- 京都大學文學部研究紀要 (ISSN:04529774)
- vol.54, pp.1-28, 2015-03-10
"Map of Inner City of Beijing" has been stored in Kyoto University. The Maphas remained unknown even as bibliographic information until now. What doesthe map mean? Are there any other maps similar to the map? When was the mapdrawn? We tried to answer these questions from the viewpoints of geography andChinese philology.The following points are made clear: (1) "Map of Inner City of Beijing"shows the spatial arrangement of eight-banners in garrison of Manchu, Mongolian, and Han, with three marks of circle (Manchu), square (Mongolian), and triangle (Han). Each mark is color-painted in eight ways indicating thepatterns of eight-banners in Qing (清) Dynasty. (2) Total number of the eightbannersis about 550. Manchu is the majority, and Mongolian and Han are aboutone third of Manchu, respectively. (3) Distribution of the eight-banners ingarrison of Manchu, Mongolian, and Han is spatially uneven and it shows clearsegregation in small scale. Manchu are located at the central part of Inner City, and the other two are mostly located at peripheral areas along the City Wall.(4) In the course of our investigation, we found that "Complete Map of Innerand Outer Cities of Beijing in Daoguang (道光) Dynasty" is the only map whichalso shows the spatial arrangement of eight-banners in garrison by Manchuria, Mongolian, and Han. This map is stored in the National Library of China. (5) Thetwo maps stored in Kyoto University and the National Library of China are verysimilar in terms of map size, three map marks (circle, square, and triangle), theircoloring patterns, and numbers of eight-banners of three armies. (6) One of theclear differences between these maps is the assignment of marks: in "Map ofInner City of Beijing, " square indicates Mongolian and triangle indicates Han, onthe other hand, in "Complete Map of Inner and Outer Cities of Beijing, " squareindicates Han and triangle indicates Mongolian. The latter map is very delicatelydrawn on silk sheets, but the former is rather roughly drawn on paper sheets.(7) "Map of Inner City of Beijing" indicates the people's names who lived inthe official residences. Based on their lifetime- or enrollment-periods, the mapcould be inferred to have been produced in the late nineteenth century. (8)Although many Great Powers such as England and France built their embassiesin the area of Dong Jiao Min Xiang (東交民巷) since the Boxer Rebellion in 1860, there are no embassies. (9) It is ver y interesting that many of fices andresidences are indicated as their non-official names, and that informal styles andphonetic equivalent of Chinese characters are frequently used among all wordswritten in the map.These observation indicates that "Map of Inner City of Beijing" stored inKyoto University might be a very rare and valuable map for the 'eight-banners'study in Qing Dynasty, and that a detailed comparative study should be carriedwith respect to "Map of Inner City of Beijing, " "Complete Map of Inner and OuterCities of Beijing in Doanguang Dynasty" and the other maps which may be existsomewhere. One of our future tasks is to clarify the situation and backgroundswhen the map was produced.