著者
福田 将史
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
日本体育学会大会予稿集
巻号頁・発行日
vol.68, pp.106_2-106_2, 2017

<p> 現在、全日本大学野球連盟に所属する26連盟の公式戦においては春季リーグ戦、秋季リーグ戦ともに勝ち点制を採用している連盟がほとんどである。勝ち点制とは、同一カードで先に2勝した方が勝ち点1を獲得する方式である。筆者は、野球の試合において、先に得点したチームの勝率について、高校野球(2009)、学童野球(2012)、社会人野球(2014)で7割以上の勝率であることを報告した。大学野球における勝ち点制においても、先勝したチームが勝ち点を獲得するのに有利になるのではないかと考えた。</p><p> 本研究では、大学野球の勝ち点制で先勝した場合の勝率について分析した結果について報告する。対象は、全日本大学野球連盟に所属する18連盟で、2005年から2015年の10年間の春季リーグ戦と秋季リーグ戦について分析した。その結果、春季リーグ戦、秋季リーグ戦ともに7割以上の勝率であることが明らかになった。</p>
著者
大東 実里 星野 聡子
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
日本体育学会大会予稿集
巻号頁・発行日
vol.69, pp.102_3, 2018

<p> 「挑戦か脅威か」という認知的評価は自律神経に作用して心臓血管系応答を乱し、競技場面においてはパフォーマンスに影響を及ぼすと考えられる。スポーツパフォーマンスの予測可能性を自律神経系活動に求めることを目的として、本研究では、認知的評価と自律神経系活動の関係を心拍変動から検討する。剣道団体戦の代表戦場面というストレス事態下を想定し、等身大に提示した競技レベルの異なる対戦相手(High、Middle、Low条件)に対して有効打突を決めるイメージで対峙することを課題とした。自律神経活動は対峙5分間の心拍数および心拍変動スペクトル解析からLF成分(0.04~0.15Hz)とHF成分(0.15~0.4Hz)を、またLF/HF、LF/total、HF/totalによって評価した。その結果、相手の競技レベルが自身より高いと認知したHigh条件と低いと認知したLow条件では、自身の競技レベルと近いMiddle条件よりも交感神経活動の促進と副交感神経活動の抑制が示された。すなわち、認知的評価に伴う緊張や退屈による覚醒水準の推移に伴って、交感神経活動はU字を、副交感神経活動は逆U字を描くということが示唆された。</p>
著者
荒木 達雄
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
日本体育学会大会予稿集
巻号頁・発行日
vol.67, pp.62_1-62_1, 2016

<p> 内田良氏の提言で組(立)体操がクローズ・アップされ、文科省の指針発表にまで発展した。この問題は、体育の授業内ではなく「体育祭」という「スポーツ・イベント」内での事故が多発しているためである。もともとは体操領域に「組(立)体操」は位置しているわけであるが、指導要領にその種目の文言が戦後、一度明記されたのみであり、現在の「体つくり運動」でも明記されていない。また、名称の不徹底も問題となっている。それは「組立体操」、「組体操」の区別の仕方である。「組立体操」は、人間が2段、3段に積み上げて造形美を表現する「<u>静的</u>」な運動形態である。「組体操」は、2人以上で互いの力を利用し合って動く、「<u>動的</u>」な運動形態である。体育の指導者であれば、この違いを理解したうえでこれらの運動種目を指導すべきであろう。また、普段の授業内での練習した種目を厳選したうえで、体育祭での発表作品として選択すべきと考える。今回は、「組立体操」、「組体操」の目的を明確にして実践例を参加者に体験してもらい、発表作品にまで発展させていく企画である。</p>
著者
堀江 航 田中 信行
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
日本体育学会大会予稿集
巻号頁・発行日
vol.69, pp.293_3, 2018

<p> 本研究は、米国の障がいのあるスポーツ選手を対象にしたアンケート調査により、その健康感や幸福感などの傾向を得ることを目的にした。対象とした選手は、全米車椅子バスケットボール選手権大会(今年3月で70回)に参加した成人男子48チーム(競技レベル順にDivision Ⅰ・Ⅱ・Ⅲ(各16チーム))に所属する者であった。アンケートの配布数は412件であり、回答数は177件(回収率43.0%)であった。調査内容は、年齢、障害名、持ち点などに加え、車椅子バスケットボールの競技歴、その他のスポーツの競技歴、受障原因や受障年齢を基本情報とし、Well-Being Scale(WeBS)を用いた主観的な健康感とThe Satisfaction with Life Scale(SWLS)を用いた幸福感などであった。WeBSとSWLSは、それぞれ6件法と7件法であった。さらにチームに障がいのない者を加えることの賛否と共に自由筆記によりその意見を求めた。各項目の集計と分析結果の詳細については当日発表する。</p>
著者
千葉 直樹
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
日本体育学会大会予稿集
巻号頁・発行日
vol.67, pp.98_1, 2016

