著者
針生 悦子 趙 麗華
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.78, no.4, pp.424-432, 2007-10-25 (Released:2010-07-16)
参考文献数
13
被引用文献数
3 3

Do non-native speakers of the Japanese language understand the symbolic values of Japanese onomatopoeia matching a voiced/unvoiced consonant with a big/small sound made by a big/small object? In three experiments, participants who were native speakers of Japanese, Japanese-learning Chinese, or Chinese without knowledge of the Japanese language were shown two pictures. One picture was of a small object making a small sound, such as a small vase being broken, and the other was of a big object making a big sound, such as a big vase being broken. Participants were presented with two novel onomatopoetic words with voicing contrasts, e.g., /dachan/vs./tachan/, and were told that each word corresponded to one of the two pictures. They were then asked to match the words to the corresponding pictures. Chinese without knowledge of Japanese performed only at chance level, whereas Japanese and Japanese-learning Chinese successfully matched a voiced/unvoiced consonant with a big/small object respectively. The results suggest that the key to understanding the symbolic values of voicing contrasts in Japanese onomatopoeia is some basic knowledge that is intrinsic to the Japanese language.
著者
浜名 真以 針生 悦子
出版者
一般社団法人 日本発達心理学会
雑誌
発達心理学研究 (ISSN:09159029)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, no.1, pp.46-55, 2015 (Released:2017-03-20)
参考文献数
26

子どもは本来より広いもしくは狭い範囲でその語の意味を捉えていることがあり,徐々に大人に近づくと言われている。本研究では幼児期における感情語の意味範囲の発達的変化を検討した。2~5歳児クラスの幼児118名を対象として,ストーリーを聞かせて主人公のキャラクターの感情を尋ねるストーリー課題と,表情写真からモデルの感情を尋ねる表情写真課題を行った。正答誤答に依らず課題を通して使用した感情語の数は2歳児クラスが3,4,5歳児クラスより少なかったものの,3~5歳児クラスの間では差が見られなかった。ストーリー課題では2歳児クラスの子どもは呼び分けが曖昧で,3,4歳児クラスになると快不快の呼び分けがなされるようになり,5歳になると不快感情内についても呼び分けができるようになることがわかった。表情写真課題では2歳児クラスの時点で喜び,驚き刺激を呼び分けており,2歳児クラスで他の不快刺激と呼び分けていた怒り刺激を3歳児クラスになると他のネガティブ感情刺激といったん一括りに捉え,4歳児クラスになると怒り刺激と嫌悪刺激が,また,恐怖刺激と悲しみ刺激が同じ語で呼ばれるようになり,5歳になると各刺激がばらばらに呼び分けられ始めることが示された。このことから,感情語においても新しい語が使えるようになった後もレキシコンの再編成が続き,語の意味範囲が変化していくことが示された。
著者
池田 慎之介 針生 悦子
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.89.16324, (Released:2018-07-14)
参考文献数
21
被引用文献数
1

In speech, paralinguistic information and lexical content may convey different emotions simultaneously. To infer a speaker’s emotion from speech, adults are likely to rely on paralinguistic information, while young children tend to rely on lexical content. This tendency to rely on lexical content is called a lexical bias. The present study aims to reveal the developmental trajectory of the emotional inference of speech by testing Japanese children aged 3 to 9 years. We also examine the degree to which children override their lexical bias as they become better able to use paralinguistic information to correctly understand emotions. The results show that every year, Japanese children give more weight to paralinguistic information than to lexical content in judging a speaker’s emotion during speech. However, the results also suggest that the lexical bias cannot be sufficiently overridden by improved sophistication in emotional inference from paralinguistic information alone.
著者
山本 寿子 針生 悦子
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, no.1, pp.22-36, 2016-03-01 (Released:2016-09-01)
参考文献数
33

In Japanese, some homophones can be distinguished by their lexical pitch accentual patterns. When and how do Japanese children start using pitch accent information as a cue to lexical distinction? In this research, we taught children two novel labels as names for two different objects. One label was a novel homophone whose accentual pattern was different from a familiar word, and the other, a novel non-homophone of a familiar word. The children ’s learning of these two labels was tested by a picture fixation task and an object choice task. The two-year-old children learned the novel non-homophone; however, they failed to learn the novel homophone (Experiment 1). On the other hand, three- to five-year-old children succeeded in learning both the la-bels, and their performance improved with age (Experiment 2). These results suggest that Japanese children gradually develop the ability to use pitch accent information as a cue to lexical distinction in words throughout their childhood. The findings are discussed in terms of how Japanese children pay attention to pitch information in the learning of words.
著者
池田 慎之介 針生 悦子
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, no.1, pp.49-64, 2016-03-01 (Released:2016-09-01)
参考文献数
138

