著者
小木曽 航平
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.59, no.1, pp.83-101, 2014 (Released:2014-06-13)
参考文献数
24

The aim of this study was to examine the function of Thai Massage schools for foreigners in the process of Thai Massage becoming a global health culture. Currently, Thai Massage attracts widespread popularity as a relaxation or health therapy. In the background, there is the Thai government's policy, which has institutionalized Thai Massage as “Thai Medicine” since the 1990s. As a result of this policy, Thai Massage has enhanced its medical value, cultural value and economic value, and become globalized.   Another important factor must also be considered in the context of globalization of Thai Massage, and that is the global interest in Indian Yoga, Chinese Tai Chi and other various eastern health therapies or body techniques. This is a strong focus of the present paper. People who have a great deal of interest in “self-care” and their practical communities are another important factor of Thai Massage globalization. These practices are not restricted to national institutions, and are more fluid and transnational. “Health” is a concept that has developed in modern national systems, and “health culture” has emerged from this in relation to the power of modern nations. However, health culture created by people who practice Thai Massage and other eastern health therapies can be seen in a different dimension. This study focuses on Thai Massage schools for foreigners as specific foci of this dimension, and the process of Thai Massage can be envisaged as a global culture by analyzing the historical and cultural background of Thai Massage schools for foreigners and dealing with the actual situation ethnographically.   In conclusion, it can be said that Thai Massage schools have structurally contributed to the globalization of Thai Massage by being gathering places for knowledge and techniques related to the body, to which humans universally aspire. It is now evident that these “health communities”, which differ from hospitals and clinics served by medicine, are places at which people can engage their bodies and health independently.
著者
中嶋 哲也
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.59, no.2, pp.721-744, 2014 (Released:2014-12-20)
参考文献数
71

This study investigates the emergence of the concept of “sportification of judo” in Japan, focusing on the process of “student judo” in relation to the competition between the First Higher School (“Ichikoh”) and the Second Higher School (“Nikoh”) in 1918, up until formation of the Association of Judo by the Four Imperial Universities in 1928. Jigorō Kanō, the father of judo, was dissatisfied that Nikoh had overused ground techniques against Ichikoh in 1918, and in June 1924, Kodokan published a revised set of umpiring rules to control the use of ground techniques in student judo.   However, Tsunetane Oda, the manager of Nikoh judo club, criticized Kanō, and advocated that ground techniques were a valid combat method. Oda finally compromised, because Takeshi Sakuraba, one of Kanō's best pupils, refuted Oda's proposal. However, it was the first time that Kodokan had been publicly criticized by someone concerned with student judo, and this seems to have been a trigger for student judo to become independent from Kodokan.   In parallel with the emergence of the democracy movement after World War I, Judo came to be regarded as extremely outmoded, and judo practitioners began to place more emphasis on theory rather than actual competition. Kanō interceded with the Tokyo Gakusei Judo Rengōkai (Tokyo Student Judo Association, “TGJR”), and in 1924 persuaded the TGJR to let their umpire rules reflect the revised umpire rules. However, the Imperial University of Tokyo (IUT) rebelled against this movement, and left the TGJR. The IUT then appealed to each of the Imperial Universities, and held the Teidai Taikai (the Four Imperial Universities Competition, “FIUC”) to encourage nationwide spread of the Kosen Judo Taikai (National High School and Vocational School Judo Competition, which was hosted by Kyoto Imperial University, “KJT”). The Imperial University Judo Association, which hosted the FIUC, then abandoned the combat characteristics that were advocated by Kodokan, with the aim of representing judo as a “sport”.   One of the reasons why Kibisaburō Sasaki criticized Kodokan was that he had been treated coldly by Kanō and Kyūzō Mifune at the Shūki Kōhaku Shiai (a contest between two Kodokan groups) in November 1922, because he had used ground techniques frequently. Moreover, Sasaki as a member of the IUT judo club had experienced the withdrawal of the IUT from the TGJR, and the holding of the FIUC. Therefore, Sasaki criticized Kodokan while student judo was being organized. Sasaki claimed that “sportification” did not confer any new value on the principles of Kodokan judo. Kanō criticized the over-use of ground techniques by KJT and the FIUC, which lacked a combat system. However, Sasaki considered that Kanō's opinion was a long-established custom, and insisted that the FIUC was a sports competition. Thus, the claim made by Sasaki meant that the FIUC had become independent from Kodokan judo.
著者
中澤 篤史
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.56, no.2, pp.373-390, 2011 (Released:2011-12-28)
参考文献数
41
被引用文献数
1

