- 一般社団法人 日本オリエント学会
- オリエント (ISSN:00305219)
- vol.45, no.2, pp.133-147, 2002 (Released:2010-03-12)
In 76 A. H./695 A. D., a Kharijite leader, Salih b. Musarrih al-Tamimi rebelled against the Umayyads in the region of Dara with the horsemen under the command of Shabib b. Yazid al-Shaybani. Although Salih was killed in the early stage of the revolt, Shabib succeeded him and led the remnants of the Kharijite forces through the region of al-'Iraq. The men who followed Shabib numbered barely over one hundred, because the “Kharijite” forces were mainly made up of his own tribesmen, Banu Shayban, in spite of their summoning the other Arabs to the faith. Al-Hajjaj b. Yusuf al-Thaqafi, the notorious governor of al-'Iraq, sent the Kufan troops one after another against Shabib whose army defeated all of them and rushed into the city of al-Kufah, killing those who prayed at the great mosque, and moved away up to the eastern mountainous district. In the next year the Kharijites invaded al-'Iraq again, defeated the army of fifty thousand men under the command of ‘Attab b. Warqa’ and camped outside the city of al-Kufah, facing al-Hajjaj himself there. But the Syrian troops who were sent by the caliph 'Abd al-Malik pushed them back and made Shabib drowned in his crossing the river of Dujayl at the end of 77/697.For all that the Kharijite rebels were regarded as fanatic extremists from the viewpoint of later Sunni Islam, the Arabic sources which narrate the course of the revolt seem to glorify them as mighty horsemen and fearless soldiers. This is because Shabib rebelled against the Umayyads, the enemy of the 'Abbasids who would overcome them and build a new dynasty under which the remaining Arabic chronicles and biographies were written.