著者
久保寺 登
出版者
公益社団法人 日本ビタミン学会
雑誌
ビタミン (ISSN:0006386X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.87, no.2, pp.95-103, 2013-02-25 (Released:2017-08-10)
参考文献数
35

In vitamin D research, there are three milestones from the perspective of pharmaceutical studies. The first represents the early stage of vitamin D research and involves the discovery of vitamin D and its physiological significance as an anti-rickets factor. The second is the elucidation of the vitamin D activation pathway in the body and the discovery of the biologically active metabolites of vitamin D. The clinical application of active vitamin D or its prodrug was also attempted to make up for the deficiency caused by poor vitamin D activation. The third is characterized by the discovery of the differentiation-inducing properties of active vitamin D. This showed the diversity of the physiological actions of active vitamin D, which initially had been thought only to contribute to bone and calcium metabolism. Because these physiological actions were clinically useful, the third discovery revealed opportunities for the development of drugs appropriate to specific purposes by synthesizing analogs to separate biological effects. Active vitamin D analogs based on the findings during the third milestone are now commercially available and are contributing to current clinical practice. This article discusses the various milestones outlining vitamin D and analogs in terms of clinical applications and pharmaceutical studies.
著者
Shigeki MATSUURA
出版者
Japan Society of Civil Engineers
雑誌
土木史研究 (ISSN:09167293)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.16, pp.669-676, 1996-06-05 (Released:2010-06-15)
参考文献数
4

工部省の高官・大鳥圭介が1882 (明治15) 年、アメリカの技術書「堰堤築新按」を翻訳して出版した。290ページからなる大著で、図・絵がふんだんに盛りこまれ、分かりやすく書かれている、大鳥の翻訳の意図は、それほど知識はないが実際に現場で工事を行う農民や村職人でも分かる技術書の出版であった。工部省は、政府の官営事業を直轄し、殖産興業政策を行ってわが国産業の近代化を推進する機関であり、そのために外国人を招聘し、欧米に留学生を派遣し、大学校を立して専門家の育成を図っていた。この機関の高官が、専門家ではない一般技能者の技術向上を目的として、このような書物を翻訳していたのである。ここに近代化を目指す明治新政府の懐の深さを強く感じさせる
著者
深澤 恵治
出版者
一般社団法人 日本臨床衛生検査技師会
雑誌
医学検査 (ISSN:09158669)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.66, no.J-STAGE-2, pp.1-5, 2017-08-31 (Released:2017-09-06)
参考文献数
3

本特集号では,認知症予防に臨床検査がいかに役立つのかについて概説することに主眼を置いている。もちろん認知症対策において早期発見・早期治療はきわめて重要であり,その中で臨床検査も大きな役割を担っているのは明白である。日臨技においても認知症領域における臨床検査の普及や望ましい実施体制の構築に力を入れるべく,2014年度より「認定認知症領域検査技師制度」を立ち上げ,認知症の早期発見・予防・治療に臨床検査技師が多面的に参画・貢献出来るように進めているところだ。この章では認知症予防に役立つ臨床検査の紹介や認定認知症領域検査技師の役割について最新の知見も交えながら,論じてみたい。
著者
渡辺 一郎
出版者
The Society of Synthetic Organic Chemistry, Japan
雑誌
有機合成化学協会誌 (ISSN:00379980)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.46, no.2, pp.169-176, 1988-02-01 (Released:2009-11-13)
参考文献数
20
被引用文献数
2