In Japan, teachers not only teach students inside the classroom, but also manage extracurricular sports activities outside the classroom. This system of extracurricular sports activities is a distinctive feature of school education in Japan, and is totally dependent on the voluntary attitude of teachers. Although extracurricular sports activities are not included in the Course of Study, teachers are positively willing to manage them as school educational activities. Why should this be so? Furthermore, the contents of extracurricular sport activities seem to have no relationship with school education. Then, how do teachers identify sports as school educational activities? In order to examine these questions, this study focused on teachers' interpretations of difficulties in combining sports with education, as these difficulties ultimately determine whether teachers are positively willing to manage extracurricular sports activities. In managing school educational activities, teachers inevitably encounter certain difficulties (e.g. coping with diversity among students). How, then, do teachers interpret these difficulties? The purpose of this study was to clarify the reasons why teachers are positively willing to manage extracurricular sport activities in Japan by analyzing their interpretations of difficulties with combining sports and education. The data were gathered by fieldwork at a public junior high school in the Kanto area. At this school, 12 teachers who managed extracurricular sport activities were observed and interviewed. Among them, a male teacher managing the rugby club was the most positive. This study focused on this individual as a case example to examine the reasons for his positive attitude. This teacher divided the students into a high-skill and a low-skill groups in order to coach them efficiently. However, that division caused high-skill students to bully those with a low skill level, which obviously was not desirable in educational terms. However, the teacher interpreted the presence of a bully as a good opportunity to educate his students. Therefore, this difficulty was “solved” by the interpretation of this particular teacher. In conclusion, various individual teachers' interpretations can “solve” certain difficulties and allow them to combine sports with education, allowing them to positively manage extracurricular sports activities as school educational activities without any conflict.
著者
荒木 達雄
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
巻号頁・発行日
pp.62_1, 2016 (Released:2017-02-24)

内田良氏の提言で組(立)体操がクローズ・アップされ、文科省の指針発表にまで発展した。この問題は、体育の授業内ではなく「体育祭」という「スポーツ・イベント」内での事故が多発しているためである。もともとは体操領域に「組(立)体操」は位置しているわけであるが、指導要領にその種目の文言が戦後、一度明記されたのみであり、現在の「体つくり運動」でも明記されていない。また、名称の不徹底も問題となっている。それは「組立体操」、「組体操」の区別の仕方である。「組立体操」は、人間が2段、3段に積み上げて造形美を表現する「静的」な運動形態である。「組体操」は、2人以上で互いの力を利用し合って動く、「動的」な運動形態である。体育の指導者であれば、この違いを理解したうえでこれらの運動種目を指導すべきであろう。また、普段の授業内での練習した種目を厳選したうえで、体育祭での発表作品として選択すべきと考える。今回は、「組立体操」、「組体操」の目的を明確にして実践例を参加者に体験してもらい、発表作品にまで発展させていく企画である。
著者
石井 泰光 山本 正嘉 図子 浩二
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.55, no.1, pp.63-79, 2010 (Released:2010-07-20)
参考文献数
39
被引用文献数
3

The purpose of this study was to investigate the similarities of upper torso rotation and pelvic rotation around the vertical axis of the global coordinate system with trunk rotation during throwing and striking movements. We enrolled twenty-three right-handed male college students, who performed baseball pitching and batting movements and the golf driver shot. During the throwing and striking movements, 3D coordinates of body landmarks were obtained using the VICON 612 system with 10 cameras operating at 120 frames per second. The ball speed during pitching and the head speed during batting and the driver shot were measured using a high-speed camera at 250 frames per second and analyzed using WINanalyze (2D motion analyzer). The angles of rotation of the upper torso and pelvis were calculated as the angles between the respective segment and the global x-axis. The trunk rotation angle was calculated as the angle between the upper torso segment and the pelvic segment. The sequential data for rotational movement variables were normalized from the onset of the minimum upper torso angle until release or impact. There were significant positive correlations between the ball speed during pitching, head speed during batting, and head speed during the driver shot (pitching vs. batting, r=0.627, p<0.01; pitching vs. driver shot, r=0.670, p<0.01; batting vs. driver shot, r=0.554, p<0.01). There were significant positive correlations between the two striking movements with regard to the maximum angular velocity of upper torso rotation (r=0.567, p<0.01) and pelvic rotation (r=0.523, p<0.05). The batting and driver shot showed similarity of trunk rotation and pelvic rotation in that the contribution of pelvic angular velocity to the maximum upper torso angular velocity was larger than the contribution of trunk rotational angular velocity to the maximum upper torso angular velocity. Upon trunk rotation, there were no significant positive correlations among the pitching, the batting, and the driver shot with regard to maximum angular velocity. These results indicate that the ball and head speeds are strongly related during pitching, batting, and the driver shot. The upper torso rotation and pelvic rotation around the vertical axis of the global coordinate system are related only during batting and the driver shot.
著者
裵 芝允
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.17037, (Released:2018-02-15)
参考文献数
28

