著者
Peter KORNICKI
出版者
公益財団法人 日本学術協力財団
雑誌
学術の動向 (ISSN:13423363)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.21, no.6, pp.6_80-6_83, 2016-06-01 (Released:2016-10-07)
参考文献数
9
著者
杉山 直子 杉江 秀夫 五十嵐 良雄 伊藤 政孝 福田 冬季子
出版者
一般社団法人 日本小児神経学会
雑誌
脳と発達 (ISSN:00290831)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, no.1, pp.51-55, 1998-01-01 (Released:2011-08-10)
参考文献数
14
被引用文献数
1

小児自閉症の一部において, 脳内セロトニン, カテコラミンの低下がありうるという仮説に基づき, 自閉症児に対しカテコラミンの前駆物質である1-dopa少量投与を行い, 症状改善の有無をcross-over designによる二重盲検試験により検討した.Cross-over analysisでは順序効果, 時期による効果, 薬剤効果を検討したが, 薬剤の有効性は認められなかった.しかし症例によっては, 一部症状の改善の認められた例が20%あった.
著者
清水 昌 山田 秀明
出版者
The Society of Synthetic Organic Chemistry, Japan
雑誌
有機合成化学協会誌 (ISSN:00379980)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.41, no.11, pp.1064-1075, 1983-11-01 (Released:2009-11-13)
参考文献数
62
被引用文献数
4

Recent advances in the synthesis of optically active amino acids by enzymatic method are described. L-Lysine, L-cysteine, L-tryptophan and D-forms of various amino acids, including D-p-hydroxyphenylglycine, are synthesized from chemically synthesized substrates by asymmetric ringopening hydrolysis. Multifunctional pyridoxal enzymes are useful for synthesis of various aromatic amino acids and sulfur-containing amino acids. Several enzymatic reactions being useful for production of amino acids are also described.The described enzymatic methods are simple and the most economical process to date for the industrial production of these amino acids.
著者
HIRAKU ONISHI TAKEO KAWAGUCHI TSUNEJI NAGAI
出版者
The Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
雑誌
Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin (ISSN:00092363)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.35, no.8, pp.3370-3374, 1987-08-25 (Released:2009-10-19)
参考文献数
22
被引用文献数
7

3'- (7-Carboxyheptanoyl) -5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine (C6-FUdR) was conjugated to decylenediamine-dextran T70 (T70-C10) or poly-L-lysine (PLL) by using 1-ethyl-3- (3-dimethylaminopropyl) -carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC). Drug release patterns from the conjugates between C6-FUdR and T70-C10 (T70-C10-C6-FUdR) or PLL (PLL-C6-FUdR) by enzymatic and nonenzymatic processes were investigated at neutral and weakly acidic pHs. Under the nonenzymatic conditions, 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine (FUdR) was released slowly only at neutral pH. This property is similar to that of C6-FUdR. Gradual drug release was observed enzymatically from T70-C10-C6-FUdR at both pHs, while PLL-C6-FUdR did not show enzymatic drug release. However, after the treatment of PLL-C6-FUdR with trypsin, FUdR was released enzymatically from the products; in this case, the release rate of FUdR was faster at neutral pH than at the weakly acidic pH. However, the release of FUdR by enzymatic processing was much slower from these conjugates than from C6-FUdR.
著者
川口 健夫 鈴木 嘉樹 南部 直樹 永井 恒司
出版者
The Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
雑誌
Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin (ISSN:00092363)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.33, no.7, pp.2956-2961, 1985-07-25 (Released:2008-03-31)
参考文献数
13
被引用文献数
6

Five acidic 3', 5'-diesters of 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine (FUdR) including 3-carboxypropionate, 4-carboxybutyrate, 5-carboxypentanoate, 6-carboxyhexanoate and 7-carboxyheptanoate were synthesized, and their susceptibility to porcine liver, rat liver homogenate, rat intestinal homogenate and rat plasma esterase preparations was studied. The susceptibility of the derivatives to porcine liver esterase preparation increased as the number of methylene groups in the ester promoiety increased in both acidic (pH 5.0) and neutral (pH 7.0) solutions. The derivatives showed about 100 times higher reactivity to the esterase at pH 5.0 than at pH 7.0. With the rat tissue homogenates and plasma preparations, the longer the ester chain the higher the susceptibility, except for 3', 5'-bis (3-carboxypropionyl) FUdR (I) with rat liver homogenate. Though the reactivity of I was the lowest with porcine liver esterase preparation and not measurable with rat intestinal homogenate and plasma, I showed the highest reactivity with the rat liver homogenate.
著者
熊本 吉一 小泉 博義 黒沢 輝司 山本 裕司 呉 吉煥 鈴木 章 松本 昭彦 近藤 治郎 清水 哲 梶原 博一
出版者
Japan Surgical Association
雑誌
日本臨床外科医学会雑誌 (ISSN:03869776)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.45, no.11, pp.1429-1434, 1984-11-25 (Released:2009-02-10)
参考文献数
10

