著者
Seiji KAWAMOTO Mitsuoki KANEOKE Kayo OHKOUCHI Yuichi AMANO Yuki TAKAOKA Kazunori KUME Tsunehiro AKI Susumu YAMASHITA Ken-ichi WATANABE Motoni KADOWAKI Dai HIRATA Kazuhisa ONO
出版者
(社)日本農芸化学会
雑誌
Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry (ISSN:09168451)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.75, no.1, pp.140-144, 2011-01-23 (Released:2011-01-23)
参考文献数
15
被引用文献数
12

We tested the effect of oral administration of fermented sake lees with lactic acid bacteria (FESLAB) on a murine model of allergic rhinitis upon immunization and nasal sensitization with ovalbumin (OVA). We used Lactobacillus paracasei NPSRIk-4 (isolated from sake lees), and L. brevis NPSRIv-8 (from fermented milk) as starter strains to produce the FESLAB. Oral FESLAB administration resulted in the development of significantly fewer sneezing symptoms than those seen in sham control animals given sterile water. We also found that FESLAB suppressed the allergen-induced degranulation of RBL2H3 rat basophilic leukemia cells.
著者
工藤 洋三 橋本 堅一 佐野 修 中川 浩二
出版者
公益社団法人地盤工学会
雑誌
土と基礎 (ISSN:00413798)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.34, no.8, pp.p47-51, 1986-08
被引用文献数
12

1 0 0 0 OA 吾妻鏡

著者
与謝野寛 [ほか]編纂・校訂
出版者
日本古典全集刊行会
巻号頁・発行日
vol.第1, 1927
著者
Ahmet Ak Cemile Oztin Ogun Aysegul Bayir Seyit Ali Kayis Ramazan Koylu
出版者
東北ジャーナル刊行会
雑誌
The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine (ISSN:00408727)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.210, no.4, pp.285-290, 2006 (Released:2006-12-05)
参考文献数
18
被引用文献数
23 47

Arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis has an important role in the clinical assessment of patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). However, arterial puncture or insertion of an arterial catheter has many drawbacks. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether venous blood gas (VBG) values of pH, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2) and oxygen (PO2), bicarbonate (HCO3), and oxygen saturation (SO2) can reliably predict ABG levels in patients with AECOPD. One hundred and thirty-two patients with a prior diagnosis of COPD presenting with acute exacerbation according to AECOPD criteria were included in this prospective study. AECOPD is defined as a recent increase in cough, wheezing, the volume and purulence of sputum or shortness of breath necessitating a change in regular medication, including corticosteroids or antibiotics. ABG samples were taken immediately after venous sampling, and both were analyzed. Linear regression analysis was performed and equations were established for the estimation of arterial values. The Pearson correlation coefficients for pH, PCO2, HCO3, PO2, and SO2 were 0.934, 0.908, 0.927, 0.252, and 0.296, respectively. There was a significant correlation between ABG and VBG values of pH, PCO2, and HCO3 (p < 0.001). Linear regression equations for the estimation of pH, PCO2, and HCO3 were as follows: arterial pH = 1.004 × venous pH; arterial PCO2 = 0.873 × venous PCO2; and arterial HCO3 = 0.951 × venous HCO3. VBG analysis can reliably predict the ABG values of pH, PCO2 and HCO3 in patients with AECOPD.
著者
奥山 洋一郎 永田 信
出版者
東京大学大学院農学生命科学研究科附属演習林
雑誌
東京大学農学部演習林報告 (ISSN:03716007)
巻号頁・発行日
no.123, pp.1-15, 2010-07

