著者
川合 伸幸
出版者
認知神経科学会
雑誌
認知神経科学 (ISSN:13444298)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.13, no.1, pp.103-109, 2011 (Released:2017-04-12)

ヒトにとって、「目につきやすいモノ」がある。あるモノは、背景の色や形態との違いによって目立つが、通常の視覚情報処理経路とは異なる、上丘を介した経路(網膜→上丘→視床枕→扁桃体)で伝えられるために見つけやすい対象がある。怒り顔やヘビである。これら脅威の対象をすばやく見つけられることで、危険な状況での反応(闘争や逃走)の準備が効率化し、生存に有利になると考えられる。私たちの研究で、3 歳児の子どもであってもヘビをすばやく見つけることがわかった。そのことは、脅威の対象がバイパスして扁桃体に伝わるのは生得的であることを示唆しているが、学習によってもバイパスされるようになる。そこでヘビが生得的な脅威の対象であるかを調べるために、実験室で生まれヘビを見たことの無いサルで視覚探索実験を行った。その結果、サルもヘビの写真をすばやく見つけた。すなわち、サルやヒトは進化の過程でヘビを生得的に脅威を感じる対象としたと考えられる。ただし、サルを直接ヘビと対面させたところ、ヘビを怖れる個体と、まったく怖れない個体がいた。ヒトでは、怒り顔など恐怖の対象に対する感受性が、セロトニントランスポーターの多型性と関連しているとされる。近年マカクザルでも同じ多型性があることが報告されている。そこで、遺伝子の多型性を分析し、ヘビへの恐怖との関連を検討した。これらの恐怖反応の個人差と遺伝子の多型性の関連についても考察する。
著者
柴崎 全弘 川合 伸幸
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.18, no.1, pp.158-172, 2011 (Released:2011-09-07)
参考文献数
47

We investigated to what extent humans are sensitive to snakes and spiders in a visual search task. In Experiment 1, fear-relevant deviants (snakes or spiders) were detected faster among fear-irrelevant backgrounds (flowers or mushrooms), than vice versa. Moreover, the detection of the fear-irrelevant target from snake backgrounds was significantly slower than that from spider backgrounds. It indicated that snakes held the attention more strongly than spiders did, that interfered with the effective visual search. In Experiment 2, fear-relevant animals (snakes or spiders) were compared with fear-irrelevant animals (birds or koalas). Fear-relevant animals were detected faster among fear-irrelevant animals, than vice versa. In addition, snakes were detected more rapidly than spiders, suggesting that snakes captured attention more strongly than spiders did. Furthermore, detection of the fear-irrelevant target (birds or koalas) from snake backgrounds was significantly slower than that from spider backgrounds. Again, it was indicated that snakes held the attention more strongly than spiders. We discussed our differences of the sensitivity to snakes and spiders in terms of evolutional origins of detecting hazardous animals.
著者
久保 賢太 片平 健太郎 池田 大樹 岡田 正人 岡ノ谷 一夫 川合 伸幸
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.20, no.4, pp.483-487, 2013-12-01 (Released:2014-12-24)
参考文献数
8

この度はこのような栄誉ある賞を戴くことができ,大変感激しております.私の受賞に関しては,研究の成果の大きさというよりも,アプローチのユニークさを評価していただのではないかと考えております.私は,JST ERATO 岡ノ谷情動情報プロジェクトにおいて,コミュニケーションや社会的な場面で生じる情動を,自律神経系活動・脳活動を用いて検討しております.本研究は,二者間の息の合ったコミュニケーションを解明する試みとして実施しました.これからも,実生活に潜む面白い現象を抽出することを目的とし,日々一つ一つ成果を積み上げて参りたいと思います.こうした一風変わった研究を実施できたのも,プロジェクトの総括でいらっしゃる岡ノ谷一夫東京大学教授と,私の所属する名古屋サイトのグループリーダーである川合伸幸名古屋大学准教授の懐の広いご指導の賜物です.お二人には,感謝してもしきれない御恩を感じております.このたびの受賞も,未熟な私を日ごろから丁寧に指導してくださっている川合伸幸先生と,研究室スタッフの皆様のおかげです.この場をお借りして感謝を申し上げます.
著者
渡邉 翔太 川合 伸幸
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.2, pp.185-195, 2017-06-01 (Released:2017-12-01)
参考文献数
20