急性腸間膜血管閉塞症は,絞扼性イレウスと共に腸管の血行障害をきたす代表的な疾患である.最近我々は塞栓摘除術のみで救命せしめた上腸間膜動脈塞栓症の1例を経験したが発症より手術による血流再開に至るまで3時間40分と短時間であったため腸切除を免れた.また横浜市立大学第1外科のイレウス症例中,術前に動脈血ガス分析をおこなった33例を検討したところ,腸切除を免れた.すなわち腸管が壊死に陥らなかった症例ではbase excessはすべて-2.8mEq/l以上であった.このことより絞扼性イレウスの手術適応決定の指標としてbase excess測定が有用であるとの結論を得たが,本来イレウスにおける手術適応の決定は遅くとも腸管の可逆的な血行障害の時点でなければならず,この点よりbase excessのみでの適応決定は慎重でなければならないと考えられた. これらの経験をもとに,腸管の血行障害における有用な補助診断法としての的確な指標を検討するために犬を用いて上腸間膜動脈を結紮する実験をおこなった.その結果,早期診断の一助として, total CPK, base excessが有用であるとの結論を得た.
著者
福長 将仁 田淵 紀彦
出版者
日本細菌学会
雑誌
日本細菌学雑誌 (ISSN:00214930)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.65, no.3, pp.343-353, 2010 (Released:2010-08-27)
参考文献数
84

ライム病(Lyme disease)は,野ネズミやシカ,野鳥などを保菌動物とし,マダニによって媒介されるスピロヘータの一種,ボレリアBorrelia感染によって引き起こされる人獣共通感染症のひとつである。一方,回帰熱(relapsing fever)は,齧歯類や鳥類等を保菌動物とし,ヒメダニ科のダニやシラミによって媒介されるボレリア感染症で,アメリカ大陸,アフリカ,中東や欧州で患者の発生が報告されている。近年のボレリア研究の進展はめざましく,特にライム病ボレリアでは遺伝子組換え用ベクターが開発されたことから遺伝子欠損株が作成されて,ボレリアライフサイクル中における特異的発現タンパク質の機能解析が可能となってきた。現在ではボレリアの宿主への感染成立のためのボレリアタンパク質―宿主側結合因子や媒介ベクターへのボレリア定着因子など,ボレリアと宿主,ボレリアと媒介ダニのインターフェイスにおける発現タンパク質の同定に注目が集まっている。
著者
石川 諒 中野 尭雄 島 龍之介 清水 麻希 本間 芳和
出版者
公益社団法人 日本表面真空学会
雑誌
表面と真空 (ISSN:24335835)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.61, no.12, pp.797-801, 2018-12-10 (Released:2018-12-10)
参考文献数
19

Single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are light and highly tensile, which makes them a candidate material for space elevator. However, CNTs are not resistant to oxidant. We studied the damage of CNTs caused by exposure to ozone using several kinds of single-walled CNTs with varying crystallinity and morphology. We found a correlation between the initial crystallinity and resistance to ozone : high-crystallinity CNTs with a small number of defects were lightly damaged by ozone exposure, while highly-defective CNTs were further damaged. The thickness of bundling also affected the resistance to ozone. High-crystallinity CNTs forming a thick bundle were most resistant to ozone.
著者
佐藤 悠子
出版者
一般財団法人 日本国際政治学会
雑誌
国際政治 (ISSN:04542215)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.2015, no.179, pp.179_126-179_141, 2015-02-15 (Released:2016-01-23)
参考文献数
92

