著者
中島 誠 吉田 俊和
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.2, pp.98-107, 2008

This research investigated the motives behind helping and exploitive behaviors from the perspective of the Equity with the World (EwW) hypothesis, which claims that people will maintain equity in trans-relational relationships. It was hypothesized that (a) people redress inequity even from third parties, and (b) in comparison with monetary issues, when the exchange resource involves helping out, over-rewarded people offer more resources to others, while the under-rewarded are less likely to exploit others. In addition, (c) people redress inequity more strongly with interested parties. A total of 343 college students completed a questionnaire that contained two hypothetical situations. In each of these situations, respondents were initially either given resources, or had resources exploited from them, and were then asked about subsequent situations. The evaluation of the first interaction and their intent toward offering resources to third parties were assessed. The results generally supported the hypotheses. However, the second hypothesis was not supported. They were less exploitive when they were under-rewarded regarding money allocation. Differences in the method of restoring inequity regarding the resources were discussed in terms of generalized exchange.
著者
中島 誠 中木原 由佳 高橋 武士 野間口 寛 寺師 守彦 林 秀樹 杉山 正
出版者
一般社団法人日本医薬品情報学会
雑誌
医薬品情報学 (ISSN:13451464)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.18, no.1, pp.13-21, 2016 (Released:2016-06-13)
参考文献数
19

Objective: We have used therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) analysis software to set the initial dose of vancomycin in our hospital.  In contrast, the TDM guideline, in which the initial dose of vancomycin per body weight was set, was published in 2012.  We looked forward with utilizing the TDM guideline in the clinical setting, after which we conducted multiple surveys to determine the important points of the TDM guideline.Methods: We surveyed patients treated with vancomycin, in whom the initial dose was set using the TDM analysis software and the concordance rate between the vancomycin dose set with the software and that set with the TDM guideline.Results: The concordance rate of vancomycin dose was 42.1%.  The mean age of the high-dose group (vancomycin dose higher than that recommended by the TDM guideline), was younger than that of the recommended-dose group.  Additionally, the mean body weight of the high-dose group was significantly lower than that of the recommended-dose group.  The corrected creatinine clearance of the low-dose group was significantly lower than that of the recommended-dose group.Conclusion: Our results suggest that when the initial dose is set after referring the TDM guideline in patients who are not very high age, and having low body weight and decreased renal function, the dose may differ from the dose set by using TDM analysis software.  In addition, since the recommended dose per body weight is a range and not a single value, setting the dose appropriate to target trough concentration is necessary.
著者
中島 誠
巻号頁・発行日
1989 (Released:1989-04-01)

平成元年度、幼稚園の3歳児数名を選び、8ミリビデオを用いて、自由遊びの場面や先生とのやりとりの場面などを録画・録音。3歳児は、家庭生活を離れて、始めて集団生活を始めるときである。担任は、ひとりひとりの子どもと、1人対1人の場をつくり、子どもの好きな遊びをいっしょにしてあげることが大切である。子どもは先生と仲よしになると、遊びの中で先生とのことばのやりとりを発展させる。先生と自分に対する情動的認知の発達が言語発達の基盤となる。平成2年度、前年度につつぎ、同じ子ども(4歳児)について、8ミリビデオで記録。1学期には、同じ団地からの子どものリ-ダ-格となって元気に遊んでいた子どもが、2期期中ごろから、ひとりしょんぼりしていることが多くなった。これは、それまで親や家族とのかかわりで作ってきた小さい自分の世界を、友だちとのかかわりをきっかけに、多くの友だちとのかかわりを可能にするように、大きい自分の世界へと作り変える時であり、この時に生じる一種の退行現象と考えられる。担任には、1日に1回、その子どもと1人対1人の場をつくり、子どもの気持をよく関してと、家庭では母親が1日に1回その子どものお相手をすること、をお願いした。父親も協力的で、正月休にかるた取りなどをして、家族全員で楽しく遊んでくれた。親、先生、友だち、自分に対する情動的認知の発達が言語発達の基盤になる。平成3年度、ひきつづき、同じ子ども(5歳児)について、8ミリビデオで記録。4歳児のときには、どの子どもも、何らかの退行現象をおこしていたが、また、仲よしの友だちとつきあうこともみられ始めていた。5歳児になると、サッカ-の時には誰と、ブロック遊びのときには誰となど、遊びの種類によって友だちを選んでグル-プを作り、ことばのやりとりで遊びを展開した。友だち、自分への認知が言語の基礎。
著者
国吉 京子 井上 幸 中島 誠 川野 通夫 澤田 正樹 一色 信彦
出版者
耳鼻咽喉科臨床学会
雑誌
耳鼻咽喉科臨床 (ISSN:00326313)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.82, no.11, pp.1587-1592, 1989-11-01 (Released:2011-11-04)
参考文献数
20

