- 教育社会学研究 (ISSN:03873145)
- vol.40, pp.193-207, 285-286, 1985-09-30
The aim of this paper is to re-evaluate the "New sociology of education." In the 1970s, an academic movement called "New sociology of education" arose in England. What made the moment was Young's readings, Knowledge and Control. Young criticized the "traditional" sociology of education on two points: (1) It takes for granted the reality of schooling and the presuppositions which make it existing; (2) It devotes itself to extract the relationships between inputs and outputs, so that it sees the "process" of schooling as a blackbox. Then, grasping the school as a culture-transmitting agency, he asserted that we have to call the organizing principles of the school (not only on knowledge but also on students) in question. We can say that the main character of the "New sociology of education" is its application of the "interpretive approach" for schooling. Its origins exist in Schutz's phenomenological sociology and Mead's symbolic interactionism, and it sees schooling as the negotiation process between teachers and students. One uses participant observations, interviews, video-cameras to understand the reality of schooling. Criticisms against the "New sociology of education" are as follows: it over-emphasizes the discontinuity with its tradition; it stands on super-relativism which puts values nowhere; it lacks the contact with the "structural" factors; its tecnique of data-analysis is unestablished and its findings are not suitable for generalization. Responding to these criticisms, the "New sociology of education" has been unfolding itself towards two directions: one direction that focuses on the micro process of schooling from the standpoint of symbolic interactionism and another direction that focuses on the macro constraint to the micro process from the standpoint of Marxism. In these circumstances, Willis's "Cultural reproduction theory" attracts our attention. Using the interpretive approach, it tries to reveal the interrelations between structural factors and interactional practices in a particular social setting. His study implies theoretical and methodological potentialities contained in the "New sociology of education" and its substance, that is, the interpretive approach.