There are two major political issues that have been repeatedly debated in China’s modern history; how China’s relationship with the West should be and how China should treat Western science and technology. During the Cultural Revolution (CR), criticism against “bourgeois academic authority” raged. Science and even the lives of Chinese scientists were in jeopardy. The world-renowned physicist Albert Einstein became one of the main targets of this campaign. It was triggered by an article titled “Xiangduilun pipan (Criticism on the theory of relativity)” written by a local middle school teacher. In Beijing, one of the vice presidents of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) Chen Boda took charge of the campaign. Most of the participants were young scientists whose knowledge was too limited to refute Einstein’s theory. Senior scientists such as Zhu Kezhen, another one of the vice presidents of the CAS, and Premier Zhou Enlai’s protégé Zhou Peiyuan, vice president of Beijing University and physicist who had worked with Einstein, took the side of Einstein. Chen brought the campaign to schoolchildren and even planned to organize a rally of ten thousand people. But he fell off the ladder of power when he joined the bandwagon trying to elevate his patron Lin Biao to the position of the President of the State at a conference in Lushan in August 1970. It made Mao suspect that Chen in fact intended to replace Mao with Lin who had demonstrated his ability to mobilize the People’s Liberation Army in October 1969. The anti-Einstein criticism ceased in Beijing after Chen disappeared, but in Shanghai Chen’s rivals Zhang Chunqiao and Yao Wenyuan continued it. Thereafter two major changes in domestic and international context strengthened the hands of Zhou Enlai, who had been protecting scientists, through the upheaval of the CR: the U.S.-China rapprochement and the Lin Biao incident. Henry Kissinger secretly arrived in Beijing in July 1971, which opened China’s door to the West. Zhou Enlai intentionally issued important directives on promoting basic theoretical study in science in front of the Chinese American scientists who were visiting China. Zhou also encouraged scientists to write him letters in order to make the issue publicly known. After the Sino-US rapprochement, a newly published Chinese academic journal “Wuli (Physics)” became the stronghold for physicists who supported Einstein and his theory. Soon after his allegedly aborted assassination of Mao Zedong in September 1971, Lin Biao died in Mongolia. It weakened the authority of Mao who chose Lin as his successor, and enabled Zhou Enlai to bring back the scientists to Beijing from local labor camps. Zhou also gave the green light to physicist Zhang Wenyu’s proposal to build a high energy accelerator at the cost of $ 2 billion, despite a contrary voice from Yang Zhenning, a Nobel laureate physicist and professor at the University of Chicago. High energy physics is based on Einstein’s theory of relativity. The physicists who had participated in building China’s first atomic bomb supported building a high energy accelerator. Zhang Wenyu led a delegation of Chinese scientists to the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in the United States in 1972, and Zhou Enlai established the High Energy Physics Institute in the CAS in 1973. By 1972, the Cultural Revolution in the field of science had lost steam because the physicists were now allowed to applying Western physics despite its “bourgeois”, “academic authoritarian”, and “wasteful” nature that had been fiercely condemned during the Cultural Revolution.
著者
福岡 文子 徳善 玲子 星 昭夫 江上 不二夫 長沢 金蔵 加藤 好雄
出版者
The Japanese Cancer Association
雑誌
GANN Japanese Journal of Cancer Research (ISSN:0016450X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.60, no.2, pp.187-197, 1969-04-30 (Released:2008-10-23)
参考文献数
21

Derivatives of 2-acylamido-6-purinethiol and/or 2-acylamido-9-alkyl-6-purinethiol were synthesized and the 2-acylamide derivatives were compared with the parent compound as to their antitumor activity and toxicity. The antitumor activity was assayed mostly with NF-sarcoma, which is known to be highly sensitive to this class of nucleic acid base analogs, but also using other types of tumors.Among the 2-acylamide derivatives, formamide and especially isobutyroylamide derivatives were found to be the most active, but not markedly more active than the parent compound. A slight decrease in the toxicity was noted among the derivatives with high antitumor activity.
著者
MINEO SANEYOSHI MOTOKO INOMATA TERUAKI SEKINE AKIO HOSHI FUMIKO FUKUOKA
出版者
The Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
雑誌
Journal of Pharmacobio-Dynamics (ISSN:0386846X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1, no.3, pp.168-174, 1978 (Released:2008-02-21)
参考文献数
12
被引用文献数
6

Reaction of S-benzylthioisothiouronium hydrochloride with 6-mercaptopurine (1), 9-β-D-ribofuranosyl-6-mercaptopurine (2), 6-thioguanine (3) and 9-β-D-ribofuranosyl-6-thioguanine (4) afforded corresponding benzyl disulfide derivatives (5-8) in good yield. These compounds were converted easily to parent mercapto derivatives when they were treated with various reducing agents such as β-mercaptoethanol. Antitumor activity of compound 5 was higher than that of 1 both in ascites Sarcoma 180 and in Nakahara-Fukuoka sarcoma systems. However, toxicity and immunosuppressive activity of compound 5 and 6 were higher than those of 1 and 2, respectively.
著者
FUMIHIKO KANZAWA AKIO HOSHI KAZUO KURETANI
出版者
The Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
雑誌
Journal of Pharmacobio-Dynamics (ISSN:0386846X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.3, no.8, pp.390-394, 1980 (Released:2008-02-19)
参考文献数
20
被引用文献数
1