The purpose of this paper is to extend understanding of Richard Shusterman’s somaesthetics to Education. In order to do so, John Dewey’s pragmatism will be placed in between somaesthetics and Education. Dewey played an essential part in the development of somaesthetics――not only its genealogy but also its fundamental concepts, for instance, “body”, “practice”, and “body consciousness”. Examining Shusterman’s understanding of Dewey’s pragmatism will help to clarify the pragmatic aspects of somaesthetics. To examine the possibility of extended understanding of somaesthetics for Education, the philosophy of physical education will be considered. Somaesthetics provides pragmatic viewpoints on the philosophy of physical education. From this viewpoint, the philosophy of physical education shauld be based on live somatic experience rather than on foundationalism.
著者
千葉 直樹
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
日本体育学会大会予稿集
巻号頁・発行日
vol.67, pp.98_1, 2016

<p> 本研究では、2012年の「体罰」事件以降の時期に焦点を絞り、高校のバスケットボール指導者の暴力行為の実態を明らかにすることを目的にする。2015年の高等学校総合選手権大会でベスト32以上に進出した19都道府県の指導者を対象に、2016年3月に郵送調査を行った。回答者の40.1%は、選手時代に指導者からの暴力行為を受けていた。22.1%の指導者が「体罰」事件以前に暴力行為を選手に行ったことがあると回答した。一方で、2013年1月以降の時期では、5.8%の指導者が暴力行為を行っていた。この結果から、「体罰」事件以降に、暴力行為を行うバスケットボール指導者の数が少なくなったと考えられる。しかし、暴力行為の範囲を「ボールを投げつける」、罰走、暴言という項目まで拡大すると、28.8%まで暴力行為を行った指導者の比率は高くなった。以上の結果から、「拳で殴る」や「平手打ち」等の暴力行為は少なくなった一方で、暴言や身体的な苦痛を伴う懲戒などは依然として一部の高校バスケ部で行われていることが示唆された。さらに、先行研究の指摘通りに、暴力指導を受けた指導者ほど、選手に暴力行為を行う傾向が確認された。</p>
著者
池本 淳一
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.59, no.2, pp.529-547, 2014 (Released:2014-12-20)
参考文献数
41

This paper focuses on the position of “Ju-ken” matches and their promoter, Kenji Kano, in Japanese boxing history. A “Ju-ken” match was a match between a judoist and a boxer, and such bouts were held from the middle of the Taisho era to the early Showa era in Kobe, Tokyo and Osaka. The main organizer of these matches was the “International Ju-ken club”, whose owner Kenji Kano was the nephew of Jigoro Kano. This study divides the history of Ju-ken into three periods, each with respective features.   The first period was from October 1919 to April 1921. Ju-ken at this time was intended to reform judo into a competitive sport through fighting with boxing. Although judo had been well established at that time, it was facing a challenge due to loss of its spirit and form as a martial art during the process of sportification. Jigoro Kano, the founder of Judo, was unhappy with this change. By studying boxing, karate, aikido, stick fighting and other martial arts, he aimed at creating a ‘Martial Art Judo’. His nephew Kenji Kano pursued martial art-oriented judo as well, but his approach to reconstructing judo as a martial art was through mixed martial arts games, the “Ju-ken match”.   The middle period was from May 1921 to March 1925, when Ju-ken evolved into a spectator sport that encapsulated the struggle for superiority in terms of nationality and ethnicity. Because Kodokan prohibited their members from participating in any mixed-martial arts match from April 1921, Ju-ken became a spectator sport. In addition, after charity matches following the Great Kanto Earthquake, in order to bring more excitement to the game, Ju-ken heightened the opposition and rivalry based on the nationalities and ethnicities of the athletes.   The final period was from April 1925 to August 1931, when Ju-ken changed into a show that was intended to provoke nationalistic emotions among the audience. After the development of “normal” boxing, Ju-ken held normal boxing matches in their games and adopted new boxing-like rules. These new rules and the point systems put foreign boxers at a disadvantage when fighting against Japanese judoists, ensuring that Japanese would always defeat foreigners.   Finally, through assimilation of knowledge and focusing on boxing, this study argues that Ju-ken matches created a background for localization of modern boxing in Japan.
著者
福田 将史
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
日本体育学会大会予稿集
巻号頁・発行日
vol.68, pp.106_2-106_2, 2017