We feel as if we exist in a virtual reality (VR) world especially when our actions are directly projected on a Computer Graphics (CG) character in the VR world. Such feelings are said to be achieved by a sense of ownership for the CG characters. Previous research suggests that the synchronicity between somatosensory input and visual information are crucial to attain this sense of ownership. Although several studies have investigated the temporal synchronizations between actual and virtual actions, no study has assessed how the discrepancies in the correspondence between these actions affect the emergence of a sense of ownership. In the present study, we employed a “rock-paper-scissors” game task in a VR world in which the players’ actions (i.e., rock, paper, or scissors) were projected onto the actions of a CG character with zero (0%), low (33%), moderate (66%), or total (100%) correspondences. Total correspondence indicated complete synchronization between the actions of the player and the CG character, i.e., when the player produced one of the three actions (rock, paper, or scissors), the CG character produced the same action. In the zero correspondence condition, their actions did not coincide, i.e., when the player produced one of the three actions, the CG character strictly produced different actions. The results showed that a sense of agency in terms of the subjective reports increased as a function of the correspondences between the player’s and CG character’s actions. As a probe test, after each 100 trial, games of a correspondence condition were introduced, in which the CG character’s arm was suddenly almost cut by a Japanese sword. A survey after completion of the task revealed that the sense of agency increased as a function of the correspondences. This suggested that the synchronizations of the actions are crucial for attaining a sense of ownership, as well as increase the sense of agency. In contrast, the systolic blood pressure increased only after the total correspondence condition, and was higher than those observed in the other three correspondence conditions, suggesting that any subtle decrement in correspondence does not produce a sense of ownership, as assessed by the physiological indicator. In other words, there was a discrepancy between the psychological and physiological sense of ownership at the moderate contingency condition. A temporal de-synchronization may produce a sense of ownership; however, any decrement in the correspondence between actual and virtual actions is insufficient to evoke a sense of ownership.
著者
井谷 美友 久保(川合) 南海子 川合 伸幸
出版者
THE JAPANESE SOCIETY FOR ANIMAL PSYCHOLOGY
雑誌
動物心理学研究 (ISSN:09168419)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.65, no.2, pp.63-69, 2015 (Released:2015-12-18)
参考文献数
16

Studies on instrumental learning have rarely been conducted with tailed amphibians. This may be due primarily to difficulties in training newts with food rewards. Most previous studies on instrumental learning by newts have employed runways without a distinct discriminative stimulus associated with food. In this study, we trained newts (Cynops pyrrhogaster) with black rings as the discriminative stimuli at close distance (5 cm ahead). Two newts were trained to pass through one ring with a diameter of 8 cm. One newt failed to show evidence of learning (i.e., decreased response time) with 14 sessions of massed trials (4 trials/session). The second newt, however, learned to pass through rings with diameters of 8, 6, 5, and 4 cm. A 20-trial follow-up probe test was conducted with the second newt, in which the 4-cm black ring and a novel red square were presented side by side. The newt did not choose the black ring over the red square in any of the trials, suggesting that neither the black color nor the circle shape drove the newt’s behavior. In a retention test conducted 185 days later, the newt did not pass through the ring of 4 cm at all, suggesting that this behavior was learned but not retained after 6 months. Presentations of distinctive stimuli in close proximity might enhance appetitive instrumental learning by newts, which is otherwise difficult to accomplish using runway apparatuses with no distinctive cues to elicit instrumental behaviors.
著者
川合 伸幸
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 = Cognitive studies : bulletin of the Japanese Cognitive Science Society (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.20, no.1, pp.46-58, 2013-03-01
参考文献数
35
被引用文献数
1