<p> 本研究では、2012年の「体罰」事件以降の時期に焦点を絞り、高校のバスケットボール指導者の暴力行為の実態を明らかにすることを目的にする。2015年の高等学校総合選手権大会でベスト32以上に進出した19都道府県の指導者を対象に、2016年3月に郵送調査を行った。回答者の40.1%は、選手時代に指導者からの暴力行為を受けていた。22.1%の指導者が「体罰」事件以前に暴力行為を選手に行ったことがあると回答した。一方で、2013年1月以降の時期では、5.8%の指導者が暴力行為を行っていた。この結果から、「体罰」事件以降に、暴力行為を行うバスケットボール指導者の数が少なくなったと考えられる。しかし、暴力行為の範囲を「ボールを投げつける」、罰走、暴言という項目まで拡大すると、28.8%まで暴力行為を行った指導者の比率は高くなった。以上の結果から、「拳で殴る」や「平手打ち」等の暴力行為は少なくなった一方で、暴言や身体的な苦痛を伴う懲戒などは依然として一部の高校バスケ部で行われていることが示唆された。さらに、先行研究の指摘通りに、暴力指導を受けた指導者ほど、選手に暴力行為を行う傾向が確認された。</p>
著者
松田 太希
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.61, no.2, pp.407-420, 2016 (Released:2016-12-14)
参考文献数
25

The purpose of this study is to confirm aspects of violence at school athletics clubs related to the use of corporal punishment, and to clarify the significance of corporal punishment in terms of how it is perceived by teachers and students.  Recently, there has been a large volume of research on corporal punishment, under the premise that its use is questionable. Such a premise tends to encourage reasons for denying it occurs, or turning a blind eye to how it affects relationships between teachers and students at school athletics clubs. However, in order to clarify the significance of corporal punishment in school athletics clubs, it is essential to understand interpersonal relationships in this type of setting.  The ethos of school athletics clubs is to impose the desirable norm on students (i.e., to make them good players). This means that students need to develop self-discipline in order to succeed at their sport, and corporal punishment is used to impose normalization of self-discipline in students. This leads to an association between pain and the perceived pleasure of success in the mind of the students. According to Butler, conscience is the means by which a subject can reflecting on oneself, and conversion of pain into the pleasure is a method by which this can be achieved. In other words, a panacea for preempting existential negation.  On the other hand, for teachers, corporal punishment is deeply related to their existence and desire for self-protection. Adorno and Horkheimer's arguments on the reasons for the relation between reason and violence in Dialectic of Enlightenment: Philosophical Fragments teach us that the desire for self-protection is expressed by using violence, for example corporal punishments, on others. Teachers regard students as a means for their self-protection to secure their role as a teacher, which is based on a pre-existing relationship with students. However, the role of teachers is threatened when a school athletics club achieves poor results. Thus, teachers employ corporal punishment as a means of maintaining their authoritative role.  The findings of this study argue that corporal punishment in school athletics clubs deeply reflects the relationship between students and teachers. It is necessary to discuss this issue rather than ignoring it.
著者
大島 雄治 藤井 範久
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.61, no.1, pp.115-131, 2016 (Released:2016-06-17)
参考文献数
32
被引用文献数
2

