- 一般社団法人 日本科学教育学会
- 科学教育研究 (ISSN:03864553)
- vol.30, no.3, pp.185-193, 2006-09-10 (Released:2017-06-30)
Since scientific research begins with the setting of hypotheses, students at teachers colleges must to design hypotheses learn during teacher training. However, no effective generalized instruction methods for hypothesis setting have been developed. In fact, no such instruction has ever been carried out. In this study, we investigated the actual involvement of elementary school teacher candidates in inquiry into natural science and related fields in their elementary, junior and senior high school days. At the same time, we developed a method to design a hypothesis based on the technique of the "four question strategy" in order to practice this method using these teacher candidates, and demonstrated the following findings: (1) With the advancement from elementary and junior high school to senior high school, the percentage of elementary school teacher candidates who liked the subject of natural science tended to decline. In particular, during their senior high school days, half of such students disliked this subject. (2) The frequencies of observations and experiments tended to decrease, as seen in their low rate of liking for natural science when they advanced to higher schools. At high school, the frequencies of observations and experiments were only 20.3% even when both "high" and "somewhat high" were combined. This figure was extremely low compared with those of elementary and junior high schools, which is problematic. (3) The percentage of students who had gone through a series of the experiences of science learning was under 10%. (4) Two 60-minute sessions were conducted using the instruction method and worksheet developed through the "four question strategy." As a consequence, more than 90% of the students responded by saying "well understood," and "somewhat understood." From this outcome, we concluded that the newly proposed instruction method and worksheet were highly effective for the students to acquire a means to design hypotheses.