著者
籠瀬 良明
出版者
The Human Geographical Society of Japan
雑誌
人文地理 (ISSN:00187216)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.2, no.3, pp.36-47,96, 1950-07-30 (Released:2009-04-28)
参考文献数
18

In the plain of Takada can be traced an old watercourse of the Hokura about five kilometers in length. What characterize this old watercourse are free meandering and natural banks, running on both sides of it and higher than the level by one meter or two with fields and hamlets on them. A long succession of fine paddy-fields stretehes on this old course of the river, which were brought under cultivation in middle ages. (Especially, it is the case with the lower course of the river.)In the article two of those examples, Matsuhashi and Funatsu in the village of Honda are dealt.[The author made a lecture on other such examples, Honda-Enokii and Katatsu, at the autumnal meeting of Association of Japanese Geographers last year, and explained why the region should be supposed to have been cultivated in Middle Ages, also explaining its characteristics. The details are to be mentioned in next number.]
著者
冨岡 志保 下野 昌幸 加藤 絢子 高野 健一 塩田 直樹 高橋 幸利
出版者
一般社団法人 日本小児神経学会
雑誌
脳と発達 (ISSN:00290831)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.40, no.1, pp.42-46, 2008-01-01 (Released:2011-12-12)
参考文献数
9

全般性けいれんの後に発熱, 頭痛, 項部硬直が持続した16歳男児.ごく軽度の意識低下, 脳波で前頭葉に連続性棘徐波および髄液細胞数上昇, IgG indexの上昇とoligoclonal IgG band陽性を認めた.頭部MRIのFLAIR像で両側半球に散在する部分的灰白質の信号亢進が疑われた.髄膜脳炎と判断し, methylprednisolone pulse療法を実施したところ, 臨床症状と脳波異常は軽快した.髄液中の抗グルタミン酸受容体 (以下GluR) は入院時ε2・δ2に対するIgG・IgM抗体がともに陽性であり, 軽快時は両抗体がともに陰性となった.抗GluR抗体が陽性になる髄膜脳炎の中に, Rasmussen脳炎とは明らかに異なる経過をとり, 治療に反応する予後良好な一群が存在する可能性が強く示唆された.
著者
平 雅行
雑誌
人間文化研究
巻号頁・発行日
no.40, pp.350-296, 2018-03-10

114 114 0 0 OA 親友関係の光と影

著者
須藤 春佳 Haruka SUDO
雑誌
神戸女学院大学論集 = KOBE COLLEGE STUDIES
巻号頁・発行日
vol.58, no.2, pp.87-102, 2011-12-20

In this thesis, we discuss two aspects of close friendship. First, the positive aspects- in other words, the light of friendship. Second, we focus on the problems and difficulties of friendship- that is, the shadow of friendship- and discuss the reason why such problems occur. It seems that problems with friendship are more complicated for girls than for boys, so we discuss friendships among girls in a later part of the theses. At the same time, we examine gender differences in friendship. Sullivan(1953) pointed out the positive aspects of close friendships. According to him, around the time of pre-adolescence, close friendships develop between two children of the same sex and age; Sullivan called this "chum-ship." He explained that such close friendships heal any distortion within the child's former development and promote the child's psychological development. Many researchers suggest that an individual's experience of chum-ship is associated with subsequent positive aspects of psychological adjustment. There are a number of reasons why close friendships become important at this time. First, they play a role of psychological protection during a time of transition, Second, a close friend can act as a model or mirror for the child- someone the child can identify with. Finally , a close friends can act as a mediator between the child's internal and external words. To ciscuss the shadow aspects of close friendship, we focused on a number of phenomena, namely bullying school refusal, and the occurrence of traunatic encounters between two girls. We discuss how bullying occurs according to peer pressure, which demands sameness within peer groups. Next, we introduce cases in which girls have refused to go to school because of trouble among friends, and we examine the background problems in these cases. Finally, we discuss traumatic encounters between two girls who were previously friends, in referece to the mirror stage theory(Lacan,1949). In such cases, the function of mirroring in the friendship is considered to have worked negatively.
著者
JACOB C. DUNN
出版者
The Anthropological Society of Nippon
雑誌
Anthropological Science (ISSN:09187960)
巻号頁・発行日
(Released:2018-04-03)

One noteworthy, but unexplained, aspect of the evolution of human speech is the loss of laryngeal air sacs during hominin evolution. Very little is known about the adaptive significance of this curious trait, or the selection pressures that may have driven the evolution of air sacs among primates, and their later loss in Homo. Here, I review the literature on the loss of laryngeal air sacs during the evolution of speech, and argue that sexual selection may have been a key factor. Although air sacs do not fossilize, the presence or absence of air sacs appears to be correlated with the anatomy of the hyoid bone, and fossil hyoid evidence suggests that air sacs were lost in hominins between 3.3 million and 530000 years ago. Air sacs are hypothesized to have an acoustic function, and some authors have argued that hominins may have lost their air sacs because they would make speech less clear. In other primates, such as gorillas and howler monkeys, air sacs appear to play a role in acoustic size exaggeration and may be linked to reproductive competition. I explore the hypothesis that changes in social organization and mating system towards reduced male–male competition may have relaxed the selection pressure maintaining loud, low-frequency calls in hominins, making air sacs obsolete. While much of the above will remain hypothetical until more concrete data are gathered, we can speculate by saying that air sacs may not have been necessary for the type of quiet vocal interaction that typifies human communication. Perhaps more recent Homo species, with lower levels of sexual dimorphism and increased social tolerance and complexity, began to communicate in a more complex way, eventually leading to spoken language.
著者
渡辺 浩 江頭 憲治郎 碓井 光明 塩川 伸明 西川 洋一 城山 英明 大村 敦志 中谷 和弘 長谷部 恭男
出版者
東京大学
雑誌
学術創成研究費
巻号頁・発行日
2001 (Released:2002-04-01)