森林教育の場である学校林がその所在する市町村の立地により,どのような差異があるのかについて,2001 年に実施した学校林現況調査データを分析することで明らかにした。学校林現況調査において所在が確認された学校林から,森林教育を実施することが多いと想定される小学校と中学校を抽出した。その上で,その所在市町村を農業地域類型と振興山村指定状況から5 地域に分類して,そのうち都市地域(都市),平地農村(農村),山間農業地域(山村)の3 地域の所在する学校林3637 箇所について分析した。<改行>その結果,都市の学校林は,校地から距離が近く,樹種は針葉樹のみという学校林は比較的少数であり,広葉樹や果樹も含めて多様な林相を持つ割合が大きかった。また,設置目的は,教育目的に類するものの割合が比較的大きかった。管理については,学校関係者のみで実施している例が多いが,外部主体では地域住民の関わりが大きい。利用に関しては,他の立地条件に比べて活発であり,半数近い学校林で利用されていた。山村は,校地から遠隔地の学校林が多く,樹種は針葉樹のみという学校林が多かった。設置目的は林業教育が多く,また学校の財産としての利用を目的とした伐採の実績も多かった。管理主体では,森林組合の割合が他よりも多かった。利用状況は一番低調であった。農村については,都市と山村の中間的な性格を持つことがわかった。ただし,設置目的や利用内容を見ると基本財産としての目的が比較的多く,財産としての森林整備も実施されていた。この点は,地域共同体の組織力とも関わりがあると予想される。学校林の整備と利用を活性化するためには,これら立地による相違を意識した,例えば都市においては森林ボランティア団体,山村においては地域共同体等の地域主体との連携が必要である。The differences in school forests depending on their location in cities, towns and villageswere examined using data from the school forest situation survey which was carried out in 2001.Data for elementary and junior high schools were extracted from the school survey where theirexistence was identified in the school forest situation survey. Municipalities were classified byagricultural area type and designated area under the Mountainous Regions Development Laws.Then, 3637 school forests was analyzed, being located in city areas, flatland farm villagesand mountain village areas. It was found that school forests located in city areas were close indistance to the school premises and most of them had diverse growing stocks. In the managementof these forests, community residents played a relatively major role. A number of them wererelatively actively used with half of such school forest exhibiting some type or usage. Schoolforests located in mountain villages were more distant from the school and many of them wereexclusively coniferous in their composition. The purposes to which these were put were mainlyforestry education, and there were many cases of felling for use by the school. Forest owners'cooperative supported the management. The number of those used was lower than in otherareas. The farm village showed results that were between those of a city and mountain villages.However, they were likely to be used for school property purpose than forests in the othercategories. To activate the maintenance and use of school forests, it was necessary to strengthenthe relationship between the local players depending on the differences of the location conditions.
著者
土井 晃一 大森 晃 蓬莱 尚幸 渡部 勇 片山 佳則
出版者
情報処理学会
雑誌
全国大会講演論文集
巻号頁・発行日
vol.47, pp.125-126, 1993-09-27
被引用文献数
2

顧客からの要求獲得において、自然言語によるコミュニケーションは重要な役割を果たしている。この際、直接言われた要求だけではなく、言われていない、顧客の無意識下にある漠然とした要求も抽出したい。将来的には自動的に要求を抽出することが目標だが、まずは要求獲得のための方法論を確立したい。要求獲得では、話し手の意図理解が前提となる。意図理解の理論的枠組として発話行為論を用いる。発話行為論では話し手の種々のレベルの行為の解釈が主な問題となるが、本研究では単に発話の解釈、理解だけではなく要求の獲得を目標とする。まずそのために言語現象を観察・解析し、話し手の意図を考慮した言語行為モデルを構築する必要がある。本論文ではそうしたモデルを提案する。図1コミュニケーシヨン進行による共有知識の顕在化さらに話し手の意図を理解するためには、共有知識(感情、イメージなども含む)の顕在化が必要となる。つまりコミュニケーションの展開を通して、図1のように、話し手、聞き手双方の無意識下にあるものと共有知識を意識下に顕在化すること(図1の矢印の方向への推移)が意図理解、要求分析には必要となる。これは今後の重要な課題である。
著者
医王 秀行
出版者
The Society for Near Eastern Studies in Japan
雑誌
オリエント (ISSN:00305219)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.41, no.2, pp.20-37, 1998

In the Jahiliya Period, a pilgrimage festival with an annual market was held at a convenient season of the year. Observing the difference between the lunar and the solar year, they intercalated a month every several years. It has been said that this system was taken from the Jews. The Banu Kinana were charged with <i>Nasi'</i> (intercalation) and adjusted the calendar.<br>Abraha, who invaded Makka in the Year of the Elephant, aimed to divert the Arab pilgrimage to the church he himself had constructed in Yemen. But there were strong protests against his plan, particularly by the Kinanite who controlled the order of the Arab pilgrimage cycle in the Arabian peninsula.<br>According to their calendar, in a normal year, the first two months after Dhu 'l-Hijja were Safar I and Safar II, and in a leap year, the intercalary month, al-Muharram, came first, followed by Safar I and Safar II. Safar I in a normal year and al-Muharram both belonged to the sacred months, so that the safety of the pilgrims moving to another sanctuary was guaranteed. Therefore, in a leap year and a normal year, there were four sacred months.<br>Though this was exceptional, they postponed the sanctity of a month when the markets were invaded, or war broke out between Arab tribes, and so the festival could not be held as normal. Mainly the Kinanite took part in the war of Fijar which occurred near the 'Ukaz market for several years. Therefore, it was likely that the sacred month was postponed exceptionally.