著者
出 佳奈子
出版者
弘前大学教育学部
雑誌
弘前大学教育学部紀要 = Bulletin of the Faculty of Education, Hirosaki University (ISSN:04391713)
巻号頁・発行日
no.118, pp.85-97, 2017-10

第二次世界大戦終結後の1940年代後半期、GHQ 統制下における日本の女性誌(少女雑誌を含む)においては、女性が「知的教養」を身につけることの必要性が声高に主張された。それに伴い、各種の少女雑誌は少女読者たちに向けて、学校教育における教科を鑑みつつ、女性としてもつべき教養をさまざまな記事を介して説くようになる。本稿は、当時、10代前半の多くの少女たちに支持された『少女倶楽部』(講談社)における美術観賞記事に注目し、そこで展開された西洋美術の紹介が、「教養」を求める戦後の風潮をもとに構成されていること、しかしながらそこには同時に、明治以来の良妻賢母の育成を旨とする女子教育観が依然として受け継がれていることを指摘していく。
著者
横山 香
出版者
奈良大学
雑誌
奈良大学紀要 (ISSN:03892204)
巻号頁・発行日
no.46, pp.97-113, 2018-03

Frauenkrimiは、「女性による、女性についての、女性のための」推理小説と言われ、1990年代前後に女性作家の推理小説がドイツ語圏で流行した際にこの用語が定着したとされるが、その概念の定義は簡単ではない。ドイツのヴィースバーデン市が2000年から5年にわたり女性の作家に与えた賞「女性推理作家賞」 ("FrauenKrimiPreis") は、Frauenkrimiの概念とその褒賞の是非について、激しい議論を引き起こすことになった。この議論を整理すると、とくに女性作家が推理小説ジャンルにおける制度的なジェンダーの不均衡を感じているということ、Frauenkrimi が相反する傾向―フェミニズム的か、女性向けの通俗的なものか―で捉えられていることが明らかになった。本稿では Ingrid Noll と Charlotte Link という、現代のドイツを代表する Frauenkrimi の作家の作品を取り上げ、テクストそのもの傾向ではなく、その読まれ方と、そこで生み出される文化的意味が重要であることを指摘した。
著者
德永 洋介
出版者
東洋史研究会
雑誌
東洋史研究 (ISSN:03869059)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.73, no.4, pp.577-610, 2015-03

Many instances of illegal activities are recorded in the Song historical literature. These involved not only unlawful trafficking in items that were government monopolies, but also transregional operations of organized crime across districts and administrative units. These organized groups of burglars and/or bandits, were called qundao 群盜or junzei 軍賊. The gradual increase in the scale and number of crimes and the better organization of these groups caused significant social unrest in the Song. Deeply concerned, the dynasty answered by improving the law enforcement system to arrest these criminals and developed a mechanism to maintain the security of local communities at the neighborhood level. Strict measures were taken against burglary and banditry, and several rural areas were named top priority areas (zhongfa difen 重法地分), where an all-out crackdown was carried out. These legal measures were collectively called Daozei zhongfa 盜賊重法. The Daozei zhongfa was in effect for 43 years during the late Northern Song period. It started with the institution of the Wocang Zhongfa 窩藏重法 in 1065 (the second year of the Zhiping 治平 era) under the reign of Emperor Yingzong 英宗, and was followed by the Jiedao Zhongfa 劫盜重法 introduced the next year. What was groundbreaking about the Wocang zhongfa was that it was security legislation aimed not at the criminals themselves, but at collaborators and acts of support, such as harboring criminals (wocang 窩藏), providing renegades hideouts and offer necessary services and goods. The law was intended to destroy criminal organizations by clamping down on those who helped them. Wocang zhongfa punished the family members of the criminals. The Jiedao zhongfa stipulated that the authorities could punish those criminals more heavily than preceding punitive laws. Both these laws were indeed harsh. However the jurisdiction of the new legislation, Daozei zhongfa, was very limited from the time of its promulgation. Its maximum geographic range was reached in 1086, the first year of the Yuanyou 元祐 era of Emperor Zhezong 哲宗. However, even at that time it never extended beyond Kaifeng 開封, the capital city of the dynasty, and some other main prefectures and counties along the transport network in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River and the Huai River which were linked to Kaifeng nor beyond the mountainous area of Fujian. As time went on, the burglars and bandits became stronger and more daring, and the situation worsened. The Daozei zhongfa was tested by this reality and its effectiveness was increasingly questioned. The Song authorities' response wavered. On the one hand, the central government as a temporary measure expanded the legislation's jurisdiction beyond the original areas, and also repeatedly attempted to appy the Wocang zhonfa as a nationwide legal norm. The zhongfa difen were quickly abolished in 1108, the second year of the Daguan 大觀 era under Emperor Huizong 徽宗. The aforementioned context was the underlying cause, but the law had become more and more inconsistent and most of the Wocang-related regulations in the legislation were incorporated in the general laws (海行法) of the Chiling geshi 敕令格式. In the Southern Song the general laws also included an article on family collective responsibility and a provision providing rewards from confiscated property. This fact indicates that these measures were then reckoned effective to combat the problem of wocang. It also means that the regulations that were in the beginning a stopgap measure in the interim legislation of zhongfa finally became formal components of universal law. Put into historical perspective, this legal environment of the Song dynasty proved to have paved the way for the appearance of the Qiang qie daozei wozhu li 强竊盜賊窩主例 of the following Yuan dynasty and the Daozei wozhu fa 盜賊窩主法 of the later Ming dynasty.
著者
秋月種樹 著
出版者
河鰭実文
巻号頁・発行日
1889