Acrylamide is industrially produced by catalytic hydration of acrylonitrile with reduced copper salts. However, the preparation and regeneration of the catalyst are laborious and the process requires a high temperature. It has therefore been considered very desirable to establish a process for producing acrylamide under moderate conditions, because compounds containing double bonds in the molecule are readily polymerizable.There is a growing interest in the synthesis of useful organic compounds by biological process for its specificity and moderate reaction condition. Therefore, we attempted to produce acrylamide from acrylonitrile using microbial enzyme and we found a bacterium having a high acrylamide producing enzyme (nitrile hydratase).This paper describes the details and merits of the development of microbial production of acrylamide.
著者
島村 賢 高橋 基将 藤本 泰典 安岡 宏 伊藤 孝之
出版者
公益社団法人 有機合成化学協会
雑誌
有機合成化学協会誌 (ISSN:00379980)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.75, no.2, pp.121-133, 2017-02-01 (Released:2017-04-06)
参考文献数
42

(2-Deoxy-2-fluoro-4-thio-β-d-arabinofuranosyl)thymine (S-FMAU) was synthesized very efficiently from corresponding d-arabinofuranose derivative 16a which was available in bulk. Three important transforming methods were mainly described. One was the practical inversional bromination process for secondary alcohol generated by opening furanose ring. Another was the highly efficient thiofuranose synthesis via intramolecular carbonyl assisted SN2 reaction. And the last was the β-selective glycosylation process with thymine derivative. Applications of the thiofuranose synthesis using intramolecular carbonyl assist were also discussed.
著者
新井 和孝
出版者
The Society of Synthetic Organic Chemistry, Japan
雑誌
有機合成化学協会誌 (ISSN:00379980)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.44, no.6, pp.486-498, 1986-06-01 (Released:2010-01-22)
参考文献数
52
被引用文献数
4

In recent years, synthetic method by the combination of isomerization and crystallization is studied intensively, especially in the practical optical resolution. In this paper, this isomerization-crystallization method is introduced from a point of view of practical organic synthesis. A number of examples of this isomerization-crystallization method in optical resolution, many of which were often reported as the example of second-order asymmetric transformation phenomena, are classified into following two groups, and reviewed.(1) Epimerization-crystallization method.(2) Racemization-preferential crystallization method.The potentialities and difficulities of each method are also discussed. The compounds resolved by this methods are α-amino acid derivatives, cyanohydrin derivatives, α-aromatic carboxylic acid esters, and so on.
著者
竹下 潤 小林 宏光 下江 豊 曽根 淳 祖父江 元 栗山 勝
出版者
日本神経学会
雑誌
臨床神経学 (ISSN:0009918X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.57, no.6, pp.303-306, 2017 (Released:2017-06-28)
参考文献数
10

症例は65歳の男性.全経過約3時間の一過性の健忘が出現した.3年前にも同様の症状が出現した.認知症状は認めず.神経学的には,小脳失調や不随意運動は認めなかったが,神経伝導検査で末梢神経障害を認めた.MRI拡散強調像で,前頭葉から頭頂葉にかけて皮質下の皮髄境界域に高信号を認め,皮膚生検で神経核内封入体を多数認め,成人発症の神経核内封入体病と診断した.家系内には類症者はおらず,孤発例である.健忘は一過性全健忘と極めて類似し,辺縁系障害が推測された.
著者
小松 弘典 及川 利洋 石橋 大樹
出版者
The Society of Synthetic Organic Chemistry, Japan
雑誌
有機合成化学協会誌 (ISSN:00379980)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.63, no.6, pp.594-603, 2005-06-01 (Released:2009-11-13)
参考文献数
30
被引用文献数
2

The demand for 2'-deoxynucleosides is increasing rapidly in the fields of gene therapy, biological research, and medical diagnosis. Development of an efficient synthetic method has been expected over the past few decades. We developed a novel synthetic method applicable to industrial manufacture of all four natural 2'-deoxynucleosides. Chemically synthesized 2-deoxyribose 1-α-phosphate (dRP) was enzymatically converted to thymidine (T), 2'-deoxycytidine (dC), 2'-deoxyadenosine (dA), and 2'-deoxyguanosine (dG) in the presence of nucleoside phosphorylase. This chemo-enzymatic method consists of three distinctive technologies : (i) stereoselective synthesis of dRP by crystallization-induced asymmetric transformation; (ii) an efficient method to expedite enzymatic conversions by adding Mg (OH)2; (iii) development of a new enzyme for the enzymatic synthesis of dC.
著者
小高 桂子 近藤 侑鈴 横田 小百合 竹下 信啓 川上 和之 林 和彦
出版者
東京女子医科大学学会
雑誌
東京女子医科大学雑誌 (ISSN:00409022)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.88, no.3, pp.81-89, 2018-06-25 (Released:2018-06-25)
参考文献数
24

