著者
中井 義明
出版者
日本西洋古典学会
雑誌
西洋古典學研究 (ISSN:04479114)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.37, pp.12-22, 1989-03-15

Herodotus says that king Xerxes led his unprecedentedly huge forces and invaded Europe in 480 B C The size of the expeditionary force, including troops from Europe and non-combatants, was more than five million persons Other ancient sources agree that the great king's forces were vast in scale, but differ as to their number The German empire mobilized seven armies, i e, one million, five hundred thousand soldiers, on the western front at the beginning of the First World War The German troops were supplied, via thirteen railways, five-hundred-fifty trains a day Nevertheless, they were distressed by shortage of provisions Could the Persian empire, which had only primitive transport, maintain such huge forces for a long time and in a far distant country? Her transportation capability was meager It seems impossible that she mobilized and continued to supply such huge forces Modern historians doubt the size of the Persian forces which Herodotus gives They try to reduce his number to reasonable levels For that purpose they use two methods One is the philological method, used by many historians They criticize the texts and make known the organization of Xerxes' forces and the commanders' names There were three infantry divisions, three cavalry brigades, the Immortals, the guard troops and the non-combatants But, if one doubts about Herodotus' number, the size of the forces remains unknown The other method used employs logistics Gen Maurice and Gen v Fischer used this method They heed that the volume of provisions carried by the transport corps determined the scale of the forces This necessitates the fixing of some variables the mean speed, the size of the files, the carrying capability of pack animals and the rate of consumption of provisions What was the Persians' speed? It must have been that which reached the maximum value of the rate of flow There are some models for inquiring into the relation between the mean speed and the rate of flow I use Greenschields' model The outcome of my computation is that six parasangs a day is best, five a day next best and seven a day third best According to Xenophon's Anabasis, the Persians frequently marched six or seven parasangs a day When they crossed a bridge or river, their speed slowed Five parasangs a day was the usual speed So, I think that Xerxes' forces crossed the Hellespontos at the rate of five parasangs a day The rate of flow of animals was 500 4 heads/h, the rate of flow of infantrymen 1,429 7 persons/h What was the size of the Persian files? Gen v Fischer thought four files to be the usual size of the infantiy and two files that of the cavalry and transport corps I follow his view As the transport corps continued to cross for 7 days and nights, the total number of pack animals is 168,134 The transport corps carried 33,626,800 Ibs, consumed 31,945,460 Ibs, and could offer 1,681,340 Ibs to the combatants Such volume of provisions can maintain 41,000 infantrymen and 4,000 cavalrymen The number of an infantry division was 10,000 men, the number of cavalry brigade 1,000 men Xerxes' forces numbered 45,000 men Many historians think that the Persian fleet was far superior to the Greek Some believe in Herodotus' number, some modify his number to 1,000 or 800 or 600 Before the battle of Salamis, all Persian ships anchored in Phaleron bay I use this fact as a clue to estimating their scale I divide the length of the seashore by the width a trireme occupies in action The outcome is 300 ships The original fleet probably numbered about 400 ships My conclusion is that the land forces numbered 45,000 persons and the fleet 400 ships
著者
馬場 駿吉 高坂 知節 稲村 直樹 佐藤 三吉 鈴木 茂 遠藤 里見 石戸谷 雅子 小野寺 亮 山田 公彦 大久 俊和 荒井 英爾 鈴木 雅明 大山 健二 粟田口 敏一 戸川 清 岡本 美孝 松崎 全成 寺田 修久 喜多村 健 石田 孝 馬場 廣太郎 島田 均 森 朗子 池田 聖 金子 敏郎 今野 昭義 山越 隆行 石井 哲夫 窪田 市世 鍋島 みどり 田口 喜一郎 石山 哲也 中野 雄一 中村 英生 五十嵐 文雄 古川 仭 作本 真 山下 公一 久保田 修 宇佐神 篤 伊藤 博隆 鈴木 元彦 間宮 紳一郎 横田 明 加藤 薫 大屋 靖彦 河合 〓 岩田 重信 横山 尚樹 井畑 克朗 瀧本 勲 稲福 繁 坂倉 康夫 鵜飼 幸太郎 雨皿 亮 山田 弘之 坂倉 健二 平田 圭甫 伊藤 由紀子 村上 泰 竹中 洋 山下 敏夫 久保 伸夫 中井 義明 大橋 淑宏 阪本 浩一 村田 清高 平沢 昌子 原田 康夫 森 直樹 白根 誠 多田 渉 小林 優子 竹林 脩文 河野 嘉彦 夜陣 紘治 平田 思 宮脇 修二 津田 哲也 山下 隆司 二階堂 真史 柿 音高 永澤 容 増田 游 後藤 昭一 西岡 慶子 折田 洋造 東川 康彦 武 浩太郎 進 武幹 前山 忠嗣 百田 統洋 堤 昭一郎 茂木 五郎 川内 秀之 松下 太 吉村 弘之 高田 順子 石川 哮 定永 恭明 大山 勝 松崎 勉 坂本 邦彦 廣田 常治 内薗 明裕 鯵坂 孝二 中島 光好
出版者
The Society of Practical Otolaryngology
雑誌
耳鼻咽喉科臨床 (ISSN:00326313)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.88, no.3, pp.389-405, 1995-03-01
被引用文献数
13 12

