- 一般社団法人 人文地理学会
- 人文地理 (ISSN:00187216)
- vol.63, no.4, pp.324-343, 2011 (Released:2018-01-23)
In recent years, the field of study called labor geography is growing within European and American geography. However, in Japan there have been very few studies examining urban labor markets from this viewpoint. This paper aims to show how day laborers’ movements in Kamagasaki differentiated their spaces between the 1960s and the 1970s. To achieve this aim, this paper examines the processes of scaling place from two viewpoints: institutional differentiation, and appropriation of space.Concerning the process of institutional differentiation, riots played the definitive role. The riots of the earlier period, the 1960s, were completely spontaneous collective occurrences, but had the clear objective of protesting against the police. On the other hand, the riots of the later period, the 1970s, were closely related to the labor movements. First of all, the Nishinari branch of the All Japan Harbor Workers’ Union, organized since 1969, actively utilized the riots in their rhetoric for advancing negotiations with the Osaka prefectural administration. Second, the outbreak of the second term riots brought about a situation which gave the union an advantage in the negotiations. The labor movement pressured Kamagasaki into obtaining a social security system specific to the area through such negotiations.In the appropriation of space, the Kamagasaki Joint Struggle Meeting formed in the early 1970s was main impetus. The meeting appropriated the three following important spaces in the Kamagasaki area by developing direct actions: First, by defeating the S Construction Company, it created a situation which gave laborers predominance over brokers in the labor market. Second, the meeting succeeded in appropriating Triangle Park by holding a summer festival. Third, after labor struggles broke down in 1973, the meeting developed a movement centered on the occupation of public spaces in the winter season. Such processes made safety nets for day laborers customary in Kamagasaki.This paper demonstrates the differentiation of the space by a labor movement as described above. This paper also suggests the possibility of describing urban geography as a dynamic process accompanied by conflicts.