Our philosophy is to conduct chemotherapy for patients with advanced cancers as safely as possible and to carry out palliative care in parallel. To further promote home palliative care as a medical policy in Japan, we examined how extensively this policy was introduced among terminal patients discharged from our hospital department in the past year. We reviewed the records of deceased discharged patients for one year from Nov. 2015 to Oct. 2016. The total number of hospitalizations was 353, and the number of hospitalized patients was 173. Among all hospitalized cancer patients, 33 patients left hospital mortality, of which 25 were hospitalized urgently. Overall, only 27 % received home palliative care. We were not able to confirm the place of death desired by many of these discharged terminal patients. Therefore, we recommend that terminal cancer patients and their families decide in advance where and when home palliative care should start to maintain high quality of life until the end of life.
著者
稲葉 洋平 大久保 忠利 内山 茂久 欅田 尚樹
出版者
一般社団法人日本衛生学会
雑誌
日本衛生学雑誌 (ISSN:00215082)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.68, no.1, pp.46-52, 2013 (Released:2013-01-25)
参考文献数
21
被引用文献数
1

Objective: To measure the nicotine and tobacco-specific nitrosamine (TSNA) contents in whole tobacco from a variety of Japanese domestic cigarette brands and to determine mutagencity. Methods: The test cigarettes were the top ten best selling cigarette brands in Japan in 2006. The nicotine content in whole tobacco was measured by a modified version of the CORESTA Recommended method. The level of TSNA was measured by a modified version of the Health Canada method. Mutagenicity was assessed using the Salmonella typhimurium strains TA100, TA98 and YG1024 with the metabolic activation system (S9mix) by preincubation assays. Results: The nicotine content in the test cigarettes averaged 15.7±1.2 mg/g, and was in the range between 13.7 and 17.2 mg/g. The level of TSNA averaged 1,750 ng/g, and was in the range between 931 and 2,490 ng/g. Mutagenicity was pseudopositive in several samples of the YG1024 tester strain with and without S9mix. Conclusion: The cigarettes brands were categorized into four groups (Ultra-low, Low, Medium, and High) based on the nominal nicotine yield figures printed on the cigarette packets. The nicotine content in whole tobacco of the High group was the highest. However, the level of TSNA of the high group was the lowest. The analyses of hazardous chemical compounds in whole tobacco can contribute to the reduction and regulation of the toxicity of tobacco products.
著者
望月 崇 島 正之 篠田 裕
出版者
Japan Society of Civil Engineers
雑誌
土木史研究 (ISSN:09167293)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.18, pp.545-552, 1998-05-01 (Released:2010-06-15)
参考文献数
10

The Sumida River, running through the eastern basin of Tokyo, used to be one of the main traffic means and often caused flood damages such as inundation, flood tides and so On.During our highly rapid economic growth, We had constructed perpendicular banking along the river, which was named on “KAMISORT TEIBOU”, to protect against these to damages.In this reports_we will investigate each case of Perpendicular Banking along the Sumida River in viewpoints of both histories and technologies, and will finally find out why so-called KAMISORI TEIBOU was established.
著者
沼田 宗純 原 綾香 目黒 公郎
出版者
東京大学生産技術研究所
雑誌
生産研究 (ISSN:0037105X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.65, no.4, pp.359-363, 2013-07-01 (Released:2013-12-24)
参考文献数
4

