupation as well, indicating that there are basic acquaintance networks in Japan such as same-sex, same-age, same-occupation networks.
著者
村上 幸史
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, no.1, pp.30-41, 2009

After obtaining positive results from uncertain events, individuals tend to feel confident in their skills (Langer, 1975). However, according to popular usage like lay theory, the word "lucky" carries relatively negative connotations for some people. This reflects the idea of "Luck Resource Belief," whereby luck supposedly decreases if it is consumed. In this study, we developed and administered a scale to survey this personal belief. We compared attitudes toward forthcoming uncertain events in the aftermath of a lucky or unlucky lotto outcome from the perspective of the "Luck Resource Belief." Results showed that when individuals adhering to the Luck Resource Belief obtained "lucky" lotto results, confidence and risky choices with regard to subsequent uncertain events were reduced. Such results have been discussed with regard to the Gambler's fallacy, anticipated regret, and mental simulation (Kahneman & Tversky, 1982).
著者
長谷川 孝治 宮田 加久子 浦 光博
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, no.1, pp.45-56, 2007

This study examined the mutual influence processes between self-appraisal on the Internet and actual self-appraisal. Specifically, we researched the discrepancies in each self-evaluation, and how the degree of those discrepancies related to mental health. In a forum on the Internet, a survey with a two-wave panel design was conducted on the Web for mothers with pre-school children who were exchanging childcare information. At the time of each investigation, the actual self-appraisal (SA), the reflected self-appraisal (RSA: participants infer how a significant other evaluates them), the reflected self-appraisal on the Net (RSA-N: participants infer how a significant other in the forum in which they participate evaluates them), and mild depression were measured as an index of mental health. The result showed that the discrepancy betweerl SA and RSA-N was significantly larger than the discrepancy between SA and RSA. We further found that the level of the RSA-N score was significantly lower than that of RSA or SA. However, depression was not influenced by the lowness of the RSA-N score or the discrepancy between SA and RSA-N, but was instead influenced by the lowness of the SA score or the discrepancy between SA and RSA. Moreover, Path analysis found the self-process on the Internet. Specifically, Time 1 SA affected Time 2 RSA; in turn, RSA correlated with RSA-N at Time 2. These results suggested that the self-appraisal on the Internet was formed based on actual self-appraisal by using the Internet about an actual problem.
著者
宇井 美代子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.21, no.2, pp.91-101, 2005
被引用文献数
1

This study examined the criteria employed in judging the presence or absence of gender equality for dividing roles and resources between men and women in 3 situations-the workplace, domestic labor, and childrearing. Two hundred and forty six female university students responded to the questionnaire. The results indicated individual differences regarding the importance of the principles of "traits of men and women" and "equality". On the other hand, the importance of the other criteria varied according to the situations. In a workplace situation, "equal opportunity" and the principles of "individual ability", "effort", and "need" were perceived as important. "Procedural justice based on discussion" in a domestic labor situation, and "the procedural justice based on one's decision" and the principles of "individual ability" and "effort" in a childrearing situation were considered as important.
著者
野口 聡一 木下 冨雄
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, no.1, pp.1-10, 2014-08-18 (Released:2015-03-30)
参考文献数
18

The purpose of this study is to investigate how a microgravity environment affects spatial orientation, the cognitive system, and interpersonal relationships, hence changes in gravity reference frames. After leaving the terrestrial globe, astronauts experience drastic perceptual disturbances (temporary loss of the senses of spatial- and self-orientation). However, they gradually learn to adapt to the novel environment by developing new perceptual and behavioral skills. First, we examined video clips of an astronaut’s body movement inside the International Space Station (ISS) by using a motion video analysis technique. We discovered that a microgravity environment definitely affects spatial orientation. Second, we analyzed how social hierarchy organization, metaphorical expression, and psychological stabilization were affected by space adaptation.
著者
田崎 勝也 二ノ宮 卓也
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.29, no.2, pp.75-85, 2013

The aim of this study is to identify response styles among Japanese participants. Response style research has had a methodological concern that biased responses defined by the number of counts responding to certain category options run the risk of being confounded with item contents. Thus, following the approach delineated and outlined by Billiet and McClendon (2000), this study identifies response styles with the aid of structural equation modeling. Based on the premise that stable tendencies in response behavior are related to personality traits, the impact of response styles is partialed out from item responses by modeling a "style factor." Confirmatory factor analyses on two distinctive psychological scales found a significant effect of the acquiescence response style (ARS) on item responses. On the other hand, strong evidence of the (in) extreme response style (ERS) and the mid-point response style (MRS), often mentioned as Japanese response styles, was not identified.