In order to study the development of speech in infants with cleft palate, we investigated the development of consonant articulation in two cases (A, B) with cleft soft palate and in two cases (C, D) with cleft lip and palate before and after palatoplasty. We taperecorded their consonants in meaningful speech sounds and transcribed them.We made the following observations: (1) The frequency of consonants in meaningful speech sounds did not vary with the type of cleft or the timing of palatoplasty, and increased radically in the latter half of the second year and the first half of the third year. (2) Glottal stops occurred in the pre-palatoplasty periods but had almost disappeared three to ten months after palatoplasty in cases A, B, and C, whose velopharyngeal function was competent. (3) The speech sounds of these three cases were judged to be intelligible when the numbers of glottal stops decreased, the numbers of voiceless stops accounted for over 50% of all stops, and bilabial voiceless stops [p] appeared.
著者
橋本 俊一 本田 雄 柳谷 由己 中島 誠 池上 四郎
出版者
The Society of Synthetic Organic Chemistry, Japan
雑誌
有機合成化学協会誌 (ISSN:00379980)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.53, no.7, pp.620-632, 1995-07-01 (Released:2009-11-16)
参考文献数
38
被引用文献数
4 4

The rational design and development of stereocontrolled glycosidation reactions has been the subject of intensive investigations. Our interest in this context has been centered on the design of the leaving groups of glycosyl donors coupled with their activation without resorting to precious, explosive, or toxic heavy-metal salts as promoters. In an effort to capitalize on the phosphorus-containing leaving groups, we have recently devised new glycosyl donors incorporating diphenyl phosphate, diphenylphosphinimidate, N, N, N', N'-tetramethylphosphoroamidate, phosphorodiamidimidothioate, or diethyl phosphite as leaving groups, the glycosidations of which constitute mild and efficient methods for the highly stereocontrolled construction of 1, 2-trans-β-and 1, 2-cis-α-glycosidic linkages. In this paper, several notable features of the present glyosidation methods coupled with the mechanistic aspects are described.
著者
上﨑(堀越) 菜穂子 鮫島 隆 大森 康雄 府中 英孝 三明 清隆 森岡 豊 小谷 健二 小齊 喜一 後藤 清太郎 渡辺 至 中島 誠人 猪口 由美 西坂 嘉代子 五十君 靜信 新村 裕 服部 昭仁
出版者
公益社団法人 日本食品科学工学会
雑誌
日本食品科学工学会誌 (ISSN:1341027X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.60, no.7, pp.347-356, 2013-07-15 (Released:2013-08-31)
参考文献数
34