5-Fluorouracil-resistant cell line designated as L5178Y/FU was established in this experiment. This is one of the colonies derived from the subculture which acquired resistance to 5-fluorouracil by passaging the L5178Y cells through ten successive episodes of culture in Fischer's medium containing 5-fluorouracil, in which each 5-fluorouracil treatment was followed by recovery intervals. The resistance of this line is about 80-fold that of the IC99 of 5-fluorouracil, and also shows a cross resistance to both 5-fluorouridine and 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine. 5-Fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine resistant subline designated as L5178Y/FUdR was also isolated from the subculture which acquired resistance to 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine by using the same selection procedure. The resistance of this line is about 650-fold that of the IC99 of 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine, and shows a partial cross-resistance to 5-fluorouridine, but not to 5-fluorouracil.
著者
川口 健夫 鈴木 嘉樹 中原 葉子 南部 直樹 永井 恒司
出版者
The Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
雑誌
Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin (ISSN:00092363)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.33, no.1, pp.301-307, 1985-01-25 (Released:2008-03-31)
参考文献数
17
被引用文献数
13

The activity of porcine liver esterase towards diesters of 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine with saturated aliphatic acids including acetic, propionic, butyric, hexanoic, octanoic, decanoic and dodecanoic acids was investigated. The susceptibility of the 3', 5'-diesters increased as the acyl chain was lengthened up to octanoyl, but further increase in the acyl chain length resulted in a sharp decrease in the susceptibility. The susceptibility of 3'-and 5'-monoesters increased as the chain was lengthened to decanoyl and slightly decreased on going to dodecanoyl. These results suggest that the higher antitumor activity of longer alkyl chain diesters of 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine is partly due to their slow rates of hydrolysis by non-specific esterase.
著者
平賀 慎 杉田 洋 村川 三郎 近藤 貴道
出版者
日本建築学会
雑誌
日本建築学会計画系論文集 (ISSN:13404210)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.72, no.616, pp.153-158, 2007-06-30 (Released:2017-02-25)
参考文献数
12
被引用文献数
2

This paper proposes the cleanliness check system which is constructed by the evaluation of students for the purpose of efficient cleaning management. This system was applied to a certain university as a case study. First the viewpoints and judgment conditions on which the cleanliness of campus were evaluated were extracted by the hearing investigations to the students. Then, some items for the cleanliness check were decided based on these results. Furthermore, importance level to the check items and user satisfaction to the current conditions were investigated. As a result, the necessary knowledge to improve concretely the cleaning management was obtained.
著者
官沢 文彦 星 昭夫 榑谷 和男
出版者
The Japanese Cancer Association
雑誌
GANN Japanese Journal of Cancer Research (ISSN:0016450X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.65, no.1, pp.55-60, 1974-02-28 (Released:2008-10-23)
参考文献数
22
被引用文献数
3

Interaction of antitumor agents in activity and in toxicity was examined separately. Ascites sarcoma-180 and ddN mice were used as the tumor system.Interaction was evaluated on the concept of pharmacological synergism and not of therapeutic synergism. In activity, 18 out of 91 combinations provided synergism and most of them contained alkylating agents and antibiotics. Antitumor agents were therefore classified into two groups from the point of drug interaction. Synergism was observed in combinations of agents in Group I, alkylating agents, antibiotics, and alkaloids. In combination of agents in Group II (antimetabolites and others), additive action was observed. As a result, 18, 65, and 8 combinations provided synergism, additive action, and antagonism, respectively.On the other hand, in toxicity, 13, 27, and 38 out of 78 combinations provided synergism, additive action, and antagonism, respectively. The combination that provided synergism in activity and antagonism in toxicity were 8 out of 91 combinations tested. In general, fortunately, combinations of antitumor agents were more than additive in activity and less than additive in toxicity.
著者
吉田 光二 星 昭夫 / 実吉 峯郎 MINEO SANEYOSHI
出版者
The Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
雑誌
Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin (ISSN:00092363)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, no.3, pp.1018-1023, 1982-03-25 (Released:2008-03-31)
参考文献数
23
被引用文献数
4

The mode of antiproliferative action of two 5-fluorocytosine nucleosides, 5-fluoro-cytidine (FCR) and 5-fluoro-2'-deoxycytidine (FCdR), was examined using mouse leukemia L5178Y cells in vitro. FCR and FCdR were markedly active against L5178Y cells, though the cells were deficient in cytidine deaminase activity. Both compounds increased the incorporation of 14C-labeled thymidine into the acid-insoluble fraction of L5178Y cells and decreased labeled deoxycytidine incorporation. In reversal studies, the antiproliferative effects of both compounds were almost abolished by simultaneous addition of thymidine or deoxyuridine. Deoxycytidine completely reversed the growth inhibition caused by FCdR, but not that caused by FCR. These results demonstrate that the cytotoxicity of both compounds is due to inhibition of thymidylate synthetase, presumably through formation of 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine monophosphate (FdUMP) after deamination by deoxycytidylate deaminase in the pyrimidine de novo pathway.