A Noh mask, carved out of wood, is often said to be a byword for impassivity.<br> However, a Noh mask expresses various emotions during traditional Japanese Noh per<br>formances. A Noh mask that looks upward expresses happiness, while a mask looks<br> downward expresses sadness. Nevertheless, previous studies reported the opposite re<br>sults: people recognize pictures of masks with upward inclinations as being sad, whereas<br> masks with the larger downward inclinations were perceived as happy. This absurdity<br> seems to be occurred partly due to something realized in Mona Lisa's smile. Livingstone<br> (2000) pointed out that we cannot directly see Mona Lisa's smile. Her smile appears<br> only when we look at her eyes with seeing her mouth peripherally. A recent empirical<br> study confirmed that this peripheral vision for smile makes a face more mysterious than<br> a neutral or continuously smiling face. I will argue that a smiling mouth of Noh masks<br> with downward inclinations makes a Noh mask mysterious during Noh performances,<br>because hardly Eastern Asia people look at a mouth when they judge facial expressions (i.e., people see a mouth only peripherally). In experimental settings, people look at a<br> mouth of a Noh mask directly, that causes the oppsite results from those expected in<br> the framework of Noh world. I will also discuss similarities and differences between a<br> Noh mask and "Hello Kitty", which is a fictional character that also expresses countless<br> facial expressions without a mouth.
著者
川合 伸幸
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.20, no.1, pp.46-58, 2013-03-01 (Released:2014-11-20)
参考文献数
35
被引用文献数
2

A Noh mask, carved out of wood, is often said to be a byword for impassivity. However, a Noh mask expresses various emotions during traditional Japanese Noh performances. A Noh mask that looks upward expresses happiness, while a mask looks downward expresses sadness. Nevertheless, previous studies reported the opposite results: people recognize pictures of masks with upward inclinations as being sad, whereas masks with the larger downward inclinations were perceived as happy. This absurdity seems to be occurred partly due to something realized in Mona Lisa’s smile. Livingstone (2000) pointed out that we cannot directly see Mona Lisa’s smile. Her smile appears only when we look at her eyes with seeing her mouth peripherally. A recent empirical study confirmed that this peripheral vision for smile makes a face more mysterious than a neutral or continuously smiling face. I will argue that a smiling mouth of Noh masks with downward inclinations makes a Noh mask mysterious during Noh performances,because hardly Eastern Asia people look at a mouth when they judge facial expressions (i.e., people see a mouth only peripherally). In experimental settings, people look at a mouth of a Noh mask directly, that causes the oppsite results from those expected in the framework of Noh world. I will also discuss similarities and differences between a Noh mask and “Hello Kitty”, which is a fictional character that also expresses countless facial expressions without a mouth.
著者
西村 律子 岡ノ谷 一夫 川合 伸幸
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 = Cognitive studies : bulletin of the Japanese Cognitive Science Society (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.17, no.4, pp.750-760, 2010-12-01
参考文献数
12
被引用文献数
2

A Noh mask carved of wood is known to express various emotions as a result of slight changes in the vertical inclination of the mask during traditional Japanese Noh performances. In Noh, a face that looks up expresses happiness, whereas a face that looks down expresses sadness. We investigated whether pictures of a downward tilted Noh mask and body postures in various inclinations could be recognized as expressing sadness. Picture-frames were extracted every two seconds from a movie playing the stylized sad act of Noh drama, known as <I>Shiori</I>. Results indicated that the participants recognized pictures of masks with small inclinations (i.e., the initial movements in the action) as being sad, whereas the evaluation of sadness diminished in response to pictures with larger inclinations. These results were similar to those obtained for pictures of the complete body posture with small inclinations, which were recognized as being sad, whereas those with larger inclinations were recognized as being happy. The evaluation was significantly altered between two successive postures in which the actor's hand made a large movement. In Experiment 2, the actor's hand was concealed by an object used on the Noh stage, but the results were similar to Experiment 1. As expected, participants identified the emotions expressed by identical pictures showing just the Noh mask that was used in Experiment 1, as expressing emotions similar to those identified in Experiment 1. Pictures of the complete body posture were recognized as sad when they had a small inclination, whereas those with a larger inclination were recognized as being happy. These results suggest that emotions expressed by complete body postures during Noh dramas produce larger effects than those expressed by the Noh mask alone. Moreover, the initial movements of a stylized action determine the emotional label of the action.
著者
久保 賢太 片平 健太郎 池田 大樹 岡田 正人 岡ノ谷 一夫 川合 伸幸
出版者
Japanese Cognitive Science Society
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.20, no.4, pp.483-487, 2013