今年度は、国家と社会、国際化と法、科学技術の発展と法の観点から第2期のまとめを行った。国家と社会に関しては、1.規範定立・執行における社会集団の役割(経済団体による法形成と執行、ドイツ医療保険法におけるFestbetragsfestsetzung制度、トランスナショナル社会運動)、2.市場と国家(政府業務の民間開放と法制度、株式会社・証券市場・市民社会、会社支配市場規制、ボーダレス化時代における租税制度)、3.ボーダレス時代における社会保障・安全確保・司法制度(社会保障法と憲法、警察行政における計画、関係性における暴力とその対応、司法の独立性)、4.国家財産法における公法と私法(政府業務の民間開放、韓国の国家財産法と法政策的課題)をまとめた。国際化と法に関しては、1.境界とは何か(生権力と国家、国境はなぜそしていかに引かれるべきか)、2.境界の変動および意味変容(国際法における境界の位相、国家の統合分裂とシティズンシップ)、3.変容する国際社会と法・政治の対応(パレスチナ問題と国際法、開発・エイズ・人権、経済連携協定、法整備支援)、4.人の国際移動と法・政治の対応(国際移住の法と法政策、民法における外国人問題、国際化と地方自治)をまとめた。科学技術の発展と法に関しては、1.科学技術と生命観(歴史的視座、動物観と法制度設計)、2.科学技術と制度(学問と法システム、リスク評価と法システム、予防原則)、3.科学技術と刑事法(現代型刑罰法規と罪刑法定主義、科学技術の進歩と刑法-過失責任)、4.科学技術と民事法(証券取引の電子化、無体化・電子化と占有概念、5.科学技術と国際法(非国家主体に対する軍備管理、国際環境法における科学技術と対話プロセス)を取りまとめた。なお、とりまとめの過程で2006年1月に国際シンポジウムを開催した。また、第1期の成果5巻も無事出版した。
著者
澤村 淳 早川 峰司 下嶋 秀和 久保田 信彦 上垣 慎二 丸藤 哲 黒田 敏
出版者
一般社団法人 日本救急医学会
雑誌
日本救急医学会雑誌 (ISSN:0915924X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.21, no.7, pp.358-364, 2010-07-15 (Released:2010-09-20)
参考文献数
13

クモ膜下出血は突然死の主要原因の一つである。我々は院外心肺機能停止で発症したクモ膜下出血症例で神経学的予後良好例を報告する。症例は52歳男性。交通事故が発生し,心肺停止が目撃された。すぐにbystandar心肺蘇生法が施行された。ドクターカーを含めた救急隊が要請され,救急医は当院到着まで気管挿管を含めたadvanced cardiopulmonary life supportを施行した。心肺停止発症から23分後に心拍再開し,直後に初療室へ搬入となった。意識レベルはE1VTM5であった。心電図はV1からV5誘導でST上昇を認め,心筋虚血が示唆された。頭部CTの結果,右半球に優位な瀰漫性のくも膜下出血を認めた。脳血管撮影では右中大脳動脈分岐部に嚢状動脈瘤を認めた。World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies分類ではGrade IV,Fisher CT分類ではIII群と診断した。しかし,眼球偏視が消失,対光反射が出現し,上肢の運動も活発に認められたことから,脳動脈瘤頸部クリッピング術を目的に開頭手術を施行した。患者は第18病日に神経脱落症状なく独歩で退院した。Bystandarによる発症直後からの心肺蘇生法や集中治療は院外心肺停止で発症したクモ膜下出血症例の生存率や機能的予後を改善する可能性がある。
著者
梅川 莊吉
出版者
公益社団法人 日本金属学会
雑誌
日本金属学会誌 (ISSN:00214876)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.18, no.8, pp.449-452, 1954 (Released:2008-04-04)
参考文献数
6

Young’s modulus and its change accompanied by heat-treatment and by cold-working in gold-silver and gold-copper alloys has been measured by lateral vibration method of a cantilever under small amount of stress. The composition dependence of Young’s modulus is monotonous in both alloy systems. Young’s modulus of Cu3Au increases and of CuAu decreases the superlattice formation. The effect of cold work on Young’s modulus is similar for some gold-silver alloys, but it differs considerably with some gold-copper alloys.
著者
山川 修治
出版者
Tokyo Geographical Society
雑誌
地学雑誌 (ISSN:0022135X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.102, no.2, pp.183-195, 1993-04-25 (Released:2010-11-18)
参考文献数
60
被引用文献数
1 or 0

Natural disasters in Little Ice Age (c. 1550-1850) and its climatic variations which formed a significant background for the disasters are mentioned. Cool summers due to a prevailing Okhotsk High were characteristic of this period. Cold winters, summer heavy rains and unstable atmospheric conditions also constituted essential features of Little Ice Age. Aerosol ejected by a series of major volcanic eruptions partly prevented solar radiation from reaching the earth' s surface (parasol effect), which resulted in cool and unusual weather. Agriculture, in particular, was vulnerable to bad weather damage. As a result of decreasing direct insolation, sometimes together with lowering temperature and/or locally increasing precipitation, seven major famines occurred during the Edo Era (1663-1868) which approximately coincided with Little Ice Age. Several cases in this paper suggest that natural environment in Little Ice Age was marked by both volcanism and weakened solar activities which “Maunder Minimum”(1645-1715) represented.