著者
山本 由似 塩田 倫史 大和田 祐二 福永 浩司
出版者
公益社団法人 日本薬学会
雑誌
YAKUGAKU ZASSHI (ISSN:00316903)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.131, no.4, pp.497-501, 2011-04-01 (Released:2011-04-01)
参考文献数
23
被引用文献数
1 1

Haloperidol as a potent dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) antagonist was a major tranquilizer to treat schizophrenia patients. However, the D2R blocking action in dorsal striatum is thought to cause extrapyramidal symptoms as adverse effects. However, the pathophysiological mechanism underlying extrapramidal symptoms induced by chronic treatment of haloperidol remains unclear. We recently found that lacking of heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) in the brain aggravate catalepsy behavior induced by haloperidol. Here, we examined neuronal mechanism of augmentation of haloperidol-induced catalepsy in H-FABP null mice. Notably, catalepsy induced by haloperidol, a D2 antagonist, is augmented, whereas catalepsy induced by SCH23390, a D1 antagonist, was not affected in H-FABP null mice. Interestingly, haloperidol-induced acetylcholine (ACh) release in the dorsal striatum was markedly enhanced in H-FABP null mice compared to wild mice. We also defined the co-localization of D2R with H-FABP in the ACh interneurons in the striatum. Taken together, H-FABP regulates dopaminergic neuronal activity through interaction with D2R in rodent brain. The increased ACh release in the striatum accounts for haloperidol-induced catalepsy.
著者
斎藤 嘉朗 中村 亮介
出版者
公益社団法人 日本薬学会
雑誌
YAKUGAKU ZASSHI (ISSN:00316903)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.139, no.12, pp.1557-1562, 2019-12-01 (Released:2019-12-01)
参考文献数
15

Severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs) are important in postmarketing drug safety because SCAR patients were highest in the adverse drug reaction relief system of Japan. The SCAR symptoms of Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) include high fever, severe mucosal impairment, and epidermal necrosis-induced erosions and blisters. Approximately 600 cases of SJS and 300 cases of TEN are reported annually in Japan. Many suspected drugs such as acetaminophen, lamotrigine, allopurinol, and carbamazepine have been reported. Over the last 15 years, an association between human leukocyte antigen and SJS/TEN onset has been reported with several drugs. Pathophysiological examinations in those reports revealed marked CD8-positive T cell infiltration into epidermal lesions, and the presence of cytotoxic granulysin, soluble Fas ligand, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in blister fluid. Therefore, SJS and TEN are immunological disorders that lead to epidermal necrosis and are consequently treated with the systemic administration of corticosteroids and with high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin therapy and plasma exchange in severe cases. Additionally, because the epidermal necrosis has characteristics similar to those of organ rejection after transplantation, the administration of cyclosporine, an immunosuppressant that inhibits helper T cell activation, has been attempted. Further, the administration of the TNF-α inhibitor etanercept has also been reported. This review summarizes current knowledge on the mechanisms of onset of SJS/TEN and their treatments.
著者
木村 真梨
出版者
公益社団法人 日本薬学会
雑誌
ファルマシア (ISSN:00148601)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.53, no.7, pp.699-701, 2017 (Released:2017-07-01)
参考文献数
22

近年鍼灸の臨床効果が世界各国で科学的に解明されようとしている。うつに対する鍼灸治療の効果としては筋緊張の緩和、免疫の活性化、前頭葉の活動や自律神経の調整、オキシトシンの分泌を促し、セロトニンの分泌を増加させる等、不安やストレス軽減にも寄与することが明らかになってきた。本稿では、最近の鍼灸の基礎・臨床研究の現状を紹介するとともにうつに有効なツボや東洋医学の理論について概説する。
著者
大友 千絵子
出版者
公益社団法人 日本薬学会
雑誌
ファルマシア (ISSN:00148601)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.52, no.9, pp.863-865, 2016 (Released:2016-09-02)
参考文献数
12

全米の医療大麻人口はおよそ260万人と推計されている。50州から構成される連邦国家であるアメリカ合衆国で、医療大麻(医療マリファナ)が合法とされている州はそのうち24州と連邦政府直轄地区であるワシントンD.C地区である。その先陣を切り、最も早く医療大麻が合法化されたのがカリフォルニア州(加州)だ。規制薬物法で最も規制の厳しいスケジュールIに分類されている医療大麻の現状を紹介する。
著者
中山 健夫
出版者
公益社団法人 日本薬学会
雑誌
YAKUGAKU ZASSHI (ISSN:00316903)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.138, no.3, pp.331-334, 2018-03-01 (Released:2018-03-01)
参考文献数
17