The purpose of this study was to clarify the function of torques exerted by the joints of the lower trunk during maximal velocity sprinting. Eight male track and field athletes volunteered, and sprinted 60 m from a standing start position. The ground reaction force of the support leg was determined using a force platform (1000 Hz), which was placed at the 50-m mark from the start position. Simultaneously, 3D coordinates were recorded with a motion analysis system (250 Hz) using 20 cameras (MX-T20). The joint torques were calculated using inverse dynamics. The contribution of joint torques to the right and left hip joint forces, and the torso joint force, was calculated by a method that simultaneously solves equations of motion for each segment and equations of constraint conditions for adjacent segments connected by a joint. The main results were as follows: (1) During the terminal support phase (80-100% normalized time), the angular velocity of anterior rotation of the pelvis decreased and participants in whom this angular velocity decrease was diminished ran faster (p<0.10). (2) During terminal support, the hip joint adduction torque of the support leg and the anterior rotation torque of the torso joint rotated the pelvis forward. The moment of the right and left hip joint forces rotated the pelvis backward. (3) During terminal support, the hip joint force of the support leg was generated by its hip joint flexion and adduction torque, the hip joint extension torque of the recovery leg, and the anterior rotation torque of the torso joint. In contrast, the hip joint force of the recovery leg was generated by the hip joint flexion and adduction torque of the support leg, and the anterior rotation torque of the torso joint. (4) During terminal support, the hip joint flexion torque exerted by the support leg rotated the pelvis backward. The hip joint adduction torque of the support leg and the anterior rotation torque of the torso joint rotated the pelvis forward. Previous studies showed that the hip flexion torque drives the leg forward from the hip joint extension position. This present study has clarified that the hip joint adduction torque of the support leg and the anterior rotation torque of the torso joint nullify backward rotation of the pelvis due to the hip joint flexion torque exerted by the support leg.
著者
伊藤 恵造 松村 和則
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.54, no.1, pp.77-88, 2009-06-30 (Released:2009-11-05)
参考文献数
58
被引用文献数
6 1

Much attention is now being paid to the concept of “Community”. Not only in the field of urban sociology but also in the sociology of sport, “Community” is a key concept for understanding and resolving structural problems faced by both urban and rural residents.Discussions on the “public sphere of sport”, however, have run into deadlock when dealing with certain concrete structural problems. Furthermore, sports sociologists working on how sports practice can develop in communities have never been part of cumulative discussions in the field of urban sociology.The scope of studies on “Sport and Community” should involve a time-axis (historical-cultural) perspective to counterbalance the ideal and spatial frameworks. Apart from discussion on sport in relation to “human rights” and the “public good”, we must pay much attention to sites at which sport can create a new community by contributing to the resolution of structural problems. We will then be able to enter into a discussion on the “public sphere” created by sport practices.Urban sociology in Japan acknowledges sport as a medium that gives people a chance to meet each others in an urban setting. However, it has never been acknowledged as a public benefit that can contribute to creating an “autonomous community” for urban dwellers. We in the field of sports sociology should focus on places where people have tried to create “autonomous communities” through sports practices.
著者
堀内 元 中島 大貴 桜井 伸二
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.16095, (Released:2017-08-25)
参考文献数
29
被引用文献数
2

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the generation, absorption and transfer of mechanical energy during baseball batting, focusing on the lower extremities and torso. The batting motion and ground reaction forces acting on each foot of 79 amateur baseball players were recorded using a motion capture system and two force plates. The joint forces and joint torques were calculated using inverse dynamics. In addition, the mechanical powers as a function of each joint torque were calculated to assess the generation/absorption of mechanical energy. The mechanical powers as a function of joint forces and joint torques acting on each segment were calculated to assess the transfer of mechanical energy. The main results were as follows:  1. In the phase from contact of the stride foot to the peak lower torso rotational velocity (lower torso acceleration phase), the mechanical energy was generated and flowed into the lower torso as a function of hip joint torque.  2. In the lower torso acceleration phase, the mechanical energy flowed out from the lower torso to the upper torso as a function of torso joint torque.  3. In the phase from the peak lower torso rotational velocity to impact (swing phase), the mechanical energy was generated and flowed into the upper torso as a function of torso joint torque.  4. In the swing phase, the mechanical energy of the bat increased rapidly, and this amount of change was significantly correlated with the bat head speed at impact.  5. Though the analysis phase, the change in the mechanical energy of the torso was small.  These results suggest that both hip joints generate mechanical energy and that the torso acts as a pathway of mechanical energy during baseball batting. In addition, the transfer of mechanical energy from the torso to the upper extremities and the bat contributes to increasing the bat head speed at impact.
著者
木下 秀明
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.55, no.2, pp.409-440, 2010