非加熱食肉製品である生ハムにおけるaWおよび乳酸ナトリウムによるL. monocytogenesの制御について5試験機関で検討した.(1) 血清型の異なるL. monocytogenesの増殖に対する乳酸ナトリウムの影響試験から,供試した菌株の乳酸ナトリウムに対する感受性は,4種の菌株間で差がないことが明らかとなった.(2) 試験用生ハムで,いずれの試験機関でもaW 0.93(0.930≤aW<0.940) では,L. monocytogenes (血清型4b,Scott A株) は,10℃で56日間保管した場合に増殖しなかった.このことから,生ハムではaW0.93であれば,原料肉のpHや食塩濃度,亜硝酸塩および低温保管(10℃) などの条件が相加,相乗的に作用して,L. monocytogenesの増殖が抑制されるものと推測された.(3) 今回の試験では,aW 0.94(0.940≤aW<0.950) であれば,2%の乳酸ナトリウムを添加することによってL. monocytogenesの増殖が抑制されることが示唆された.
著者
中島 誠 三浦 ひとみ 上野 陽子 岡 智子 奥 麻理 福島 綾子 寺師 守彦 大迫 政彦 林 秀樹 杉山 正
出版者
一般社団法人日本医療薬学会
雑誌
医療薬学 (ISSN:1346342X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.41, no.11, pp.799-810, 2015-11-10 (Released:2016-11-10)
参考文献数
28

The package insert of notandum, a narcotic drug, states that patients who take this drug must not drive a car, or should drive a car carefully. Many drugs used in supportive cancer chemotherapy and palliative therapy contain warnings regarding driving a car. Twenty-one of 127 outpatients in our hospital who received cancer chemotherapy were prescribed drugs that affect car driving. Sixteen patients drove a car on a daily basis. Although patients would receive a warning from their physician or pharmacist regarding driving when prescribed narcotic drugs, repeated warnings should be given, and driving status should be checked. Fourteen patients stated that refraining from driving was difficult. Therefore, pharmacists proposed prescribing drugs that do not affect driving to these patients. By changing their therapeutics to anti-emetics and supplementary analgesics, the patients could drive without worsening their condition. When selecting drugs, the necessity of driving should be checked to maintain quality-of-life. Nevertheless, as all patients who take opioid analgesics in palliative therapy must refrain from driving, and as opioid analgesics cannot be replaced with other drugs, it is necessary to check the validity of the descriptions in the package insert in future.
著者
中島 誠
出版者
現代評論社
雑誌
現代の眼 (ISSN:0435219X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.11, no.1, pp.204-213, 1970-01
著者
原田 知佳 吉澤 寛之 朴 賢晶 中島 誠 尾関 美喜 吉田 俊和
出版者
日本パーソナリティ心理学会
雑誌
パーソナリティ研究 (ISSN:13488406)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.3, pp.273-276, 2014-03-25 (Released:2014-04-08)
参考文献数
15
被引用文献数
1

This study examined adolescents' social self-regulation in four cultures and differences in the relationships between social self-regulation and antisocial behavior. A total of 1,270 adolescents from Japan, Korea, China, and the United States completed a questionnaire. The results of an ANOVA showed that adolescents in Japan showed lower self-assertion than those in Korea, China, and the United States. Adolescents in China showed more self-inhibition than those in Japan, Korea, and the United States. The results of an ANOVA showed the following. Only the main effect of self-inhibition on antisocial behavior was observed in Korea, China, and United States, whereas an interaction effect of self-assertion and self-inhibition on antisocial behavior was observed in Japan. Since the “assertive type,” showing high self-assertion and low self-inhibition, does not fit in Japanese culture, assertive-type people would be observed as having maladjusted behavior in Japan.
著者
中山 留美子 中西 良文 長濱 文与 中島 誠
出版者
The Japanese Psychological Association
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.86, no.2, pp.170-176, 2015

The present study examined the influence of interpersonal motivation on university adjustment in freshman students enrolled in a First Year Experience (FYE) class. An interpersonal motivation scale and a university adjustment (interpersonal adjustment and academic adjustment) scale were administered twice to 116 FYE students; data from the 88 students who completed both surveys were analyzed. Results from structural equation modeling indicated a causal relationship between interpersonal motivation and university adjustment: interpersonal adjustment served as a mediator between academic adjustment and interpersonal motivation, the latter of which was assessed using the internalized motivation subscale of the Interpersonal Motivation Scale as well as the Relative Autonomy Index, which measures the autonomy in students' interpersonal attitudes. Thus, revising the FYE class curriculum to include approaches to lowering students' feelings of obligation and/or anxiety in their interpersonal interactions might improve their adjustment to university.
著者
中山 留美子 長濱 文与 中島 誠 中西 良文 南 学
出版者
京都大学高等教育研究開発推進センター
雑誌
京都大学高等教育研究 (ISSN:13414836)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.16, pp.37-48, 2010-12-01