<p> 現在、全日本大学野球連盟に所属する26連盟の公式戦においては春季リーグ戦、秋季リーグ戦ともに勝ち点制を採用している連盟がほとんどである。勝ち点制とは、同一カードで先に2勝した方が勝ち点1を獲得する方式である。筆者は、野球の試合において、先に得点したチームの勝率について、高校野球(2009)、学童野球(2012)、社会人野球(2014)で7割以上の勝率であることを報告した。大学野球における勝ち点制においても、先勝したチームが勝ち点を獲得するのに有利になるのではないかと考えた。</p><p> 本研究では、大学野球の勝ち点制で先勝した場合の勝率について分析した結果について報告する。対象は、全日本大学野球連盟に所属する18連盟で、2005年から2015年の10年間の春季リーグ戦と秋季リーグ戦について分析した。その結果、春季リーグ戦、秋季リーグ戦ともに7割以上の勝率であることが明らかになった。</p>
著者
大東 実里 星野 聡子
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
日本体育学会大会予稿集
巻号頁・発行日
vol.69, pp.102_3, 2018

<p> 「挑戦か脅威か」という認知的評価は自律神経に作用して心臓血管系応答を乱し、競技場面においてはパフォーマンスに影響を及ぼすと考えられる。スポーツパフォーマンスの予測可能性を自律神経系活動に求めることを目的として、本研究では、認知的評価と自律神経系活動の関係を心拍変動から検討する。剣道団体戦の代表戦場面というストレス事態下を想定し、等身大に提示した競技レベルの異なる対戦相手(High、Middle、Low条件)に対して有効打突を決めるイメージで対峙することを課題とした。自律神経活動は対峙5分間の心拍数および心拍変動スペクトル解析からLF成分(0.04~0.15Hz)とHF成分(0.15~0.4Hz)を、またLF/HF、LF/total、HF/totalによって評価した。その結果、相手の競技レベルが自身より高いと認知したHigh条件と低いと認知したLow条件では、自身の競技レベルと近いMiddle条件よりも交感神経活動の促進と副交感神経活動の抑制が示された。すなわち、認知的評価に伴う緊張や退屈による覚醒水準の推移に伴って、交感神経活動はU字を、副交感神経活動は逆U字を描くということが示唆された。</p>
著者
荒木 達雄
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
日本体育学会大会予稿集
巻号頁・発行日
vol.67, pp.62_1-62_1, 2016

<p> 内田良氏の提言で組(立)体操がクローズ・アップされ、文科省の指針発表にまで発展した。この問題は、体育の授業内ではなく「体育祭」という「スポーツ・イベント」内での事故が多発しているためである。もともとは体操領域に「組(立)体操」は位置しているわけであるが、指導要領にその種目の文言が戦後、一度明記されたのみであり、現在の「体つくり運動」でも明記されていない。また、名称の不徹底も問題となっている。それは「組立体操」、「組体操」の区別の仕方である。「組立体操」は、人間が2段、3段に積み上げて造形美を表現する「<u>静的</u>」な運動形態である。「組体操」は、2人以上で互いの力を利用し合って動く、「<u>動的</u>」な運動形態である。体育の指導者であれば、この違いを理解したうえでこれらの運動種目を指導すべきであろう。また、普段の授業内での練習した種目を厳選したうえで、体育祭での発表作品として選択すべきと考える。今回は、「組立体操」、「組体操」の目的を明確にして実践例を参加者に体験してもらい、発表作品にまで発展させていく企画である。</p>
著者
堀江 航 田中 信行
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
日本体育学会大会予稿集
巻号頁・発行日
vol.69, pp.293_3, 2018

<p> 本研究は、米国の障がいのあるスポーツ選手を対象にしたアンケート調査により、その健康感や幸福感などの傾向を得ることを目的にした。対象とした選手は、全米車椅子バスケットボール選手権大会(今年3月で70回)に参加した成人男子48チーム(競技レベル順にDivision Ⅰ・Ⅱ・Ⅲ(各16チーム))に所属する者であった。アンケートの配布数は412件であり、回答数は177件(回収率43.0%)であった。調査内容は、年齢、障害名、持ち点などに加え、車椅子バスケットボールの競技歴、その他のスポーツの競技歴、受障原因や受障年齢を基本情報とし、Well-Being Scale(WeBS)を用いた主観的な健康感とThe Satisfaction with Life Scale(SWLS)を用いた幸福感などであった。WeBSとSWLSは、それぞれ6件法と7件法であった。さらにチームに障がいのない者を加えることの賛否と共に自由筆記によりその意見を求めた。各項目の集計と分析結果の詳細については当日発表する。</p>