In 1903, the Japanese Ministry of Military Affairs revised the manual of military gymnastics, the so-called <i>taiso kyohan</i>. In 1913, the Ministry of Education formulated the syllabus of gymnastics to be taught in schools, <i>gakko taiso kyojyu yomoku</i>. It has generally been considered that this syllabus was based mainly on the Swedish system of gymnastics. In the present study, I set out to clarify whether many of the gymnastic exercises performed on apparatus (except for hand-tools) as specified in the manual were designed for secondary school boys in the syllabus. The period studied was that from the time when the report <i>taiso yugi torishirabe hokoku</i>, meaning &ldquo;an investigation of gymnastics, play and games in schools&rdquo; was published in 1905 by the research committee authorized by the Ministry of Education, until the publication of the 1913 syllabus. The Ministry of Education had planned the syllabus in response to a demand from the Ministry of Military Affairs to formulate a school gymnastics program based on military lines, because the report had proposed the abolition of military gymnastics in schools. My research involved not only the use of general documents but also analysis and comparison of tables describing each phase of the exercises published in the manual, the report itself, and the syllabus, in order to verify relationships among them.<br> Based on the available materials, I concluded it was far from certain that there had been an insistence to include military gymnastics in school gymnastics, in spite of the fact that some military gymnastic exercises were listed in the report. Accordingly, the Ministry of Military Affairs had requested the Ministry of Education to devise a school gymnastics program based on military lines. &ldquo;Heaving movements&rdquo;, a component of the original Swedish gymnastics, which had been translated as <i>jyoshi no undo</i>, meaning &ldquo;arm-movements&rdquo;, was divided into two parts in the syllabus. One was <i>jyoshi no undo</i>, meaning &ldquo;arm-movements&rdquo;, except for exercises performed on apparatus, and the other was the new term, <i>kensui undo</i>, meaning &ldquo;chin-up movements&rdquo;, which literally covered a broad range of exercises including chin-ups and pull-ups on gym apparatus, because the two terms <i>kensui undo</i> and <i>cyoyaku undo</i>, meaning &ldquo;jumping and vaulting movements&rdquo;, were necessary in order for the syllabus to comply with the demand for military gymnastics. Military gymnastics was one of two main gymnastic systems in the syllabus, because the two partitions were composed of military gymnastics, as was the case for Swedish gymnastics.<br>
著者
日野 克博
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
巻号頁・発行日
pp.53_1, 2018 (Released:2019-01-18)

学習指導要領改訂を契機として、教職課程の質保証や教員の資質能力の向上を意図した教職課程の見直しが図られている。教員養成系大学では、教職課程コアカリキュラムに基づく再課程認定の手続きが進められており、学習指導要領の理解や具体的な授業場面を想定した授業設計等の知識や技能を身に付けるなど、「教科の指導法」科目の充実が期待されている。そこでは、「学習指導要領」「教材研究」「指導案作成」「模擬授業」等の内容をバランスよく指導することが求められており、その指導にあたっては、学問領域として「体育科教育学」が基盤になっていること、「体育科教育学」の種々の研究成果が指導内容に反映されていることが重要になってくる。しかし、「体育科教育学」の知見や成果をどのように反映させればいいか、各授業科目での達成基準との整合性、授業時間数等の条件、具体的な授業展開の方法など実践上の課題も少なくない。そこで、本シンポジウムでは、教職課程の見直しについて概説し、愛媛大学での「保健体育科教育法」の実践事例を紹介しながら、教員養成における「体育科教育学」の役割や指導のあり方について提案する。
著者
豊嶋 陵司 桜井 伸二
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.63, no.2, pp.479-493, 2018-12-10 (Released:2018-12-20)
参考文献数
47