In 2009, a First-Year-Experience (FYE) course of Mie University was introduced as an endeavor to transform students into active learners by having them acquire the university's educational goals. Mie University established this program to allow the students acquire generic skills broadly categorized into four abilities: to appreciate (kanjiru), to analyze (kangaeru), to communicate, and to integrate those skills in various practical situations (ikiru). The course consisted of 16 sessions. The first five sessions emphasized communication practices to enable the students to brush up their discussion skills. In the next seven workshops, the students were assigned a group project to complete. The last four sessions included presentation, evaluation of the projects, and reflection of their achievements. The student's responses were measured by a scholastic achievement evaluation, which was administered in September. To clarify the effect of the FYE course, we compared the evaluation of students enrolled in 2008 with 2009. ANOVA revealed significant differences in the evaluations. Their expectancy to acquire the four abilities was not as low as those who did not take this course. In addition, the majority of the students felt that their communication and practical skills had improved. Among all freshman in 2009, the evaluations for students who took the FYE course showed a similar trend. This course was evaluated as successful in transforming the students into active learners.
著者
宮本 健作 中島 誠 山田 恒夫 吉田 光雄
出版者
大阪大学
雑誌
一般研究(B)
巻号頁・発行日
1987 (Released:1987-04-01)

1.喃語様発声と負の強化:九官鳥の幼鳥がヒトのことばを模倣学習する過程で出現する喃語様発声(模倣原音)に対して大きな拍手音または叱声を与えると、その発声回数は徐々に減少し、結局そのトリの模倣は完成しない。一方、トリの発声ごとに愛称を呼ぶか餌を与えるかすると、模倣原音は加速的に増加し、物まねの完成が促進される。この成績は幼児の言語習得に関する貴重な教訓を示唆する。2.実験的騒音性難聴の形成:九官鳥は騒音負荷に対する受傷耐性が著しく高く、哺乳類では騒音負荷の有効刺激としてよく知られた高音圧のホワイトノイズまたは純音はまったく効果はみられなかった。種々試みた結果、閉鎖空間における陸上競技用ピストル音の暴露によって一過性の騒音性難聴が認められた。3.聴力損失の指標:動物の頭皮上ならびに内耳前庭窓近傍から記録した脳幹聴覚誘発電位(BAEP)および蝸牛神経複合活動電位(AP)は一過性騒音難聴の形成とその回復過程を知る客観的指標としてきわめて有効であることを確認した。4.騒音性難聴条件下の模倣発声:爆発音負荷直後、BAEPおよびAP波形が消失してから振幅が完全に回復するまでの10日間における発声行動の音圧および発声持続時間などにはとくに顕著な変化は認められなかった。難聴児にみられる聴覚フィードバックの障害効果と著しく異なった。5.模倣発声行動の動機づけ要因:飼育者の音声のようにある種の社会的意味をもつと考えられる音声は物まね発声を誘発させる効果があること、さらに飼育者の音声が感覚性強化刺激になることが明らかになった。6.弁別オペラント行動からみた九官鳥の聴力曲線:行動聴力曲線は他種のトリに比べ、ゆるやかなカーブを描き、可聴範囲は110Hzから12kHzまでの幅広い周波数帯域を含むことが認められた。騒音性難聴が模倣発声に及ぼす効果の有無については今後の検討課題であるが、ヒトと異なり、強大音に対する受傷耐性が高い。
著者
中島 誠
出版者
新日本文学会
雑誌
新日本文学 (ISSN:02877864)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.3, pp.105-107, 1973-03