In an utterance, paralinguistic information sometimes conveys the speaker’s affect differently from that which the lexical content indicates. In such a case, adults rely on paralinguistic information more heavily than lexical content to judge the speaker’s affect. However, young children often show a lexical bias (Friend & Bryant, 2000);they rely on lexical contents rather than paralinguistic information. Why do young children show this bias although even infants are very sensitive to speaker affect con-veyed by emotional prosody? We reviewed the literature and found two factors that may contribute to the appearance of this bias in young children. First, once children become capable of understanding speech, they rely more on lexical contents than emo-tional prosody, as their ability to infer speaker affect based on emotional prosody is still not as developed as adults’. Second, due to their immature ability to shift attention,young children have difficulty in transferring focus from lexical contents to emotional prosody when they encounter utterances whose lexical content indicates a different af-fect from the one inferred from the emotional prosody. We also suggest that future research should explore cultural influence on the appearance and disappearance of lex-ical bias as well as investigate the relationship between infants’ implicit sensitivity to,and children’s and adults’ explicit understanding of, speaker affect through speech.
著者
梶川 祥世 針生 悦子
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, no.1, pp.37-48, 2016-03-01 (Released:2016-09-01)
参考文献数
33

Onomatopoeias are frequently used in daily Japanese conversations and are a part of children’s early vocabularies. Previous studies have revealed that the phonetic structure and rhythm of onomatopoeia promotes word memory and production, and that sound symbolism functions as a cue to infer word meaning. This study examined whether the acoustic feature of speech is another factor that facilitates onomatopoeic word learning in children. The focus of the study was on voiced/unvoiced consonant contrasts related to the size of the referred object (e.g., dondon-large / tonton-small). First we analyzed mothers’ speech while reading a picture book that included onomatopoeic pairs contrasted with word-initial voiced/unvoiced consonants. Mothers read onomatopoeias that referred to small objects with higher fundamental frequency (f0) and lower amplitude than those of large objects. Then three-year-old children’s understanding of the onomatopoeic pairs was examined. The conditions were 1) original (acoustic features are almost identical between the onomatopoeias of small and large objects), 2) high 50 (the f0 of the onomatopoeias of small objects was 50 Hz higher than that of large objects), 3) high 100 (similar to the high 50 condition, but the difference was 100 Hz). The results indicated that the f0 is a possible cue to infer the meaning of onomatopoeias related to object size, and that the acoustic feature of speech would facilitate children’s learning of onomatopoeias.
著者
針生 悦子
出版者
一般社団法人 日本教育心理学会
雑誌
教育心理学研究 (ISSN:00215015)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.58, no.3, pp.275-284, 2010
被引用文献数
1

日本語で, 有声音で始まる擬音語と無声音で始まる擬音語がペアになっている場合, 前者は, より大きな対象から発せられるより大きな音を, 後者は, より小さな対象から発せられるより小さな音をあらわす。日本語話者のおとなは, 実在の擬音語ペアだけでなく, 初めて耳にする擬音語ペアにも, このルールを適用し意味を理解しようとする。本研究では, 日本語話者の子どもが, この"感覚"を, いつ, どのようにして備えるようになっていくのかについて, 書記体系であるひらがな——ひらがなでは, 有声音と無声音の対応は濁点の有無によって系統的に標示される——の影響に注目しつつ検討した。その結果, 4歳児は既に, 実在の擬音語だけでなく, 新規な擬音語も, このルールを適用して理解しようとするようになっていることが見いだされた。また, 濁音文字が読める子どもは, 読めない子どもより積極的に, このルールを新規な擬音語ペアに適用していた。このように, ひらがなについての知識は, 子どもが, 有声音と無声音に関する意味づけを, 実在の擬音語だけでなく新規な擬音語にも適用可能なものへと一般化していく過程で, 一定の役割を演じている可能性が示唆された。