東日本大震災のような広域的な災害ほど,被害の全容を掴むことは容易ではないため,テレビ報道で取り上げられた市町村には積極的な支援が届き,逆に,報道されない市町村に対しては支援が不十分となる等,テレビ報道の有無が災害対応に影響を及ぼすことがある.そこで本研究では,報道された市町村と支援の関係を明らかにするために,報道と義援金の関係,報道とボランティアの関係を分析した.その結果,被害量とボランティア数や義援金総額は必ずしも比例関係にあるわけではなく,被害が大きいにも関わらず,ボランティア数や義援金総額が少数・小額の市町村が多く存在することがわかった.また同規模の被害量であっても,市町村によってボランティア数や義援金総額は大きな偏りが生じている.これは,特定の市町村に報道が集中していることが原因と考えられる.
著者
大柏 哲治 石川.京祐 山川 暁 武藤 慎太郎 宮越 勇汰 布施 健太 三浦 翔太 石井 誠士
出版者
独立行政法人 国立高等専門学校機構 旭川工業高等専門学校
雑誌
旭川工業高等専門学校 研究報文 (ISSN:03899306)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.53, pp.1-18, 2016 (Released:2018-04-12)

The radishes harvested from the farm contain ones that are short-length or with a forked root. They are called as irregular radishes. The irregular radishes loaded into containers must be eliminated in the radish sizing place after harvest. The radish sizing costs momey and loses time. Therefore we have developed the device eliminating irregular radishes before they would be loaded into the container on the harvester. This eliminating device utilizes photoelectronic sensors and distance measuring sensors. Those sensors detect irregular radishes and the radishes are eliminated in the field before loaded into the container by this device.
著者
岡村 貞夫 佐々木 政一 勝見 正治 谷口 勝俊 田伏 洋治
出版者
Japan Surgical Association
雑誌
日本臨床外科医学会雑誌 (ISSN:03869776)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.45, no.2, pp.113-118, 1984-02-25 (Released:2009-02-10)
参考文献数
22

当科及び和歌山県並びに周辺地区の関連16施設において手術を受けた消化性潰瘍患者2,175名について血液型と潰瘍の関係を調査し,和歌山県の昭和56年度献血者69,097名の血液型分布を対照に検討した. 調査項目は個人的背景に重点をおき,手術適応別,潰瘍家族歴及び初発年齢別に分類し調査した. その結果,対照群ではA型37%, B型23%, AB型10%, O型30%であるのに対し,潰瘍2,175例では, A型33%, B型21%, AB型8%, O型38%とA-O型分布の逆転がみられた(p<0.01). この傾向は胃潰瘍(GU)及び十二指腸潰瘍(DU)いずれにおいても認められ,手術適応別では出血性GUにおけるO型の頻度が47%と最も著明に増加していた(p<0.01). 家族歴を有する潰瘍患者は平均初発年齢が約10歳若く, GUでは家族歴のない潰瘍群と異り対照群と殆ど同様のA型優位の分布を示した. 又初発年齢別の検討でも30歳以下の年齢で発症したGU 116例は家族歴を有するGUと同様にA-O型分布の逆転がみられず,対照群との間に殆ど差を認めなかった. O型頻度の有意な増加はDU及び31歳以後に発症するGUのみに明らかであり, early onset typeのGUは血液型以外の因子が発症に関与している事が示唆された.
著者
小川 剛伸 安達 修二
出版者
一般社団法人 日本食品工学会
雑誌
日本食品工学会誌 (ISSN:13457942)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.13, no.4, pp.91-107, 2012-12-15 (Released:2015-06-18)

Microsoft Excel® is most popularly used spreadsheet software. Although figures can be drawn using the software, their quality seems to be unsatisfactory for the use in scientific papers or reports. The quality can be improved using Microsoft PowerPoint®, which is also software in Microsoft Office® and is widely used as a presentation tool. A rough figure is prepared based on the data in the Excel, and it is modified to fine one using the PowerPoint. It will be explained how to draw fine figures using both the software.