Evidence-based medicine (EBM) can be defined as “the integration of the best research evidence with clinical expertise and a patient's unique values and circumstances”. However, even with the best research evidence, many uncertainties can make clinical decisions difficult. As the social requirement of respecting patient values and preferences has been increasingly recognized, shared decision making (SDM) and consensus development between patients and clinicians have attracted attention. SDM is a process by which patients and clinicians make decisions and arrive at a consensus through interactive conversations and communications. During the process of SDM, patients and clinicians share information with each other on the goals they hope to achieve and responsibilities in meeting those goals. From the clinician's standpoint, information regarding the benefits and risks of potential treatment options based on current evidence and professional experience is provided to patients. From the patient's standpoint, information on personal values, preferences, and social roles is provided to clinicians. SDM is a sort of “wisdom” in the context of making autonomous decisions in uncertain, difficult situations through interactions and cooperation between patients and clinicians. Joint development of EBM and SDM will help facilitate patient-clinician relationships and improve the quality of healthcare.
著者
木村 恵理子 藤堂 浩明 杉林 堅次
出版者
公益社団法人 日本薬学会
雑誌
YAKUGAKU ZASSHI (ISSN:00316903)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.132, no.3, pp.319-324, 2012-03-01 (Released:2012-03-01)
参考文献数
19
被引用文献数
1 2

Human beings are exposed or otherwise a subjected to a various chemical compounds. Various nanomaterials are contained in the chemical compounds which are used in many fields. Nanomaterials are also used in cosmetics: titanium dioxide and zinc oxide are examples. Consumers who apply cosmetics to their skin as well as workers at industrial plants may thus be exposed to these nanoparticles. Therefore, it is of great importance to evaluate the safety of these nanoparticles. In this review, we describe the possibility of nanoparticle penetration to skin following exposure, which makes it urgent to evaluate the safety factors. In general, it is necessary to take account of the desquamation rate of the stratum corneum and the permeation pathway and size of nanoparticles when considering such penetration. One layer of the human stratum corneum is peeled off per day. Therefore, a chemical compound of which the skin penetration is lower than the desquamation rate does not permeate through the skin, when the compound infiltrates the stratum corneum. Hence, compounds with a molecular weight of more than 500 Daltons do not permeate through the stratum corneum. However, we must also pay attention to the appendage routes, although the aforementioned layer is the primary permeation route of nanoparticles. The contribution of appendage routes must be taken into consideration.
著者
緒方 章
出版者
公益社団法人 日本薬学会
雑誌
藥學雜誌 (ISSN:00316903)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1919, no.451, pp.751-765, 1919-09-26 (Released:2018-08-30)

著者はフェニールイソプロビールメチルアミンを合成して是れを左右兩旋光性體に分離し其右旋性體をエフェドリン還元成績體なるデスオキシエフェドリンと比較して兩者の同一物なることを證明し從てエフェドリンの構造式が[chemical formula]なることの證明となせり
著者
和田 直樹 藤田 誠
出版者
公益社団法人 日本薬学会
雑誌
ファルマシア (ISSN:00148601)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.55, no.7, pp.668-670, 2019 (Released:2019-07-01)
参考文献数
5

分子の化学構造を決定する強力な手段は単結晶X線回折(SXRD)法だが,「単結晶を形成しない化合物に適用できない」「単結晶作製条件の最適化に多量の試料を必要とする」等の原理的な問題を抱えていた.しかし,結晶スポンジ(CS)法では,細孔性の金属錯体を鋳型として試料溶液を流し込めば化合物のSXRD解析が可能となる.われわれは本手法を用いて,従来の常識を覆す天然物の構造解析スタイルを確立した.
著者
山本 郁男 吉村 英敏
出版者
公益社団法人 日本薬学会
雑誌
衛生化学 (ISSN:0013273X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.5, pp.233-248, 1982-10-30 (Released:2008-05-30)
参考文献数
117
被引用文献数
2 1