この度はこのような栄誉ある賞を戴くことができ,大変感激しております.私の受賞に関しては,研究の成果の大きさというよりも,アプローチのユニークさを評価していただのではないかと考えております.私は,JST ERATO 岡ノ谷情動情報プロジェクトにおいて,コミュニケーションや社会的な場面で生じる情動を,自律神経系活動・脳活動を用いて検討しております.本研究は,二者間の息の合ったコミュニケーションを解明する試みとして実施しました.これからも,実生活に潜む面白い現象を抽出することを目的とし,日々一つ一つ成果を積み上げて参りたいと思います.こうした一風変わった研究を実施できたのも,プロジェクトの総括でいらっしゃる岡ノ谷一夫東京大学教授と,私の所属する名古屋サイトのグループリーダーである川合伸幸名古屋大学准教授の懐の広いご指導の賜物です.お二人には,感謝してもしきれない御恩を感じております.このたびの受賞も,未熟な私を日ごろから丁寧に指導してくださっている川合伸幸先生と,研究室スタッフの皆様のおかげです.この場をお借りして感謝を申し上げます.
著者
川合 伸幸 久保(川合) 南海子
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, no.3, pp.378-391, 2008 (Released:2010-02-15)
参考文献数
64
被引用文献数
6 7

It has been demonstrated that there are many similarities between Pavlovian conditioning in nonhuman animals and causal judgment by humans, such as conditioned inhibition, overshadowing, and blocking. However, there was a notable difference in empirical studies between animal Pavlovian conditioning and human causal judgment: lack of retrospective inference (i.e., backward blocking) in animals. Although human participants showed symmetrical results for forward and backward blocking procedure in causal judgment, researchers failed to obtain backward blocking in animal conditioning. In the case of forward blocking, a cue is first paired with an unconditioned stimulus (US) (e.g., A+), and the first cue is then presented together with a target cue and the US (e.g., AX+). In the case of backward blocking, the compound cue is learned first (AX+), and then the competing cue alone is paired with the US (A+). In subsequent tests, human participants inferred in both cases that X is not a cause of the outcome, whereas the response of animals to X alone was “blocked” only in the forward blocking procedure but not in the backward one. In this article, we review the existence studies on retrospective inference in humans and animals including our ongoing primate study and explore a possible role of retrieval deficits in memory for retrospective inference in animals.
著者
西村 律子 岡ノ谷 一夫 川合 伸幸
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.17, no.4, pp.750-760, 2010 (Released:2011-06-06)
参考文献数
12

A Noh mask carved of wood is known to express various emotions as a result of slight changes in the vertical inclination of the mask during traditional Japanese Noh performances. In Noh, a face that looks up expresses happiness, whereas a face that looks down expresses sadness. We investigated whether pictures of a downward tilted Noh mask and body postures in various inclinations could be recognized as expressing sadness. Picture-frames were extracted every two seconds from a movie playing the stylized sad act of Noh drama, known as Shiori. Results indicated that the participants recognized pictures of masks with small inclinations (i.e., the initial movements in the action) as being sad, whereas the evaluation of sadness diminished in response to pictures with larger inclinations. These results were similar to those obtained for pictures of the complete body posture with small inclinations, which were recognized as being sad, whereas those with larger inclinations were recognized as being happy. The evaluation was significantly altered between two successive postures in which the actor's hand made a large movement. In Experiment 2, the actor's hand was concealed by an object used on the Noh stage, but the results were similar to Experiment 1. As expected, participants identified the emotions expressed by identical pictures showing just the Noh mask that was used in Experiment 1, as expressing emotions similar to those identified in Experiment 1. Pictures of the complete body posture were recognized as sad when they had a small inclination, whereas those with a larger inclination were recognized as being happy. These results suggest that emotions expressed by complete body postures during Noh dramas produce larger effects than those expressed by the Noh mask alone. Moreover, the initial movements of a stylized action determine the emotional label of the action.