The efficacy and safety of Kampo preparation Sho-seiryu-to were studied in a joint double-blind trial in comparison with a placebo. The study was carried out on 220 patients with perennial nasal allergy at 61 hospitals. Granules in a dose of 3 g were administered 3 times daily for 2 weeks. Moderate to high improvement was recorded in 44.6% of the treated patients and in 18.1% of those receiving placebo. The difference is significant (p <0.001). Side effects were noted in 6.5% of the treated patients and in 6.4% of the controls (not a significant deference). The side effects were mild and had no influence on the daily life of the patients.
著者
池岡 博之 大橋 淑宏 丸岡 健一 古下 博之 中井 義明 小野山 靖人
出版者
一般社団法人 日本耳鼻咽喉科学会
雑誌
日本耳鼻咽喉科学会会報 (ISSN:00306622)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.88, no.11, pp.1562-1566, 1985-11-20 (Released:2008-03-19)
参考文献数
21

In order to examine the effects of irradiation on the nasal epithelium, rabbits received 200kV hard X-ray irradiation at 3, 000 rad to their nasal septum. The nasal mucosa after the irradiation was examined with scanning and transmission electron microscopy in a time-course manner. Immediately after the irradiation, few morphological changes were observed on the nasal epithelium with scanning electron microscopy, while transmission electron microscopy disclosed some morphological changes such as vacuolation and ballooning of epithelial cells, and enlargement of intercellular space. 2 weeks after the irradiation, sporadically affected changes were observed. The affected signs of the epithelial cells were observed at the wider area according to the course of time after the irradiation. 4 weeks after the irradiation, stratified arrangement of non-ciliated cells or undifferentiated cells were noted in an extensive area of the nasal mucosa 8 weeks after the irradiation, the nasal epithelium were chiefly consisted of undifferentiated cells. Accordingly, the following conclusions were derived from the present investigation; 1) Irradiation affected the nasal ciliary epithelium. 2) The damage of the nasal epithelium by irradiation was not recovered easily.
著者
中井 義明
出版者
同志社大学
雑誌
社会科学 (ISSN:04196759)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.77, pp.17-44, 2006-09

スパルタの覇権がレウクトラ以降解体していく政治過程を分析した。スパルタと同盟諸国、スパルタと正面から対立し自らの影響力を中部ギリシアやペロポネソスに拡大しようとしたボイオーティア、ペロポネソスにおけるスパルタの伝統的な競争国アルゴス、テーバイの台頭に不信感を募らせスパルタとの提携に傾いていったアテーナイ、の外交行動の分析を通じてその背後にある党派の問題を解明しようとした。スパルタと同盟諸国を結び付けていたのはそれぞれの政治指導者間の個人的な友情と同志意識、民主派に対する敵意と民主革命に対する恐怖感の共有であった。スパルタが民主派に対する安全を保障している限り、スパルタの覇権のもとにあることは意味があった。しかしレウクトラ以降スパルタがそのような保障を提供し得なくなった時、同盟諸国は独自に安全保障の道を模索するようになる。そのことが同盟と覇権の解体をもたらしたのである 。 スパルタの能力の欠如が帝国の解体の原因であった。ボイオティアではエパメイノンダスの政策に反対するメネクレイダスが緊張をもたらしていたし、アルゴスではスキュタリスモスの革命騒ぎによって大混乱が生じていた。アテーナイでは重要な政策を指導したのはカッリストラトスであった。彼はテーバイへの不信からスパルタとの提携を推奨し、スパルタとの連携によってテーバイを抑制しようとしたのである。This paper has treated the political process of the demolition of Spartan hegemony since Leuctra. Sparta, her allies, Argos, Athens and Boiotia are searched for. Relations between diplomacy and factional strife in these states are analized. Spartans like Agesilaos had friendship and comradeship with oligaichic leadres of her allies, and shared their distrust and hostility toward the democrats and fear of democratic revolution. Sparta was the guardian of the oligarchs and gave them shield. But she had decreased her power and prestige since Leuctra. Epameinondas's two invasions made clear her inability. She could not offer her allies enough support any longer. So the oligarchs of her allies had to search for another way. Epameinondas offered them such way. Boiotia allowed oligarchic constitution of Spartan allies and leadership of the oligarchs. He requested them peace with Boiotia and did not demand the other. Therefore, allies seceded from the alliance with Sparta. The lack of ability of Sparta has destroyed her empire. In Athens, the victory of the Thebans stirred up the caution of the Athenians who had fought severely against Sparta during the Boiotian war. Athens has inclined to cooperation with Sparta to control the threat from the north. It was Kallistratos to have guided this new policy. In Argos, for the revolution which is called Skytalismos, pandemonium was caused in Argos. Demos of Argos killed rich people first, and executed leaders who had agitated the murder next. This incident astonished coetaneous people. In Boiotia, Epameinondas and his companions were obtaining full trust among the Boiotians. The oligarchs as a political power had disappeared. However, the opposition existed. Menekleidas criticized Epameinondas' act on his own authority. His voice had the influence. Thus, the faction and the factional strife had exerted a strong influence on the policy of states.
著者
中井 義明
出版者
同志社大学文化学会
雑誌
文化学年報 (ISSN:02881322)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.59, pp.1-27, 2010-03
著者
江暗 裕介 中井 義明 大橋 淑宏 金 朋郁
出版者
The Society of Practical Otolaryngology
雑誌
耳鼻咽喉科臨床 (ISSN:00326313)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.85, no.2, pp.227-231, 1992

A 35-year-old male patient visited our outpatient clinic with sudden onset of right ear fullness. Right tubal stenosis was considered to be responsible for his complaint. A roughsurfaced flat tumor was found close to the right Rosenmuller's fossa, and biopsy was performed immediately under fiberscopy. Whether his hearing loss was due to a conductive or sensorineural disturbance was not conclusively determined because the audiogram was complicated. The tumor was diagnosed histopathologically as not malignant but inflammatory, "epithelioid granulosis in the pharyngeal tonsil". Physical examinations did not support either sacoidosis or active tuberculosis. The final diagnosis, based on a retrospective study of his lesion, was old epipharyngeal tuberculosis and sudden deafness.