This review is concerned primarily with our recent papers which have been published or presented since 1978. Especially, metabolic conversion of Δ8-THC to Δ8-THC-11-oic acid and to 8α, 9α-epoxyhexahydrocannabinol (8α, 9α-EHHC) and their pharmacological implications are described. Liver microsomes catalyze formation of 11-OH-Δ8-THC from Δ8-THC, 11-oxo-Δ8-THC from 11-OH-Δ8-THC, and 8α, 9α-EHHC from Δ8-THC. The involvement of cytochrome P-450 in these reactions were suggested in vivo as well as in vitro. 11-OH-Δ8-THC was detected and determined as a metabolite in vivo of Δ8-THC in the liver and brain of mice. 11-OH-Δ8-THC, when administered to mice, showed higher distribution in the brain as compared with Δ8-THC. Pharmacological activities of 11-OH-Δ8-THC, 11-oxo-Δ8-THC, Δ8-THC-11-oic acid, 8α, 9α-EHHC, 8β, 9β-EHHC, 9α, 10α-EHHC and 8β, 9α-di OH-HHC were compared with that of Δ8-THC using mice. Pharmacological effect of 11-OH-Δ8-THC, 11-oxo-Δ8-THC, 8β, 9β-EHHC and 9α, 10α-EHHC were more potent than that of Δ8-THC in the cataleptogenic, hypothermic, pentobarbital-induced sleep prolonging, and anticonvulsant effects. Daily administration of 11-OH-Δ8-THC or 11-oxo-Δ8-THC as well as Δ8-THC quickly induced tolerance to their hypothermic and pentobarbital-induced sleep-prolonging effects. The LD50s of 11-OH-Δ8-THC, 11-oxo-Δ8-THC and Δ8-THC-11-oic acid are larger than that of Δ8-THC.
著者
池田 幸弘
出版者
公益社団法人 日本薬学会
雑誌
ファルマシア (ISSN:00148601)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.53, no.11, pp.1106-1107, 2017

戸越銀座を歩き、星薬科大学へと向かう。正門を入ってすぐ右手の建物の1階に資料館があった。本資料館には、創立者星一ゆかりの資料を中心に、本学にかかわる多様な歴史資料が展示されている。星薬科大学の歴史を辿ると、明治44(1911)年、星製薬株式会社が創立された際、社内に設置された教育部に遡る。会社創立と同時に教育部門を設けることは珍しいと思われるが、これは、建学の精神である「世界に奉仕する人材育成の揺籃である」に由来するのであろう。この根底には、座右の銘である「親切第一」 -「親切第一を主義として、自己に親切なれ、何人にも親切なれ、物品に親切なれ、時間に親切なれ、学問に親切なれ、金銭に親切なれ、親切は平和なり、繁栄なり、向上なり、親切の前には敵なし、親切は世界を征服す」の信念が礎となっている。ちなみに、星薬科大学と聞くと、つい創立者の長男である作家星新一を頭に浮かべてしまうが、本名は親一で、この言葉から名づけられたという。さらに余談を述べると、次男は協力第一の銘から、協一と名づけられたらしい。
著者
高根 浩
出版者
公益社団法人 日本薬学会
雑誌
YAKUGAKU ZASSHI (ISSN:00316903)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.131, no.11, pp.1589-1594, 2011-11-01 (Released:2011-11-01)
参考文献数
30
被引用文献数
4 6

Various drug transporters are selectively expressed in single or multiple tissues, such as the intestine, liver and kidney, where these transporters play various roles in drug absorption, distribution and excretion. Genetic polymorphisms in drug transporters as well as drug-metabolizing enzymes are associated with interindividual differences in drug disposition, efficacy and toxicity. Organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1, gene SLCO1B1) is expressed on the basolateral membrane of hepatocytes and can facilitate hepatic uptake of certain clinically relevant drugs such as statins except for fluvastatin, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor antagonists, antidiabetic drug (repaglinide) and anticancer drugs (SN-38 and methotrexate). Some single nucleotide polymorphisms or haplotypes of the SLCO1B1 gene have been identified and demonstrated to have functional significance for transporter activity. For examples, the SLCO1B1*15 haplotype (or 521T>C genotype) results in decreased uptake activity of SN-38 from systemic circulation, leading to increased plasma concentration of SN-38 and an enhanced risk of neutropenia. This review focuses on the impact of genetic polymorphisms of the SLCO1B1 gene on transport activity, and implications for the clinical efficacy and toxicity of clinically useful drugs.
著者
黒澤 努
出版者
公益社団法人 日本薬学会
雑誌
YAKUGAKU ZASSHI (ISSN:00316903)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.128, no.5, pp.741-746, 2008-05-01 (Released:2008-05-01)
参考文献数
7
被引用文献数
1 2 2