This study investigated the relationships between the kinetic factor of the swing leg and step frequency (SF) and step length (SL) during the top speed phase of a sprint. Sixteen male sprinters (age 19.3±0.6 years, height 1.74±0.06 m, weight 66.1±5.2 kg) performed maximum effort 60-m sprints. Video data from the 43.5- to 50-m section of the sprint were collected using a high-speed camera (300 Hz). SF index and SL index were calculated to exclude the influence of body height on the outcomes of interest. Torque and torque power of the hip and knee joints of the right leg were calculated during the swing phase of the right leg. The time of the swing phase of the right leg was normalized so that the take-off of the right foot, touchdown of the left foot, take-off of the left foot, and touchdown of the right foot were 0%, 100%, 200%, and 300%, respectively. For every 5% of normalized time, partial correlation analysis was conducted between the right leg kinetics and SF index (controlling SL index) and SL index (controlling SF index). The SF index was associated with a large hip flexion torque and a large hip extension torque during 10–60% and 250–280% of the swing phase, respectively. Moreover, large peaks of the hip flexion torque and positive power were associated with a high SF index (r = -.718, p <0.01; r = .531, p <0.05, respectively). The SL index was associated with a hip flexion torque during 20–30% of the swing phase, although there was no significant partial correlation between the SL index and peak hip flexion torque (r = -.381, p = .161). In addition, a high SL index was associated with early appearance of the peak hip flexion torque power (r = -.759, p <0.01). In conclusion, throughout the top speed phase of a sprint, a high SF index requires a large torque and hip joint power for the leg swing over a short duration, and a high SL index requires an early increase of hip flexion torque power.
著者
豊嶋 陵司 桜井 伸二
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.17008, (Released:2018-06-15)
参考文献数
47

This study investigated the relationships between the kinetic factor of the swing leg and step frequency (SF) and step length (SL) during the top speed phase of a sprint. Sixteen male sprinters (age 19.3±0.6 years, height 1.74±0.06 m, weight 66.1±5.2 kg) performed maximum effort 60-m sprints. Video data from the 43.5- to 50-m section of the sprint were collected using a high-speed camera (300 Hz). SF index and SL index were calculated to exclude the influence of body height on the outcomes of interest. Torque and torque power of the hip and knee joints of the right leg were calculated during the swing phase of the right leg. The time of the swing phase of the right leg was normalized so that the take-off of the right foot, touchdown of the left foot, take-off of the left foot, and touchdown of the right foot were 0%, 100%, 200%, and 300%, respectively. For every 5% of normalized time, partial correlation analysis was conducted between the right leg kinetics and SF index (controlling SL index) and SL index (controlling SF index). The SF index was associated with a large hip flexion torque and a large hip extension torque during 10–60% and 250–280% of the swing phase, respectively. Moreover, large peaks of the hip flexion torque and positive power were associated with a high SF index (r = -.718, p <0.01; r = .531, p <0.05, respectively). The SL index was associated with a hip flexion torque during 20–30% of the swing phase, although there was no significant partial correlation between the SL index and peak hip flexion torque (r = -.381, p = .161). In addition, a high SL index was associated with early appearance of the peak hip flexion torque power (r = -.759, p <0.01). In conclusion, throughout the top speed phase of a sprint, a high SF index requires a large torque and hip joint power for the leg swing over a short duration, and a high SL index requires an early increase of hip flexion torque power.
著者
小木曽 一之 串間 敦郎 安井 年文 青山 清英
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.41, no.6, pp.449-462, 1997-03-10 (Released:2017-09-27)

The puropose of this study was twofold: (a) to investigate the pattern of change in the sprinting speed that is the final results of the sprinting movements, and (b) to find out whether the characteristics in the sprinting speed change due to the differences in age, sex, sprinting ability and training status. One-hundred thirty male and 123 female ordinary students aged 6 to 18, and 30 male and 23 female sprint runners aged 9, 10, 11 and 18 participated in this study. They were instructed to excute an exhaustive sprinting. Sprinting times ranged from about 20 to 30 sec. The elapsed times were measured every five meters in their sprinting. In the analysis, the polynomial curve fitting from 5th-degree to 9th-degree was used for the predictions of the sprinting distances with respect to the elapsed times every 0.1 sec. From the relations of the distances to times the following speeds were computed: 1) the sprinting speed that was computed by differentiating the sprinting distance, and 2) the average speed form start to the elapsed time every 0.1 sec. The sprinting speed reached the peak speed after about 6to 7 sec from start. The average speed showed the peak speed after about 15 sec from start. These characteristics with respect to time remained unchanged despite the differences in age, sex, sprinting performance and training status. The time at the maximum average speed was particularly stable. The maximum average speed was about 90% of the maximum sprinting speed. This result also remained unchanged despite the differences in age, sex, sprinting performance and training status,respectively. These results indicate that the pattern of change in the sprinting speed with respect to time is rather constant without the distinction of age, sex, sprinting performance and training status. The sprinting performance, however, improved with age and by training. This result was mostly caused by the increase of the maximum sprinting speed with age and by training. These characteristics with respect to time and speed seem to cause the differences in the sprinting distance.