Systematic modern animal experimentation was established by Bernard Claude who wrote “An Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine” in 1865. At this point, the public was already asking that the pain and distress of experimental animals be reduced. For this, scientists, William Russell and Rex Burch in 1959 proposed the principles of alternatives to animal experimentation, the “3Rs”. Since that time, animal welfare advocates have promoted the 3Rs concept in biomedical research communities. However, cruel animal experiments have continued and there are reports of radical extremists showing their opposition by invasion, arson, theft and even bombing of institutions involved, resulting in killing of the animals. SHAC, one extremist group believed to be animal welfare activitists was recognized as a terrorist group after the 9.11 tragedy in USA and the government viewed their activities very seriously. In 2001, British animal extremists invaded Japanese universities and stole laboratory resources; one individual was arrested and sentenced to prison for three years; Japanese who assisted in the incident were arrested and one was sentenced for one year. In 2006, SHAC USA members were prosecuted and sentenced for up to 6 years for their terrorism activities including arson. We need to consider the background of these activities which are financially supported by animal welfare advocates. The way we, as scientists who conduct such experiments can respond is by promoting alternatives to this experimentation. In Japan, the animal welfare law was revised in 2005 stressing the importance of 3Rs in scientific activities with animals. The promotion of 3Rs should be strengthened in the pharmaceutical community.
著者
吉山 友二
出版者
公益社団法人 日本薬学会
雑誌
ファルマシア (ISSN:00148601)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.54, no.2, pp.151-153, 2018 (Released:2018-02-01)
参考文献数
5

「在宅医療推進における薬剤師のかかわり」のシリーズで多くの実践的な事例紹介がなされてきた。初回の「地域医療行政の立場からの薬剤師への期待」では、地域医療と在宅医療の全体像について総説されている。続いて、各領域の先生方から、在宅医療推進における薬剤師のかかわりについて最新の事例紹介がなされた。本コラムで提供された有用な情報を、在宅医療の推進に活用することが薬剤師の腕の見せ所と確信している。
著者
本橋 秀之 藤本 敦子 坂根 稔康 山本 昌 矢野 義孝
出版者
公益社団法人 日本薬学会
雑誌
YAKUGAKU ZASSHI (ISSN:00316903)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.133, no.11, pp.1235-1241, 2013 (Released:2013-11-01)
参考文献数
9
被引用文献数
1 1

In recent years there have been over 30000 suicides annually in Japan. This is one of the most serious problems for Japanese society. Because mental disorder is closely associated with suicide, factors related to the increase in mental disorders and suicides should be clarified. In this study, various data regarding social factors were evaluated to assess the correlation of the number of patients with mental disorders and suicides among the 47 prefectures of Japan. Various data regarding social factors, such as income, savings, or rate of divorce, were obtained from the database of the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan. Among the factors, the annual income and the amount of savings were significantly correlated with the number of patients with mental disorder. On the other hand, while the annual income did not have a significant correlation with suicides, the amount of savings had a significant correlation with suicides. In conclusion, the annual income and amount of savings may both be one of the important factors involved in mental disorders, and the savings may also be a factor affecting suicides. These analyses are valuable in helping to clarify the causes of mental disease, and can hopefully contribute to the health and welfare of Japanese.
著者
武富 芳隆 村上 誠
出版者
公益社団法人 日本薬学会
雑誌
YAKUGAKU ZASSHI (ISSN:00316903)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.137, no.5, pp.503-515, 2017-05-01 (Released:2017-05-01)
参考文献数
56
被引用文献数
2 3

Mast cells originate from hematopoietic stem cells and undergo terminal maturation in the extravascular tissues, in which they are ultimately resident. Mast maturation, phenotype, and function are dictated by the local microenvironment, which has a significant influence on the ability of mast cells to recognize and respond to stimuli. Activation of mast cells can lead to the release of three distinct classes of mediators, including preformed mediators stored in secretory granules, newly transcribed cytokines and chemokines, and de novo-synthesized bioactive lipid mediators. It is currently recognized that bioactive lipids such as arachidonic acid metabolites (prostaglandins and leukotrienes) released from mast cells modulate innate and adaptive immune responses both directly and indirectly through communication with other microenvironmental immune cells or stroma cells. Moreover, mast cells express a variety of lipid receptors and, if activated by bioactive lipids such as arachidonic acid, ω3 fatty acids, lysophospholipids, and their metabolites, can alter the release and production of other mediators including histamine, cytokines, and chemokines, and thereby alter homeostatic or pathophysiological responses. This review focuses on newly identified functional aspects of bioactive lipids with regard to their immune regulation and functional outcomes in both homeostasis and allergic disease.